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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Peter 2:18

Servants, be submissive to your masters with all respect, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are unreasonable.


Adam Clarke Commentary

Servants, be subject - See the notes on Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22; (note); and Titus 2:9; (note).

With all fear - With all submission and reverence.

The good and gentle - Those who are ever just in their commands, never requiring more work than is necessary or proper, and always allowing sufficient food and sufficient time.

The froward - Σκολιοις· The crooked, perverse, unreasonable morose, and austere. Your time belongs to your master; obey him in every thing that is not sinful; if he employs you about unreasonable or foolish things, let him answer for it. He may waste your time, and thus play the fool with his own property; you can only fill up your time: let him assign the work; it is your duty to obey.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-peter-2.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Servants, be subject to your masters - On the duty here enjoined, see the notes at Ephesians 6:5-9. The Greek word used here ( οἰκέται oiketai) is not the same which is employed in Ephesians, ( δοῦλοι douloiThe word here means properly “domestics” - those employed about a house, or living in the same house - from οἶκος oikos“house.” These persons might have been slaves, or might not. The word would apply to them, whether they were hired, or whether they were owned as slaves. The word should not and cannot be employed to prove that slavery existed in the churches to which Peter wrote, and still less to prove that he approved of slavery, or regarded it as a good institution. The exhortation here would be, and still is, strictly applicable to any persons employed as domestics, though they had voluntarily hired themselves out to be such. It would be incumbent on them, while they remained in that condition, to perform with fidelity their duties as Christians, and to bear with Christian meekness all the wrongs which they might suffer from those in whose service they were.

Those who are hired, and who are under a necessity of “going out to service” for a living, are not always free from hard usage, for there are trials incident to that condition of life which cannot be always avoided. It might be better, in many cases, to bear much than to attempt a change of situation, even though they were entirely at liberty to do so. It must be admitted, however, that the exhortation here will have more force if it is supposed that the reference is to slaves, and there can be no doubt that many of this class were early converted to the Christian faith. The word here rendered “masters” ( δεσπόταις despotais) is not the same which is used in Ephesians 6:5, ( κυρίοις kurioisNeither of these words necessarily implies that those who were under them were slaves. The word used here is applicable to the head of a family, whatever may be the condition of those under him. It is frequently applied to God, and to Christ; and it cannot be maintained that those to whom God sustains the relation of δεσπότης despotēsor “master,” are “slaves.” See Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24; 2 Timothy 2:21; 2 Peter 2:1; Jude 1:4; Revelation 6:10. The word, indeed, is one that might be applied to those who were owners of slaves. If that be the meaning here, it is not said, however, that those to whom it is applied were Christians. It is rather implied that they were pursuing such a course as was inconsistent with real piety. Those who were under them are represented as suffering grievous wrongs.

With all fear - That is, with all proper reverence and respect. See the notes at Ephesians 6:5.

Not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward - The word rendered “froward” ( σκολιοῖς skoliois) means properly “crooked, bent;” then perverse, wicked, unjust, peevish. Anyone who is a servant or domestic is liable to be employed in the service of such a master; but while the relation continues, the servant should perform his duty with fidelity, whatever may be the character of the master. Slaves are certainly liable to this; and even those who voluntarily engage as servants to others, cannot always be sure that they will have kind employers. Though the terms used here do not necessarily imply that those to whom the apostle gave this direction were slaves, yet it may be presumed that they probably were, since slavery abounded throughout the Roman empire; but the directions will apply to all who are engaged in the service of others, and are therefore of permanent value. Slavery will, sooner or later, under the influence of the gospel, wholly cease in the world, and instructions addressed to masters and slaves will have no permanent value; but it will always be true that there will be those employed as domestics, and it is the duty of all who are thus engaged to evince true fidelity and a Christian spirit themselves, whatever may be the character of their employers.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-peter-2.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

Servants be in subjection to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

In subjection to your masters ... Peter's instructions here are in full harmony with Paul's instructions to the Ephesians and the Colossians (Ephesians 5:6ff; Colossians 3:22ff). "The sacred writers use language of studied moderation, carefully avoiding any expressions which might be regarded as exciting to violence or revolutionary outbreaks."[47] Of course, Christianity was squarely opposed to the institution of slavery; but there were considerations of the most weighty nature that forbade any such thing as a campaign against it. Such an attack would have intensified the persecutions coming upon the church; and equally important is the fact that any overt championship of the cause of the slaves would have promptly inundated the church with a whole army of unregenerated persons, seeking not Christ, but their freedom from slavery. It was Christ's purpose to change the world, but not with dynamite; the holy faith acts as leaven.

