Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 9:11

(Hiram king of Tyre had supplied Solomon with cedar and cypress timber and gold according to all his desire), then King Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Cedar;   Contracts;   Diplomacy;   Elijah;   Galilee;   Hiram;   Solomon;   Treaty;   Tyre;   Thompson Chain Reference - Galilee;   Hiram;   Huram;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Galilee;   Gold;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Egypt;   Fir;   Galilee;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Hiram;   Phoenicia;   Solomon;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Cedar;   Fir;   Hiram;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Galilee;   Hiram;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Cabul;   Galilee;   Ownership;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alliance;   Galilee;   Israel;   Phoenicia, PhNicians;   Solomon;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Galilee;   Sea of Galilee;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Galilee ;   Hiram ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Galilee;   Hiram;   Tyre;   Writing;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Ca'bul;   Gal'ilee;   Tyre;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Fir Tree;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Hebrew Monarchy, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Alliance;   Furnish;   Further;   Galilee;   Hiram;   King;   Solomon;   Trade;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Chronicles, Books of;   Galilee;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities - It is very likely that Solomon did not give those cities to Hiram so that they should be annexed to his Tyrian dominions, but rather gave him the produce of them till the money was paid which he had advanced to Solomon for his buildings. It appears however that either Hiram did not accept them, or that having received the produce till he was paid, he then restored them to Solomon; for in the parallel place, 2 Chronicles 8:2, it is said, The cities which Hiram had restored to Solomon, Solomon built them, and caused the children of Israel to dwell there. Some think that they were heathen cities which Solomon had conquered, and therefore had a right to give them if he pleased, as they were not any part of the land given by promise to the Israelites.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-kings-9.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

By the spirit, if not by the letter, of the Law, Solomon had no right to give away these cities, or any part of the inheritance of Israel Leviticus 25:13-34. But the exigences of a worldly policy caused the requirements of the Law to be set aside.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-kings-9.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

(Now Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees,.... For the building of both his houses; see 1 Kings 5:8,

and with gold, according to all his desire): which is not before mentioned, and accounts for it from whence Solomon had his gold; if he made no use, as some think he did not, of what his father left him; see 1 Kings 7:51 with which he covered several parts of the temple, and made several vessels in it. Hiram traded to Ophir, and had it from thence; and he could supply Solomon with it, and did, before he sent a navy thither:

that then Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee; that is, by or near it, for they were not in the land of Canaan; for then Solomon could not have disposed of them, being allotted and belonging to one of the tribes of Israel, and part of the Lord's inheritance; but they were upon the borders, particularly on the borders of Asher, if Cabul in Joshua 19:27, can be thought to be the same with these; though some think that Solomon did not give Hiram the possession of these cities, but the royalties and revenues of them, their produce until the debt was paid: but they rather seem to be a gratuity, and a full grant of them, and might be cities which David had conquered, and taken out of the hands of the ancient inhabitants of them; and so Solomon had a right to dispose of them, being left him by his father; for it is plain as yet they were not inhabited by Israelites; see 2 Chronicles 8:2. They are by a Jewish writerF6Gloss. in T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 54. 1. said to be twenty two, very wrongly.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-9.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee — According to Josephus, they were situated on the northwest of it, adjacent to Tyre. Though lying within the boundaries of the promised land (Genesis 15:18; Joshua 1:4), they had never been conquered till then, and were inhabited by Canaanite heathens (Judges 4:2-13; 2 Kings 15:29). They were probably given to Hiram, whose dominions were small, as a remuneration for his important services in furnishing workmen, materials, and an immense quantity of wrought gold (1 Kings 9:14) for the temple and other buildings [Michaelis]. The gold, however, as others think, may have been the amount of forfeits paid to Solomon by Hiram for not being able to answer the riddles and apothegms, with which, according to Josephus, in their private correspondence, the two sovereigns amused themselves. Hiram having refused these cities, probably on account of their inland situation making them unsuitable to his maritime and commercial people, Solomon satisfied his ally in some other way; and, taking these cities into his own hands, he first repaired their shattered walls, then filled them with a colony of Hebrews (2 Chronicles 8:2).

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-kings-9.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

(Now Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees, and with gold, according to all his desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee.

Galilee — Or, near the land of Galilee, bordering upon it; in those parts which were near, and adjoining to Hiram's dominions: with the cities, understand the territories belonging to them. These cities, though they were within those large bounds which God fixed to the land of promise, Genesis 15:18; Joshua 1:4, yet were not within those parts which were distributed by lot in Joshua's time. It is probable they were not inhabited by Israelites, but by Canaanites, or other Heathens; who being subdued, and extirpated by David or Solomon, those cities became a part of their dominions; and afterwards were reckoned a part of Galilee, as Josephus notes.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-kings-9.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 9:11 ([Now] Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees, and with gold, according to all his desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee.

Ver. 11. In the land of Galilee.] Called Galilee of the Gentiles, [Isaiah 9:1] because by them inhabited, [ 1:31-32] till Solomon dispossessed them, and thus disposed of their country.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-9.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Or, near (as beth oft signifies, as hath been proved before)

the land of Galilee, bordering upon it; in those parts which were near and adjoining to Hiram’s dominions: with the cities understand the lands and territories belonging to them.

Quest. How could Solomon give away any part of that land wherein the people had a right by a Divine lot, and God had a right, as being the only proprietary of it; upon which ground the total alienation of it, or any part of it, was forbidden, Leviticus 25:23?

Answ. 1. It is not said that he gave them away wholly, and for ever; but he might assign them to him only for a time, until he was fully satisfied for his debt.

