Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 21:13

Then the two worthless men came in and sat before him; and the worthless men testified against him, even against Naboth, before the people, saying, "Naboth cursed God and the king." So they took him outside the city and stoned him to death with stones.
New American Standard

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Accusation, False;   Blasphemy;   Confiscation;   Conspiracy;   Covetousness;   Dishonesty;   Falsehood;   False Teachers;   Government;   Homicide;   Indictments;   Jezebel;   Judge;   King;   Naboth;   Perjury;   Slander;   Stoning;   Usurpation;   Women;   Thompson Chain Reference - Injustice;   Jezebel;   Justice-Injustice;   Murder;   Murderers;   Nation, the;   Punishments;   Queens;   Stoning;   Women;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Murder;   Slander;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Gate;   Jezebel;   Jezreel;   Justice;   Naboth;   Vine;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Ahab;   Child;   Jezebel;   King;   Lie;   Steal;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Punishment;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Gate;   Jezreel, Portion of;   Witness;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Jehu;   Judges;   Stephen;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Capital Punishment;   Crimes and Punishments;   Esdraelon;   Festivals;   Kings, 1 and 2;   Naboth;   Queen;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Belial (Beliar);   Blasphemy;   Government;   Jezebel;   Justice;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Stoning;   Stoning (2);   Trial-At-Law;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jezebel ;   Jezreelite, Jezreelitess ;   Naboth ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Naboth;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Elijah;   Jezebel;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Babylonish Captivity, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Belial;   Blasphemy;   Forbid;   Jezebel;   Jezreel;   Judge;   Naboth;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Apostasy and Apostates from Judaism;   Belial;   Euphemism;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

And stoned him with stones - As they pretended to find him guilty of treason against God and the king, it is likely they destroyed the whole of his family; and then the king seized on his grounds as confiscated, or as escheated to the king, without any heir at law. That his family was destroyed appears strongly intimated, 2 Kings 9:26; Surely I have seen yesterday the blood of Naboth, And the Blood of His Sons, saith the Lord.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-kings-21.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Naboth had sons who were also put to death at this time (marginal reference). It is not improbable that they were stoned together with their parent (compare Joshua 7:24-25). In the East, a parent‘s guilt constantly involves the punishment of his children. Contrast 2 Kings 14:6.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-kings-21.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And there came in two men, children of Belial, and sat before him,.... Which position showed that they were his accusers, and had a charge against him; it being usual for the accusers and accused to be set face to face, as it was the manner of the Romans in later times, Acts 25:16. Josephus saysF4Antiqu. l. 3. c. 13. sect. 8. there were "three" men to accuse him; but the Targum, and all the ancient versions, have only "two":

and the men of Belial witnessed against him, even against Naboth, in the presence of the people; both before the judges of the court, and before all the people that filled it, who came to hear the trial; so bold and impudent were they:

saying, Naboth did blaspheme God and the king; or "bless", an euphemism; the phrase of cursing God being shocking to the ear, and therefore such a word is used to express it, see Job 1:5,

then they carried him forth out of the city; without any further process of examining witnesses, and of hearing what the accused had to say in his defence; but immediately they carried him out of court, and out of the city, to put him to death, malefactors being executed always without the city:

and stoned him with stones, that he died; which was the death blasphemers were put to, Leviticus 24:14, of the manner of which; see Gill on Acts 7:58, it seems from 2 Kings 9:26, that his sons were stoned with him.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-21.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

there came in two men — worthless fellows who had been bribed to swear a falsehood. The law required two witnesses in capital offenses (Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15; Numbers 35:30; Matthew 26:60). Cursing God and cursing the king are mentioned in the law (Exodus 22:28) as offenses closely connected, the king of Israel being the earthly representative of God in His kingdom.

they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him — The law, which forbade cursing the rulers of the people, does not specify the penalty for this offense but either usage had sanctioned or the authorities of Jezreel had originated stoning as the proper punishment. It was always inflicted out of the city (Acts 7:58).

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-kings-21.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And there came in two men, children of Belial, and sat before him: and the men of Belial witnessed against him, even against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying, Naboth did blaspheme God and the king. Then they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones, that he died.

Stoned him — And it seems his sons too, either with him or after him. For God afterward says, ( 2 Kings 9:26) I have seen the blood of Naboth and the blood of his sons. Let us commit the keeping of our lives and comforts to God; for innocence itself will not always be our security.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-kings-21.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 21:13 And there came in two men, children of Belial, and sat before him: and the men of Belial witnessed against him, [even] against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying, Naboth did blaspheme God and the king. Then they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones, that he died.

Ver. 13. And stoned him with stones.] Among many others - for treason was ever unicum crimea eorum qui crimine vacabant (a) - we read in the martyrologies of one John Cowper, who, like another Naboth, was hanged in Queen Mary’s days for a traitor, upon false accusation. But if Naboth had been guilty, what reason was there that his sons should also suffer death with him? as it appeareth they did, [2 Kings 9:26] against an express law. [Deuteronomy 24:16] Was it because Jezebel would never suffer a rub to lie in the way, that might hinder the true running of her bowl?