But also to the froward ... Peter took into account the two kinds of slavemasters, the good and the bad, cautioning the slaves to give loyal and true service to both kinds, because that was God's will. Up to here, Peter had only vaguely mentioned the suffering coming upon the church, but in this he passed to "a class who were (already) sufferers indeed, the slaves of the household."[48] "Froward is an archaic English word that has a literal meaning of crooked, perverse, unreasonable, or cross-grained."[49] Even such wicked masters were to be honored and faithfully served by the Christians who were slaves.

[47] B. C. Caffin, op. cit., p. 74.

[48] J. R. Dummelow, Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937), p. 1044.

[49] Elmer C. Homrighausen, The Interpreter's Bible, Vol. XIII (New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1957), p. 117.


Copyright Statement
James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/1-peter-2.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Servants, be subject to your masters,.... This was another notion of the Jews, that because they were the seed of Abraham, they ought not to be the servants of any; and particularly such as were believers in Christ thought they ought not to serve unbelieving masters, nor indeed believing ones, because they were equally brethren in Christ with them; hence the Apostle Peter, here, as the Apostle Paul frequently elsewhere, inculcates this duty of servants to their masters; see 1 Corinthians 7:20 2 Timothy 2:9 the manner in which they are to be subject to them is,

with all fear; with reverence to their persons, strict regard to their commands, faithfulness in any trust reposed in them, diligence in the discharge of their duty, and carefulness of offending them: and all this,

not only to the good and gentle; those that are good natured, kind, beneficent, and merciful; that do not use them with rigour and severity; are moderate in their demands of service; require no more to be done than what is reasonable; allow them sufficient diet, give them good wages, and pay them duly:

but also to the froward; the ill natured, morose, and rigorous; who exact more labour than is requisite; give hard words, and harder blows; withhold sufficiency of food from them, and keep back the hire of their labours.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-peter-2.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

21 Servants, [be] subject to [your] masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

(21) He goes to the duty of servants towards their masters, which he describes with these bounds, that servants submit themselves willingly and not by force, not only to the good and courteous, but also to the perverse and severe matters.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/1-peter-2.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

ServantsGreek, “household servants”: not here the Greek for “slaves.” Probably including freedmen still remaining in their master‘s house. Masters were not commonly Christians: he therefore mentions only the duties of the servants. These were then often persecuted by their unbelieving masters. Peter‘s special object seems to be to teach them submission, whatever the character of the masters might be. Paul not having this as his prominent design, includes masters in his monitions.

be subjectGreek, “being subject”: the participle expresses a particular instance of the general exhortation to good conduct, 1 Peter 2:11, 1 Peter 2:12, of which the first particular precept is given 1 Peter 2:13, “Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord‘s sake.” The general exhortation is taken up again in 1 Peter 2:16; and so the participle 1 Peter 2:18, “being subject,” is joined to the hortatory imperatives going before, namely, “abstain,” “submit yourselves.” “honor all men.”

withGreek,in.

all — all possible: under all circumstances, such as are presently detailed.

fear — the awe of one subject: God, however, is the ultimate object of the “fear”: fear “for the Lord‘s sake” (1 Peter 2:13), not merely slavish fear of masters.

good — kind.

gentle — indulgent towards errors: considerate: yielding, not exacting all which justice might demand.

froward — perverse: harsh. Those bound to obey must not make the disposition and behavior of the superior the measure of the fulfillment of their obligations.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-peter-2.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Servants (οι οικεταιhoi oiketai). Note article with the class as with ανδρεςandres (1 Peter 3:7), though not with γυναικεςgunaikes (1 Peter 3:1). ΟικετηςOiketēs old word from οικοςoikos (house), means one in the same house with another (Latin domesticus), particularly house servants (slaves) in distinction from the general term δουλοςdoulos (slave). “Ye domestics.” See similar directions to Christian servants (slaves) in Colossians 3:22-25; Ephesians 6:5-7; 1 Timothy 6:1.; Titus 2:9. ΟικετηςOiketēs in N.T. occurs only here, Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7; Romans 14:4.

Be in subjection (υποτασσομενοιhupotassomenoi). Present middle participle of υποτασσωhupotassō common late compound to subject oneself to one (Luke 2:51). Either the participle is here used as an imperative (so in 1 Peter 3:1, 1 Peter 3:7) as in Romans 12:16., or the imperative εστεeste has to be supplied (Robertson, Grammar, p. 945).

To your masters (τοις δεσποταιςtois despotais). Dative case of δεσποτηςdespotēs old word for absolute owner in contrast with δουλοςdoulos It is used also of God (Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24, Acts 4:29) and of Christ (2 Peter 2:1; Judges 1:4). ΚυριοςKurios has a wider meaning and not necessarily suggesting absolute power.

