Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 21:19

You shall speak to him, saying, ‘Thus says the Lord , "Have you murdered and also taken possession?"' And you shall speak to him, saying, ‘Thus says the Lord , "In the place where the dogs licked up the blood of Naboth the dogs will lick up your blood, even yours."'"
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Ahab;   Dog (Sodomite?);   Elijah;   Homicide;   Judgments;   Naboth;   Prophecy;   Repentance;   Usurpation;   Women;   Thompson Chain Reference - Direction, Divine;   Divine;   Elijah;   Guidance, Divine;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Dog, the;   Kings;   Murder;   Prophets;   Providence of God, the;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Jezebel;   Jezreel;   Joram or Jehoram;   Naboth;   Vine;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Ahab;   Lie;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Murder;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Dog;   Elijah;   Jezebel;   Naboth;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Ahab;   Dog;   Elijah;   Jehoram;   Jehu;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Confiscation;   Festivals;   King, Kingship;   Kings, 1 and 2;   Naboth;   Oracles;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Dog;   Elijah;   Government;   Justice;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jehu ;   Jezebel ;   Naboth ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Naboth;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Elijah;   Naboth;   Smith Bible Dictionary - A'hab;   Dog,;   Eli'jah;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Urim and Thummim;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Kingdom of Israel;   Babylonish Captivity, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Dog;   Jezebel;   Jezreel;   Lap;   Swine;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Jezreel;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

In the place where dogs licked, etc. - It is in vain to look for a literal fulfillment of this prediction. Thus it would have been fulfilled, but the humiliation of Ahab induced the merciful God to say, I will not bring the evil in his days, but in the days of his son, 1 Kings 21:29. Now dogs did lick the blood of Ahab; but it was at the pool of Samaria, where his chariot and his armor were washed, after he had received his death wound at Ramoth-gilead; but some think this was the place where Naboth was stoned: see 1 Kings 22:38. And how literally the prediction concerning his son was fulfilled, see 2 Kings 9:25, where we find that the body of Jehoram his son, just then slain by an arrow that had passed through his heart, was thrown into the portion of the field of Naboth the Jezreelite; and there, doubtless, the dogs licked his blood, if they did not even devour his body. There is a similar idea of the propriety of punishment overtaking the culprit in the place where he had committed the crime, expressed by Orestes to Aegisthus, Soph. Elect. 1495.

- Χωρει δ ' ενθαπερ κατεκτανες��<-144 �Πατερα τον αμον, ὡς εν ταυτῳ θανῃς.

- Go where thou slew'st my father,

That in the self-same place thou too may'st die.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-kings-21.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? - These words rebuke especially Ahab‘s indecent haste. He went to Jezreel the very day after Naboth‘s execution 2 Kings 9:26.

The prophecy following had a double fulfillment. The main fulfillment was by the casting of the dead body of Jehoram into Naboth‘s plot of ground at Jezreel, where, like Naboth‘s, it was left for the dogs to eat 2 Kings 9:25. This spot, which was just outside the city wall, and close to a gate 2 Kings 9:31, was probably the actual scene of Naboth‘s execution. Here did dogs lick Ahab‘s blood, that is, his son‘s blood, the execution of the full retaliatory sentence having been deferred to the days of his son, formally and explicitly, on Ahab‘s repentance 1 Kings 21:29. But, besides this, there was a secondary fulfillment of the prophecy, when, not at Jezreel but at Samaria (marginal reference), the actual blood of Ahab himself, was licked by dogs, only in a way that implied no disgrace. These two fulfillments are complementary to each other.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-kings-21.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, thus saith the Lord, hast thou killed, and also taken possession?.... Killed in order to possess, and now taken possession upon the murder; some versions, as the Vulgate Latin and Arabic, read without an interrogation, "thou hast killed and hath taken possession", so Joseph Kimchi and Ben Melech; charging him with the murder of Naboth, and the unjust possession of his vineyard; the murder is ascribed to him, because his covetousness was the cause of it; and it was done by the contrivance of his wife; and it is highly probable Ahab knew more of it, and connived at it, and consented to it, than what is recorded, and however, by taking possession upon it, he abetted the fact:

and thou shalt speak unto him, saying, in the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine; which was fulfilled in his sons, who were his flesh and blood, 2 Kings 9:26, for the punishment was respited in his days, and transferred to his sons, see 1 Kings 21:29, though dogs did lick his blood, even his blood also, according to this prophecy, though not in the same place, see 1 Kings 22:38, wherefore some take these words not to be expressive of the place where, but of the cause or reason for which this should be done, and read the words, "inasmuch", or "because dogs have licked"F8במקום אשר "pro eo quod", Junius & Tremellius; "propierea quod", Grotius; so some in Vatablus. , &c.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-21.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, g Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, h In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine.