2. If these cities were possessed by Israelites, Solomon did not give him their particular possessions, but only his own royalties over them, and all the profits he received from them, which were very considerable, as may be gathered from that passage, 1 Kings 12:4.

3. These cities, though they were within those large bounds which God fixed to the Land of Promise, Genesis 15:18 Joshua 1:4, yet were not within those parts which were distributed by Lot in Joshua’s time, nor belonging to the tribe of Asher, (as some suppose,) as may be gathered both from Joshua 19:27, where their border is said to go out only to the land of Cabul, to wit, exclusively; and Joshua 19:30, where all their cities are said to be but twenty and two; and from 2 Chronicles 8:2, where it is said of those cities, when Hiram restored them, that Solomon built them, and caused the children of Israel to dwell there; which makes it more than probable that these cities were not inhabited by Israelites, but by Canaanites, or other heathens; who being subdued and extirpated by David, or Solomon, those cities became a part of their dominions, and at their disposal; and afterwards were reckoned a part of Galilee, as Josephus notes; and may be one reason why he gave these rather than other cities, because they were in his power to give, when others were not.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-kings-9.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

11.Twenty cities — One city for every year of building. This gift of Solomon was evidently a token of his good-will to Hiram, and for a memorial of the aid given by the king of Tyre in the building of the temple and palace, but not a payment for service received. But what right, it has been asked, had Solomon to give away any part of the inheritance of the Lord’s people into the hands of a heathen king? According to the law (Leviticus 25:23) the land could not be sold forever; much less given away. We might answer, This was not the first nor the last instance in which this great king stepped aside from the law of Moses. Already, contrary to the express commands of the law, he had multiplied horses and chariots. But in this case the appearance of transgression largely disappears in the fact that these cities, when given to Hiram, were peopled not by Israelites but by heathens. Solomon may have regarded it as a prudent policy to hand over the government of these heathen cities, which were evidently of no great worth, to his friendly neighbour, who had rendered him so much service in building the Lord’s house.

Land of Galilee — Not the entire province of this name as it existed under the Romans, but only the northern part of the land allotted to the tribe of Naphtali. Compare Joshua 20:7. According to Josephus, these twenty cities lay not far from Tyre.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-kings-9.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Galilee, the higher, which was nearer to the sea and the confines of Tyre; (Menochius) or rather the lower Galilee lay in this direction. (Calmet) --- This was not a part of the country allotted to Israel, (Josue xix. 27.) but had been conquered: as Hiram gave the cities back, 2 Paralipomenon viii. 2. Solomon caused them to be rebuilt, and peopled by the Israelites. (Grotius) --- If they had formed a part of his dominions before, he would not have had to send a colony thither. (Calmet) --- Others think that he only ceded that country for a time to Hiram, till he should be indemnified. (Abulensis) (Tostat) (Menochius) (Tirinus) (Worthington) --- The country belonged to the Lord, (Leviticus xxv. 13.) and could not be given away by the prince. In case it had been occupied by strangers, Solomon would have taken care that the Israelites should have the free exercise of their religion. But as Hiram rejected his offer, he would make him recompense by some other means; (Calmet) in ready money, ver. 14. (Josephus) (Tirinus)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-9.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Now Hiram. Figure of speech Parenthesis.

fir, or cypress.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-kings-9.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

(Now Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees, and with gold, according to all his desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee.

Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee. According to Josephus ('Antiquities,' b. 8:, ch.

vi., sec. 3), they were situated on the northwest of it, adjacent to Tyre. Had they lain within the boundaries of the promised land, they could not have been alienated (Leviticus 25:23). But they were not within the territory of Israel, nor occupied by Israelites (2 Chronicles 8:2), but were inhabited by Canaanite pagans (Judges 4:2-13; 2 Kings 15:29); and being on the border, and his own acquisition, Solomon was at liberty to dispose of them (Selden, 'De Jure Nat. et Gen.,' lib. 6:, cap. 16). They were probably given to Hiram, whose dominions were small, as a remuneration for his important services in furnishing workmen, materials, and an immense quantity of wrought gold (1 Kings 9:14), for the temple and other buildings. The gold, however, as others think, may have been the amount of forfeits paid to Solomon by Hiram for not being able to answer the riddles and apophthegms with which, according to Josephus, in their private correspondence, the two sovereigns amused themselves (see Josephus as above) - Hiram having refused these cities, probably on account of their inland situation making them unsuitable to his maritime and commercial people. [He called them the land of Cabul, Kabuwl (Hebrew #3521).

Gesenius quotes Hiller in 'Onomast ' V T who takes the name as contracted for k

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-kings-9.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(11) Gave Hiram . . . cities.—This implies a debt to him for timber and gold, and probably stone also, over and above the payment in kind stipulated for in 1 Kings 5:9. From the notice in 2 Chronicles 8:2, that, when these cities were restored by Hiram, Solomon rebuilt them, and peopled them with Israelites, it seems likely that they were previously cities of the subject races, which he would have no scruple in alienating; although, indeed, the often-quoted enactment of the Law (Leviticus 25:23-24), would not have been likely to be strictly observed under his self-reliant despotism.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-kings-9.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

(Now Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees, and with gold, according to all his desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee.
Now Hiram
5:6-10; 2 Chronicles 2:8-10,16
king Solomon
2 Chronicles 8:2
of Galilee
Joshua 20:7
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 9:1 - all Solomon's;  1 Kings 9:14 - General2 Kings 15:29 - Galilee;  Amos 1:9 - brotherly covenant;  Matthew 4:15 - Galilee

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:11". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-9.html.