To the good and gentle (τοις αγατοις και επιεικεσινtois agathois kai epieikesin). Dative case also with the article with class. For επιεικηςepieikēs see note on James 3:17. There were slave-owners (masters) like this as there are housekeepers and employers of workmen today. This is no argument for slavery, but only a sidelight on a condition bad enough at its best.

To the froward (τοις σκολιοιςtois skoliois). “To the crooked.” Old word, also in Luke 3:5; Acts 2:40; Philemon 2:15. Unfortunately there were slave-holders as there are employers today, like this group. The test of obedience comes precisely toward this group.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/1-peter-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Servants ( οἰκέται )

Household servants. So Rev., in margin. Not a common term in the New Testament, occurring only in three other passages: Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7; Romans 14:4. Some suppose that Peter intended to cover by it freedmen and other dependants in the household, or that he uses it with a conciliatory purpose, as presenting the slave in closer relation with the family.

Gentle ( ἐπιεικέσιν )

A common derivation of this word is from εἴκω , to yield. Hence the meaning, mind, yielding, indulgent. But the true derivation is from εἰκός , reasonable; and the word implies rather the not being unduly rigorous: “Wherein not strictness of legal right, but consideration for one another, is the rule of practice” (Alford). Compare Philemon 4:5, where, for moderation ( τὸ ἐπιεικὲς ), Rev. gives forbearance, with gentleness in margin. According to Aristotle, the word stands in contrast with ἀκριβοδίκαιος , one who is exactingly just, as one who is satired with less than his due.

Froward ( σκολιοῖς )

Lit., crooked. See Luke 3:5. Peter uses the word in Acts 2:40(untoward )and Paul, in Philemon 2:15(crooked )The word froward is Anglo-Saxon fream-ward or from-ward, the opposite of to-ward. (See untoward, above.) Thus Ben Jonson:

“Those that are froward to an appetite;”

i.e., averse. Compare the phrases to-God-ward (2 Corinthians 3:4); to-us-ward.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/1-peter-2.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

Servants — Literally, household servants. With all fear - Of offending them or God.

Not only to the good — Tender, kind.

And gentle — Mild, easily forgiving.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-peter-2.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Verse 18

These servants were in bondage. They are required to be submissive to their masters, and patient under the ills of their lot; for, however great may have been the wrongs they suffered, either in the very fact of being unjustly held in bondage by their masters, or in the particular acts of oppression which individuals endured, resistance, disobedience, or sullenness, on their part, would only have aggravated the evil.


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Bibliography
Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/1-peter-2.html. 1878.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

18.] Ye servants ( οἰκέτης, a domestic servant: a milder designation than δοῦλος. Possibly, as Steiger supposes, it may be here used to include the ‘liberti’ who still remained in their master’s house), [by being] in subjection (the part. carries on, immediately, the πάντας τιμήσατε above; but also belongs, at a greater distance, to the whole of the last paragraph, as a general designation of the habitual conduct, in and by which they were to shew forth an honest conversation among the Gentiles) in all fear ( ἐν παντὶ φόβῳ provides, by its wide generality, for the case by and by to be specially commented on. φόβος, not merely the reverence of an inferior, but the awe of one in subjection) to your masters; not only to the good (kind) and considerate (see note, ref. Phil.: those who make reasonable allowances, and exact no more), but also to the perverse ( σκολιός = עִקֵּשׁ, ref. Deut.: crooked, in deviating from right and justice, see note on ref. Phil. These masters are, as Gerh., “sævi et intractabiles, duri ac morosi”).


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Bibliography
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/1-peter-2.html. 1863-1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

18Servants, be subject Though this is a particular admonition, yet it is connected with what is gone before, as well as the other things which follow; for the obedience of servants to masters, and of wives also to their husbands, forms a part of civil or social subjection. (30)

He first would have servants to be subject with all fear; by which expression he means that sincere and willing reverence, which they acknowledge by their office to be due. He then sets this fear in opposition to dissimulation as well as to forced subjection; for an eye-service ( ὀφθαλμοδουλεία, Colossians 3:22,) as Paul calls it, is the opposite of this fear; and further, if servants clamor against severe treatment, being ready to throw off the yoke if they could, they cannot be said properly to fear. In short, fear arises from a right knowledge of duty. And though no exception is added in this place, yet, according to other places, it is to be understood. For subjection due to men is not to be so far extended as to lessen the authority of God. Then servants are to be subject to their masters, only as far as God permits, or as far as the altars, as they say. But as the word here is not δοῦλοι, slaves, but οἰκέται , domestics, we may understand the free as well as the bond servants to be meant, though it be a difference of little moment.