(g) Do you think to have an advantage by murdering an innocent?

(h) This was fulfilled in Joram his son (2 Kings 9:25-26).

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/1-kings-21.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

In the place where dogs licked, etc. — a righteous retribution of Providence. The prediction was accomplished, not in Jezreel, but in Samaria; and not on Ahab personally, in consequence of his repentance (1 Kings 21:29), but on his son (2 Kings 9:25). The words “in the place where” might be rendered “in like manner as.”

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-kings-21.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine.

Saying — Thou hast murdered an innocent man; and instead of repenting for it, hast added another piece of injustice and violence to it, and art going confidently and chearfully to reap the fruit of thy wickedness.

Thy blood — The threatening was so directed at first; but afterwards, upon his humiliation, the punishment was transferred from him to his son, as is expressed, verse29, yet upon Ahab's returning to sin, in the next chapter, he brings back the curse upon himself, and so it is no wonder if it be in some sort fulfilled in him also.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-kings-21.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 21:19 And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine.

Ver. 19. Hast thou killed, and also taken possession?] So Chrysostom thundered against Eudoxia the Empress for seeking after the vineyard of Callitrope, a widow; for the which she banished him, and punished him with hunger and thirst, and various other vexations, to the loss of his life: so that he may well be reckoned among the martyrs.

And thou shalt speak unto him.] Not secretly, and in his ear, but openly, and in the hearing of his servants and courtiers; which also he did. [2 Kings 9:25-26]

In the place where dogs licked, &c.] So Aristobulus, king of Jewry, vomited abundance of blood - and therewith soon after breathed his last - in the very place where he had slain his brother Antigonus, and acknowledged it to be the just hand of God upon himself. (a) So Selymus, the great Turk, struck with a most loathsome and incurable disease, ended his days at Chiurlus with an untimely and tormenting death, where he had joined battle with his own father Bajazet, A.D. 1511; God, as is to be thought, saith the historian, in the same place with revenging hand taking just punishment for his former disloyalty toward his aged father. (b) So the Lady Rochford - who, as it is said, had forged a letter against her own husband and Queen Anne Boleyn, his sister, accusing them of incest, for the which they were both beheaded - was afterwards herself also beheaded in the same place with Queen Katharine Howard, for her deserts, (c) So Babington’s confederates were executed in Lincoln’s-Inn-fields, even in the fields where they had often conferred for the execution of their treasons against Queen Elizabeth. (d) So Henry III, king of France, was stabbed to death by a Jacobin friar in that very chamber where he and his bloody brother, Charles IX, had, some few years before, plotted the Parisian massacre. Thus the Jews who had sold Christ for thirty pence - "a goodly price!" [Zechariah 11:13] - were, at the sack of Jerusalem, sold for thirty a penny, ad illudendum, saith Hegesippus; (e) and in the place where they had cried out, "Crucify him, crucify him," they were miserably cut in pieces by the Roman soldiers. And thus, as one observeth, the Lord Hastings was beheaded at London that very selfsame day twelve months later, yea, the same hour, yea, the same minute, wherein he had conspired the death of the queen’s children, at Pomefret Castle. (f)

Shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine,] sc., As it runneth in the veins of thy son Joram. [2 Kings 9:25]

Proiece tela manu sanguis meus … hoc est, O fill mi Iule. ” - Virg. Aeneid, lib. vi.

Or else we must hold that the pool of Samaria reached as far as Jezreel; so that Ahab’s blood, running out of his chariot, was carried down to Jezreel, and there licked by dogs. (g)

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-21.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

1 Kings 21:19. Thus saith the Lord, In the place where dogs licked, &c.— Instead of מקום mekom, the place, some would render it, the manner; and so the sense of the passage will be, "In the same manner as dogs licked Naboth's blood, even so shall they lick thy blood, even thine." Houbigant renders it whereever, or in whatever place, dogs, &c.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/1-kings-21.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? Thou hast murdered an innocent and righteous man; and instead of repenting for it, thou hast added another piece of injustice and violence to it, and art going confidently and cheerfully to reap the fruit of thy wickedness. He ascribes Jezebel’s fact to Ahab, because Jezebel did it by his connivance, and consent, and authority, and for the satisfaction of his inordinate appetite.

Quest. How was this prophecy fulfilled, when Ahab’s blood was not licked in Jezreel, which was in the tribe of Issachar, but in the pool of Samaria, 1 Kings 22:38, which was in the tribe of Ephraim?