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-21.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

And his sons with him, as may be thought from 2 Kings 9:26, that so the king might have an undisturbed possession; for which they might pretend those examples, Numbers 16:32 Joshua 7:24. But these were examples of extraordinary vengeance, and by special warrant from God; and the law of God was positively contrary to it, Deuteronomy 24:16.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-kings-21.html. 1685.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

1 Kings 21:13. They stoned him — And, it seems, his sons too, either with him, or after him; for God afterward says, (2 Kings 9:26,) I have seen the blood of Naboth, and the blood of his sons. Let us commit the keeping of our lives and comforts to God, for innocence itself will not always be our security. This account of Ahab’s unjust and barbarous conduct toward Naboth, placed, as it is by the sacred historian, immediately after his gentle treatment of Ben-hadad, shows the great inconsistency and extreme wickedness of his conduct. He spares the proud, boasting, and blaspheming heathen, and even terms him his brother, and honours him by taking him into his chariot; nay, and enters into a covenant with him: but he basely and barbarously murders, or, at least, connives at his wife’s murdering, the just and pious Israelite; and that under colour of justice, and with the formalities of a legal process! which was a great aggravation of the crime. For, to use that power for the preservation of the guilty and the murdering of the innocent, which ought to have been used for the punishment of the former and the protection of the latter, was such a violent perversion of justice and judgment, as cannot easily be paralleled. But there is a judgment to come when such iniquitous judgments as these will be called over again!

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/1-kings-21.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Devil. Hebrew Belial, ver. 10. Protestants, "and the men of Belial witnessed against him." --- City, as was requisite. (Calmet) --- Stoned him, for blasphemy, Leviticus xxiv. 16., and 23.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-21.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

stoned him. One of the nine cases of stoning. See note on Leviticus 24:14.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-kings-21.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And there came in two men, children of Belial, and sat before him: and the men of Belial witnessed against him, even against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying, Naboth did blaspheme God and the king. Then they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones, that he died.

There came in two men - worthless fellows, who had been bribed to swear a falsehood. The law required two witnesses in capital offences (Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15; Numbers 35:30; Matthew 26:60). Cursing God and cursing the king are mentioned in the law (Exodus 22:28) as theocratic offences closely connected, the king of Israel being the earthly representative of God in his kingdom. Thus, this mock trial was conducted, and a conviction established by the local authorities for an alleged transgression of the Mosaic law. Neither the king nor the queen appeared to take part in it, although the latter was the secret instigator of the whole proceedings. The magistrates acted entirely through her influence and according to her instructions; so that although they were the obsequious agents in consummating this judicial murder, the guilty responsibility of the plot and its execution lay on the king and queen.

They carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him. The law, which forbade cursing the rulers of the people, does not specify the penalty for this offence; but either usage had sanctioned, or the authorities of Jezreel had originated, stoning as the proper punishment. It was always inflicted out of the city (Acts 7:58). 'The act of Naboth dying for his vineyard has been often adduced as a prophecy, not by word, but by deed, of the death of Christ, and the purpose of that death' (Trench, 'On the Parables,' p. 204) (cf. as to His suffering for alleged blasphemy, without the camp, John 19:17; Hebrews 13:12-13).

The whole of this infamous proceeding, conducted ostensibly according to the regular forms of criminal prosecution, furnishes dear proof that the constitution of the northern remained exactly the same as that of the southern kingdom. The regulation which required two witnesses (Numbers 35:30; Deuteronomy 18:6-7; Deuteronomy 19:5), the charge made upon a ground purely theocratic (Exodus 22:28), the punishment left to the discretion of the magistrate, but awarded according to analogous cases (Deuteronomy 13:11; Deuteronomy 17:5), and the 'carrying out,' resting on Deuteronomy 17:5.-all combine to show that the Mosaic law remained the established national code in Israel (see Michaelis, 'Laws of Moses,' article 1:, sec. 59; 6:, sec. 295; 6:, sec. 299). Accordingly, Ahab, when he could not prevail upon Naboth to part with an inheritance of which the law gave him the sole and independent right of disposing, thought of nothing else than submitting to the authority of constitutional law; and even Jezebel, unprincipled and lawless as she was, durst not openly use violent measures, but was obliged to seek the attainment of her iniquitous end by pursuing an apparent course of legal investigation into a calumnions charge.

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-kings-21.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(13) Carried him forth—as usual, in order to avoid polluting the city with blood—possibly to his own ground, the coveted vineyard itself.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-kings-21.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And there came in two men, children of Belial, and sat before him: and the men of Belial witnessed against him, even against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying, Naboth did blaspheme God and the king. Then they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones, that he died.
the men of Belial
Exodus 20:16; Deuteronomy 5:20; 19:16-21; Psalms 27:12; 35:11; Proverbs 6:19; 19:5,9; 25:18; Malachi 3:5; Mark 14:56-59
blaspheme God
Job 1:5,11; 2:9; Matthew 9:3; Acts 6:11
the king
Ecclesiastes 10:20; Isaiah 8:21; Amos 7:10; Luke 23:2; John 19:12; Acts 24:5
they carried him
Leviticus 24:11-16; Numbers 15:35,36; Deuteronomy 13:10; 21:21; 22:21,24; Joshua 7:24,25; 2 Kings 9:26; Ecclesiastes 4:1; Acts 7:57-59
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 13:13 - the children;  Deuteronomy 19:15 - at the mouth;  Judges 20:13 - children of Belial;  1 Samuel 2:12 - sons of Belial;  1 Samuel 25:17 - a son of Belial;  1 Samuel 30:22 - wicked;  2 Samuel 16:7 - man of Belial;  2 Chronicles 13:7 - the children of Belial;  Job 31:39 - caused the owners thereof to lose their life;  Psalm 101:3 - wicked thing;  Proverbs 14:5 - GeneralProverbs 17:15 - that justifieth;  Proverbs 19:28 - An ungodly witness;  Ecclesiastes 7:15 - there is a just;  Isaiah 5:23 - take;  Isaiah 10:1 - them;  Ezekiel 34:3 - ye kill;  Habakkuk 1:4 - for;  Matthew 18:16 - that in;  Matthew 27:31 - and led;  Matthew 27:32 - as;  Mark 14:55 - sought;  John 19:17 - went;  Acts 7:58 - cast;  2 Corinthians 13:1 - In;  Hebrews 11:37 - stoned

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:13". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-21.html.