Not only to the good Though as to the duty of servants to obey their masters, it is wholly a matter of conscience; if, however, they are unjustly treated, as to themselves, they ought not to resist authority. Whatever, then, masters may be, there is no excuse for servants for not faithfully obeying them. For when a superior abuses his power, he must indeed hereafter render an account to God, yet he does not for the present lose his right. For this law is laid on servants, that they are to serve their masters, though they may be unworthy. For the froward he sets in opposition to the equitable or humane; and by this word he refers to the cruel and the perverse, or those who have no humanity and kindness. (31)

It is a wonder what could have induced an interpreter to change one Greek word for another, and render it “wayward.” I should say nothing of the gross ignorance of the Sorbons, who commonly understand by wayward, (dyscolos ,) the dissolute or dissipated, were it not that they seek by this absurd rendering to build up for us an article of faith, that we ought to obey the Pope and his horned wild beasts, however grievous and intolerable a tyranny they may exercise. This passage, then, shews how boldly they trifle with the Word of God.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/1-peter-2.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

18 Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

Ver. 18. To the froward] Cross, crooked, trample, foolish. Tortuosis, curvis. The Greek word σκολιος comes of a Hebrew word סכל that signifies a fool.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-peter-2.html. 1865-1868.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

1 Peter 2:18. An exhortation to the slaves, extending from this verse to the end of the chapter.

οἱ οἰκέται] οἰκέτης, properly speaking, “a domestic,” a milder expression for δοῦλος. It is improbable that Peter employed this term in order to include the freedmen who had remained in the master’s house (Steiger).

οἱ οἰκ. is vocative; nor is chap. 1 Peter 1:3 (as Steiger thinks) opposed to this.

ὑποτασσόμενοι] It is quite arbitrary to supply ἦτε (Oecumenius, etc.), or to assert that the participle is used here instead of the imperative. The participle rather shows that the exhortation is conceived of as dependent on a thought already expressed; not on 1 Peter 2:17 (de Wette), but on 1 Peter 2:13, which 1 Peter 2:11-12 serve to introduce; ὑποτάγητεκύριον, the institution of the household implied in the relation of servant to master, is comprehended in the general term πᾶσα ἀνθρωπ. κτίσις.

ἐν παντὶ φόβῳ] φόβος (vid. 1 Peter 1:17) is stronger than reverentia, it denotes the shrinking from transgressing the master’s will, based on the consciousness of subjection, cf. Ephesians 6:5.(147) Doubtless this shrinking is in the case of the Christian based on the fear of God, but the word φόβος does not directly mean such fear, as Weiss (p. 169) holds and seeks to prove, especially from the circumstance that Peter in chap. 1 Peter 3:6; 1 Peter 3:14 condemns the fear of man, forgetting, however, that this fear too may be of different kinds, cf. in loco.

παντί is intensive. πᾶς φόβος is: every kind of fear; a fear wanting in nothing that goes to make up true fear.

τοῖς δεσπόταις] cf. 1 Timothy 6:1, Titus 2:9, equals τοῖς κυρίοις, Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22.

οὐ ΄όνον τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς καὶ ἐπιεικέσιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς σκολιοῖς] The moral conduct of the servant, which consists in ὑποτάσσεσθαι towards the master, must remain unchanged, whatever the character of the latter may be; the chief emphasis, however, rests here on ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς σκ.

ἀγαθοί here is equal to “kind;” for ἐπιεικής, cf. 1 Timothy 3:3; it does not mean “yielding” (Fronmüller), but, properly speaking, one who “acts with propriety,” then “gentle.”

σκολιός, literally, “crooked,” “bent,” the opposite of straight, denotes metaphorically the perverse disposition; Philippians 2:15, synonymous with διεστραμμένος; in Proverbs 28:18, σκολιαῖς ὁδοῖς πορευό΄ενος forms the antithesis to πορευό΄ενος δικαίως (cf. Luke 3:5). It has the same force in the classics (Athen. xv. p. 695; σκολιὰ φρονεῖν, opp. to εὐθέα φρονεῖν). It denotes, therefore, such masters as conduct themselves, not in a right, but in a perverse manner towards their servants—are hard and unjust to them; Luther’s “capricious” is inexact.(148)


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Bibliography
Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/1-peter-2.html. 1832.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

1 Peter 2:18.— To the poor the Gospel was preached; and many of the inferior sort, who were free from the incumbrance of riches, and the prejudices of the learned and mighty, embraced Christianity. Among the rest many servants or slaves became the disciples of Jesus; for the Gospel was calculated for an universal blessing. The behaviour of those servants or slaves toward their masters was very likely to give a good or bad idea of Christianity. St. Peter was anxious for their behaving well, and earnestly recommends to them a prudent conduct, as St. Paul had often done with the like view. 1 Peter 2:18-25.