Answ. First, This was done, though not in the same individual place, yet in the same general place, i.e. in the territory of Samaria, within which Jezreel was; and in a place of the same nature, a public and common place; for such was both the place of Naboth’s execution, and the pool of Samaria. Secondly, This was particularly accomplished in his son Joram, as is affirmed, 2 Kings 9:25,26; whose blood is not improperly called Ahab’s blood, because children are said to be born of their parents’ blood. See John 1:13 Acts 17:26.

Object. These words,

thy blood, even thine, show that it is meant of Ahab’s person.

Answ. True, the threatening was so directed and designed at first; but afterwards, upon his humiliation, the punishment was transferred from him to his son, as is expressed, 1 Kings 21:29.

Object. This is said to be fulfilled in Ahab’s person, 1 Kings 22:38.

Answ. Either that may be referred to some other prediction or commination not elsewhere mentioned; or rather, it intimates that it was in part and in some sort fulfilled in him, though not so severely and opprobriously, nor with such characters of the curse, as it was in his son; whence he there mentions only the thing, without any regard unto the place here designed. But it may further be observed, that although upon Ahab’s humiliation the curse here threatened might seem to be wholly translated from his person to his posterity; yet upon Ahab’s return to sin, in the next chapter, he brings back the curse upon himself, and so it is no wonder if it be in some sort fulfilled in him also. Thirdly, The Hebrew word, rendered in

the place where, may be, and is by some learned men, otherwise rendered; either thus instead of this that; that being frequently said to be done in another’s place which was only done in his stead; or, like as; or, because that. So it doth not design the place, but the cause and reason of this judgment. And in this sense the same word is used Zechariah 2:1.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-kings-21.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

19.Hast thou killed — This interrogative form of expression is here equivalent to an emphatic affirmation.

In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth — Because of Ahab’s repentance and humiliation, (1 Kings 21:29,) this prophecy was not literally fulfilled in him, though at the pool of Samaria dogs did lick up his blood that fell on his chariot; (1 Kings 22:38;) but it was afterwards fulfilled in his son, on whom Jehovah laid the burden. See 2 Kings 9:25.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-kings-21.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

And you shall speak to him, saying, ‘Thus says YHWH, Have you killed and also taken possession?’ And you shall speak to him, saying, ‘Thus says YHWH. In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth will dogs lick your blood, even yours.’ ”

Elijah was to declare to Ahab that because he had killed the owner of the land and had himself taken possession of it, the dogs would lick his blood in the very place where they had licked Naboth’s blood. For the scavenger dogs to lick a man’s blood was seen as the man having come to disgrace. They had done it to Naboth because Naboth had supposedly died as a blasphemer, outside the city where the scavenger dogs would be waiting. Well, the same thing would happen to Ahab. He would end up disgraced in the same way because by his actions he had blasphemed against YHWH. (It should be noted that in 1 Kings 21:29 this sentence is partly rescinded. Thus although in the end the dogs did lick his blood as a kind of poetic justice, it would be in a lesser way (1 Kings 22:38). But see also 2 Kings 9:25-26 where it happens in full to his son, just as Elijah had said).

1 Kings 21:20

And Ahab said to Elijah, “Have you found me, O my enemy?” And he answered, “I have found you, because you have sold yourself to do what is evil in the sight of YHWH.” ’

When Elijah arrived Ahab was both put out and abusive. He knew why Elijah had come and at this stage saw Elijah, and all YHWH’s true prophets as his enemies (compare 1 Kings 22:8). He was thus abusively saying, ‘So you have caught me. And what do you want now?’ But in his heart he knew perfectly well what Elijah wanted. He was fully aware of what had been done in his name, and that Elijah was here to rebuke him for breaking the covenant and God’s Law. He may even have seen Elijah as there because he was standing in as YHWH’s representative as the avenger of blood on behalf of a family which had been rendered helpless, who had now found the culprit. No wonder he saw him as an enemy.

Elijah’s reply was to the point, “I have found you, because you have sold yourself to do what is evil in the sight of YHWH.” He was immediately facing Ahab up with YHWH and His Law, and indicating that he was a law breaker. He and his wife had coveted, lied, borne false witness, stolen and murdered. They had broken half the commandments. (They had also bowed down to graven images, and put other gods before YHWH, but not in this particular incident).

1 Kings 21:21-22

Behold, I will bring evil on you, and will utterly sweep you away and will cut off from Ahab every man-child, and him who is shut up and him who is left at large in Israel, and I will make your house like the house of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, and like the house of Baasha the son of Ahijah for the provocation with which you have provoked me to anger, and have made Israel to sin.”