Servants The word Οικεται signifies domestic servants in general, whether hired servants or slaves; but the apostle seems to restrict it to slaves, (and to mean those, whom St. Paul has called by the term Δουλοι, Ephesians 6:5. Colossians 3:22. 1 Timothy 6:1.) by his using the word Δεσποται for masters; that is, such masters as had an absolute right and property in their servants. Some would understand the words with all fear, of the fear of God; but it seems rather to mean that fear and respect which was due to their masters. The like admonition is thus expressed in the Epistle of Barnabas, 100: 19. "Be ye subject unto the Lord, and unto inferior masters, as the representatives of God, with reverence and fear."


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/1-peter-2.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Observe here, 1. The order and method of our apostle in the exhortations given to Christians in this epistle: he first excites them in the general practice of their duty, and to be holy in all manner of conversation, and next binds upon them the performance of relative and particular duties. In the foregoing verses he insisted upon the duties of subjects towards magistrates and governors; in this verse he propounds the duty of servants towards their masters. Thus let Christian servants be subject to their masters, whether Christian or heathen, giving due reverence and respect, not only to such as are kind and gentle, but to such as froward and wrathful.

Learn hence, That such as are in the lowest condition, being servants, yea, the meanest of servants, may glorify God in that condition.

Learn, 2. That servants, to the end that they may glorify God in there servile condition, must be subject to their masters with all fear; yea, even to wicked and froward masters; because the ground of their obedience is the will and command of God, which binds them to their duty to their masters; though their masters fail and fall short in their duty to them.

Observe, 2. The several arguments made use of by St. Peter to enforce this duty upon servants.

1. This is highly acceptable and well-pleasing unto God, and will procure a gracious reward. We shall certainly receive a glorious reward from God for what we suffer wrongfully and unjustly from men. This is thank-worthy, and this is acceptable with God.

2. From the indecency of the contrary; because it is no virtue, but a just punishment for evil doers, to suffer patiently when we suffer justly is praise-worthy, yet not comparible with the praise of suffering patiently when we suffer patiently, as for ill-doing, will meet with a gracious, yea, with a glorious reward. What glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? But if when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently; this is acceptable with God.


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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/1-peter-2.html. 1700-1703.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

1 Peter 2:18. οἱ οἰκέται, servants) He prescribes duties to these, and not to masters, the greater part of whom were heathens.— ὑποτασσόμενοι, subject) The participle, for the imperative, depending upon ὑ̔ ποτάγητε, 1 Peter 2:13; from which the form of the imperative ought to be repeated by Zeugma. So also ch. 1 Peter 3:1.— οὐ μόνον, not only) Gentleness obtains obedience more easily than harshness.— ἀγαθοῖς, to the good) who inflict no injury.— ἐπιεικέσιν, the gentle or indulgent) who readily pardon errors.— σκολιοῖς, the froward) who without cause have recourse to severity, blows, and reproaches.


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/1-peter-2.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Servants; the word is not the same which Paul useth, Colossians 3:22, but may well comprehend the servants he speaks of, as implying not only slaves, but those that were made free, yet continued still in the family; and so signifies servants of whatsoever condition.

Be subject to your masters with all fear; not only reverence of masters, and fear of offending them, is to be understood, but fear of God, as appears by the parallel place, Colossians 3:22: see Ephesians 6:5-7.

Not only to the good and gentle; by good he means not gracious or holy, but, as the next word explains it, gentle, just, equal.

But also to the froward; morose, crabbed, unjust, unmerciful.


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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-peter-2.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

All fear; all proper respect.

The froward; wicked, peevish, morose.


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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Family Bible New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/1-peter-2.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

18. οἰκέται, literally members of a household so domestic servants, including perhaps freedmen as well as slaves, δοῦλοι, which is the word used by St Paul. In the Pentateuch, however, and in Proverbs οἰκέτης is frequently used in the LXX. to translate the same Hebrew word which is rendered δοῦλος in other books. In the N.T. οἰκέτης occurs only in Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7; Romans 14:4.

ὑποτασσόμενοι. Cf. Lightfoot on Colossians 3:16, “The absolute participle being (so far as regards mood) neutral in itself, takes its colour from the general complexion of the sentence.”

Here the participle is a virtual imperative referring back to ὑποτάγητε in 1 Peter 2:13 (see J. H. Moulton Gram. 180 ff.). This is a very common use in 1 Pet. e.g. 1 Peter 3:1 ὑποτασσόμεναι, 1 Peter 3:7 συνοικοῦντες, 1 Peter 3:8-9 where participles and adjectives stand side by side (cf. Romans 12:9-19 with imperatives and infinitives added), 1 Peter 4:8; 1 Peter 4:10 and (?) 1 Peter 2:12 ἔχοντες.

For St Paul cf. Colossians 3:16; 2 Corinthians 9:11; 2 Corinthians 9:13; Ephesians 4:2-3; for papyri see J. H. Moulton, p. 223.

ἐπιεικέσιν (see Mayor on James 3:17). In the LXX. ἐπιεικής occurs only in Psalms 86:5 of God being “ready to forgive,” and this agrees with the definition given in Aristotle (Eth. vi. 11) τὸν ἐπιεικῆ μάλιστα φαμὲν συγγνωμονικόν, and (Eth. 1 Peter 2:14) it is contrasted with strict justice. So (Rhet. i. 13, 17) it is explained in the sense of “merciful consideration” which does not insist upon the strict letter of the law. In Homer it means “seemly,” “decorous” as opposed to ἀεικής. So Plato uses it of respectable, well-behaved people; in Rep. 397 D it is applied to one who had been described as μέτριος—a moderate man, so also Thuc. i. 76. Thus in Plato and Aristotle it was used colloquially in the sense of σπουδαῖος or ἀγαθός.

In the N.T. it is twice joined with ἄμαχος, 1 Timothy 3:3; Titus 3:2, and in James 3:17 with εἰρηνική and εὐπειθής. In Acts 24:4 Tertullus begs Felix to hear him of his clemency (ἐπιεικίᾳ). In 2 Corinthians 10:1 St Paul beseeches his readers by the πραΰτητος καὶ ἐπιεικίας of Christ rather than by the “boldness” of stern magisterial methods. In Philippians 4:5 τὸ ἐπιεικές may mean readiness to forego one’s rights, the special duty urged in chap. 2.

So here it probably means “considerate” masters who do not enforce their rights tyrannically.

Thus, although etymologically ἐπιεικής was connected with εἰκός = what is fit and reasonable, its later meaning seems to have been influenced by a supposed connexion with εἴκω = “I yield.”

σκολιοῖς. In LXX. of crooked paths or perverse persons. In N.T. Luke 3:5 (from Isaiah 40:3); Acts 2:40 and Philippians 2:15 (from Deuteronomy 32:5) “a crooked generation.” Here it means unfair, awkward to deal with.


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Bibliography
"Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/1-peter-2.html. 1896.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘Household servants, be in subjection to your masters with all fear, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the harsh.’

The fact that instructions were given to household servants/slaves would have been startling to the ancient world. The general view was that it was masters who should be instructed on how to behave towards their servants, not slaves towards their masters. Slaves and servants had no say in the matter. But the Gospel turns things upside down. Peter, like Paul, gives the servants status, and puts them in the position of being those who could make a choice, thus increasing their own self-respect, and enabling them to recognise that they did have control over their own lives, even if they were slaves or menial servants.

His advice is provided to servants within a household, whether slave or free. They are to be obedient to their masters and treat them with due respect because they themselves (the servants) walk in the fear of God. And this not only to be towards the good and gentle but towards all, even those who are harsh, unfair or difficult to please. By this means they would be taking charge of their own lives and demonstrating that, although they were ‘God’s freedmen’, they still fulfilled their own duties and responsibilities as servants because they were obedient to Jesus Christ. This would then also bring Christianity into favour. And who knew whether by so doing they might win their masters for Christ? (Compare 1 Peter 3:1). And after all to behave as good servants was a part of their calling (Matthew 20:26-27).

By this means also they would avoid bringing Christianity into disrepute by being seen as encouragers of bad or insolent behaviour or of lawlessness. It would prevent their own behaviour as recognised Christians from being a bad witness and as a result causing problems for other Christian slaves, who might become tainted by any bad example, and it would demonstrate that the love of God towards their masters was active in their lives. It would be a living out of what they taught and believed (Matthew 5:42-48).

And it would actually, in fact, help to ensure their own wellbeing, and the well-being of fellow-Christian servants. For on the one hand recalcitrant behaviour might well have resulted in Christian slaves being unnecessarily banned from attending Christian meetings, on the grounds that such meetings were subversive and produced bad servants, while on the other good behaviour might well have the opposite effect. Once masters discovered that becoming a Christian produced a good servant, they would be delighted for their servants to become Christians.

Normally in fact no master of those times would have been expected to discourage his servants from worshipping their own gods for it was recognised that even slaves must have time off to worship such gods (which many took advantage of for their own benefit), while to fail to provide them with the opportunity might bring the wrath of the god on themselves. But it would be quite another thing if such worship was found to produce insolent behaviour from one who felt superior because he considered that he was a ‘citizen of Heaven’, and therefore felt that he was too important to be expected to serve.