Elijah then applied to Ahab the words which had been applied by Ahijah the prophet to Jeroboam in 1 Kings 14:10-11 (see notes on those verses), and by Jehu the prophet to Baasha in 1 Kings 16:3-4. These prophecies would have been recorded in prophetic circles and would have been known to Elijah by heart. They were repeated so as to indicate that Ahab was to be seen as more guilty than both of them put together, something which guaranteed the extinction of his house, because he had provoked YHWH with his sins more than both of them, and had made Israel sin more than any of the others. Thus all that had been prophesied as coming on them would come on him, and more.

1 Kings 21:23

And of Jezebel also spoke YHWH, saying, “The dogs will eat Jezebel by the rampart of Jezreel.” ’

But the worst fate was to be reserved for Jezebel. She would be eaten by the scavenger dogs by the rampart of Jezreel. See for the literal and gruesome fulfilment of this 2 Kings 9:35-36. Once the dogs had finished with her only her skull, feet and the palms of her hands would be left

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/1-kings-21.html. 2013.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Possession, by desire; though he was yet only on the road. (Menochius) --- Perhaps he had sent his servants before. (Haydock) --- Place, not precisely, as Achab was slain in Samaria. (Menochius) --- But Naboth's vineyard, perhaps, was not far distant from the pool, where dogs licked the blood of the king. (Haydock) --- On account of Achab's repentance, the sentence was (ver. 29.; Calmet) rather changed, and his son Joram was substituted in his stead, 4 Kings ix. 25. Jehu, and his captain, Badacer, were present, when Elias denounced this sentence upon the family of Achab; and they concluded that the prediction regarded Joram. He had, perhaps, taken part with his impious parents, and promoted the same crimes. (Haydock)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-21.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Hast thou. ? Figure of speech Erotesis.

killed = murdered.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-kings-21.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine.

Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? While Ahab was in the act of surveying his ill-gotten Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? While Ahab was in the act of surveying his ill-gotten possession, Elijah, by divine commission stood before him. The appearance of the prophet at such a time, was ominous of evil, but his language was much more so (cf. Ezekiel 45:8; Ezekiel 46:16-18).

In the place where dogs licked ... Dogs in the East being allowed to run wild, and in packs, are ravenous, and hence, it is a common phrase to give the carcass of an enemy or a worthless person to the dogs, as Achilles consigned the lacerated body of Hector. A righteous retribution of Providence. The prediction was accomplished, not in Jezreel, but in Samaria; and not on Ahab personally, in consequence of his repentance (1 Kings 21:29), but on his son (2 Kings 9:25). The words "in the place where" might be rendered 'in like manner as.'

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-kings-21.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(19) Hast thou killed, and also taken possession?—The stern, indignant brevity of the accusation, at once shaming the subterfuge by which Ahab shifts his guilt to Jezebel, and unmasking the real object of the whole crime, leaves the king speechless as to defence, unable to stay the sentence which at once follows. The marked particularity and emphasis of that sentence, “In the place where the dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine,” preclude all explanations, which would seek its fulfilment in the fate of Jehoram (2 Kings 9:25); nor can such explanations be justified by reference to 1 Kings 21:29, for it is not this part of the sentence which is deferred by Ahab’s repentance. (See Note on 1 Kings 22:38.)

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-kings-21.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine.
Hast thou killed
Genesis 3:11; 4:9,10; 2 Samuel 12:9; Micah 3:1-4; Habakkuk 2:9,12
In the place
This punishment, on Ahab's humiliation and repentance, was transferred from him to his son Jehoram, (ver. 29,) in whom it was literally accomplished: see the parallel texts.
22:38; Judges 1:7; 2 Samuel 12:11; 2 Kings 9:25,26; Esther 7:10; Psalms 7:15,16; Psalms 9:16; 58:10,11; Matthew 7:2
Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 8:14 - General2 Samuel 12:7 - Thou art;  1 Kings 14:11 - that dieth;  1 Kings 16:33 - did more to provoke;  1 Kings 22:23 - and the Lord;  2 Kings 9:21 - the portion of Naboth;  2 Kings 10:10 - the Lord hath done;  2 Chronicles 32:26 - so;  Job 20:19 - he hath violently;  Job 21:31 - declare;  Job 31:39 - caused the owners thereof to lose their life;  Psalm 68:23 - the tongue;  Psalm 94:21 - condemn;  Psalm 107:40 - contempt;  Proverbs 10:22 - he;  Proverbs 24:25 - them;  Proverbs 28:4 - but;  Proverbs 28:17 - GeneralEcclesiastes 5:8 - regardeth;  Isaiah 14:19 - thou;  Jeremiah 22:17 - to shed;  Jeremiah 34:6 - GeneralEzekiel 24:7 - her blood;  Ezekiel 46:18 - thrust;  Matthew 14:4 - General

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 21:19". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-21.html.