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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/1-peter-2.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

18. Servants—Domestic servants, but perhaps including all grades of service, from slaves to employees.

All fear—The highest degree of respect and submission; easy to kind and considerate masters, but distasteful and difficult to the perverse and morose. Yet the obligation is the same in both cases.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-peter-2.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

In Peter"s culture the servant was the person who faced the most difficulty in relating to the person over him or her in authority. Masters traditionally enjoyed great power over their slaves. The Greek word translated "servants" (oikelai) means domestic servants, but in that society those people were slaves in that they had some limitations on their personal freedom. In our culture Peter"s directions apply to how we behave in relation to those directly over us in society (employers, bosses, administrators, teachers, et al.). [Note: For a different view, see William J. Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, p36. See Wayne Grudem, "Should We Move Beyond the New Testament to a Better Ethic?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society47:2 (June2004):299-346 , for a thorough and devastating, I believe, critique of Webb"s book.]

Again Peter commanded an attitude of respectful submission (cf. 1 Peter 2:13). The master"s personal character or conduct is not the reason for this behavior. We are to respond this way regardless of his or her actions (cf. Ephesians 6:5-8).


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Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/1-peter-2.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

1 Peter 2:18. Servants, submit yourselves to your matters. The term for ‘servants’ here is different from the one by which Paul so frequently expresses the idea of the bond-servant. It occurs only thrice again in the N. T., once in Paul’s writings (Romans 14:4), and twice in Luke’s (Gospel, Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7). It means, literally, ‘one belonging to one’s house,’ ‘a domestic,’ and in Acts 10:7 it is translated by our A. V. ‘household servant.’ In the best period of classical literature (e.g. Herod, viii. 106; Soph. Trach. 894), as also at least occasionally in the Apocrypha (Sir_4:30; Sir_6:11), it is applied not unfrequently to all the inmates of one’s house, or to the ‘family’ in the present sense. Hence some suppose that in the present passage it includes all domestics, bond and free. Others (Steiger, etc.) think it is selected in order to cover the class of freedmen who contributed largely to the earliest converts. But as the more usual sense of the word is that of ‘slave,’ as it has that meaning in such passages of the LXX. and the Apocrypha as Exodus 21:27, Proverbs 17:2, Sir_10:25, and as that idea is certainly most germane to the context here, it is generally taken to denote bond-servants in the present passage. Peter selects it probably with a conciliatory purpose, as a more courteous term than the common one. It presents the slave in closer relation to the family, and so conveys a softened view of his position. The phrase ‘submit yourselves,’ or ‘make yourselves subject,’ is really in the participle form, ‘submitting yourselves,’ and is connected, therefore, either with the ‘honour all men’ of 1 Peter 2:17 (Alford, de Wette, etc.), with the general injunction of 1 Peter 2:11-12, or, most naturally, with the ‘submit yourselves’ of 1 Peter 2:13. The slave’s duty is thus given as an integral section of the great law of subjection to ‘every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake.’ The word used for ‘masters’ conveys the idea of absolute power. It is used in the present application elsewhere only in the Pastoral Epistles (see refs.). It repeatedly occurs as a Divine title, ‘Lord’ (Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24; 2 Peter 2:1; Jude 1:4; Revelation 6:10).

in all fear. Statement of the spirit or temper in which the subjection is to be made good. Is the ‘fear’ which is here intended fear towards God or towards man? On the ground that Peter afterwards (1 Peter 3:6; 1 Peter 3:14) warns against the fear of man, that Paul (Colossians 3:22) appends the definition ‘fearing the Lord’ to similar counsels to servants, and that the term occurs at times without any explanatory addition in the sense of religious fear (1 Peter 1:17), some good interpreters (Weiss, Dr. John Brown, etc.) take the idea here to be = give this submission in a pious spirit, in reverential awe of God. But the next clause seems to define the fear here under the other aspect, as the feeling proper to the position of subjection, even under trying circumstances. It means, therefore, careful solicitude to give faithful service, ‘shrinking from transgressing the master’s will’ (Huther). This is confirmed by the use of the stronger phrase, ‘with fear and trembling,’ in the Pauline parallel (Ephesians 6:5), which (as also in 1 Corinthians 2:3; 2 Corinthians 7:15, and even Philippians 2:15) appears to express the broad idea of watchful, nervous anxiety to do what is right.

not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward. The ‘fear’ has been put absolutely, ‘all fear,’ as extending to everything which can make demands upon the servant’s loyalty and patience. The same is now required in reference to cases where it is subjected to the most painful strain. It is not to be affected by the harshness of the yoke, but is due equally to two very different types of master. The one type is described by two adjectives, which are represented fairly well by the ‘good and gentle’ of the A. V. The second of these, however, means more than simply ‘gentle.’ Adjective and noun are of somewhat limited occurrence in the N. T., and are variously rendered by our A. V., e.g. gentleness, gentle, here and in 2 Corinthians 10:1; Titus 3:2; James 3:17; clemency, Acts 24:4; moderation, Philippians 4:5; patient, 1 Timothy 3:3. It expresses the disposition which lets equity temper justice, is careful not to press rights of law to the extreme of moral wrongs, and shrinks from rigorously exacting under all circumstances its legal due. It might be rendered ‘considerate,’ or ‘forbearing.’ Wycliffe gives mild; Tyndale, Cranmer, and the Genevan, courteous; the Rhemish, modest. The other type is described by an adjective, which means literally crooked, twisting (in which sense it is applied, e.g., to the river Maeander in Apoll. Rhod. 4, 1541), and then ethically what is not straightforward. Besides the present passage, it occurs only thrice in the N. T.,—in Luke 3:5; Philippians 2:15 (in which cases the A. V. gives crooked); and Acts 2:40 (where the A. V. has untoward). So here it means not exactly capricious (as Luther puts it) or wayward (the Rhemish), or even froward (as both the A. V. and the R. V. give it after Tyndale, Cranmer, and the Genevan), but ‘harsh’ or ‘perverse,’ the disposition that lacks the reasonable and considerate, and makes a tortuous use of the lawful. In ecclesiastical Greek it is used to denote the Evil One.


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Bibliography
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/1-peter-2.html. 1879-90.

Mark Dunagan Commentary on the Bible

1 Peter 2:18 ‘Servants, be submissive to your masters with all respect, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are unreasonable.’

‘Servants’-POINTS TO NOTE: 1. ‘the horrible degradation of slaves in 19th-century America gives the word ‘slave’ a far worse connotation than is accurate for most of the society to which Peter was writing. Although mistreatment of slaves could occur then too, it must be remembered that 1st-century slaves were generally well treated and were not unskilled laborers but often managers, overseers, and trained members of the various professions (doctors, nurses, teachers, musicians, skilled artisans)…..They were normally paid for their services and could expect eventually to purchase their freedom….this was by far the most common kind of employee-employer relationship in the ancient world…(Free men who worked for others as day labourers were closer to “independent contractors” today, since they seemed to resist any suggestion that their employers could tell them what to do). In fact, the word ‘employee’, though not conveying the idea of absence of freedom, does reflect the economic status and skill level of these ancient ‘slaves’ better than do either of the words ‘servant’ or ‘slave’ today.’ (Grudem pp. 123-124) 2. The frequent mention of ‘slaves’ in the Epistles, suggests that many First Century Christians belonged to this class (1 Corinthians 7:21-23; Ephesians 6:5-8; Colossians 3:22; 1 Timothy 6:1-2).

‘be submissive’-to subject oneself. ‘the action is volunteered by the Christian servant, rather than forced or coerced by the master.’ (Oberst p. 126)

‘with all respect’-‘with utmost respect’ (Wey). Some Christian slaves might be tempted to think that their conversion released them from the obligation to obey their earthly masters, especially is that master was a Christian. ‘There then arose the danger that the slave might trade and presume upon the new relationship. He might well make the new relationship an excuse for shirking his work, and for failing in his duty, and for general slackness and inefficiency…..That is a situation which is by no means completely at an end. There are still people who trade on the goodwill and the sympathy of a Christian master, and who think that the fact that both they and their employers are Christians gives them a right to dispense with discipline and punishment.’ (Barclay p. 251) POINTS TO NOTE: 1. Contrary to the assumptions of some, God doesn’t always side with the blue-collar worker. 2. Labor and management have definite Divine obligations to each other (Ephesians 6:5-9). 3. Another common assumption, is that if one works for a Christian employer, one shouldn’t have to work as hard. Barclay notes, ‘The Christian must, indeed, be a better workman than anyone else. His Christianity is not a reason for claiming exemption from discipline (or hard work); it should bring him under self-discipline and should make him more conscientious than anyone else.’ (pp. 251-252) 4. Carefully note that Christianity doesn’t abolish our obligations to human relationships (Titus 2:9-10; Ephesians 6:1-9).

‘not only to those who are good and gentle’-‘kind and thoughtful’ (Wey); considerate and fair. Note that ‘good’ masters did exist.

‘but also to those who are unreasonable’-unfair, unjust, crooked, unscrupulous, dishonest, harsh, overbearing, arbitrary, cruel.

POINTS TO NOTE: 1. Our obligation to our duties, work, job, do not depend upon the character of the person in charge. At times people try to justify their laziness, or uncooperative attitude, because their boss or the company is so unfair. 2. Suffering injustice doesn’t give the Christian a right to act in an unjust manner, i.e. steal time or things from the company, become less then earnest in your work, etc…3. The Christian must always remember that the Master they are always serving in whatever economic situation they find themselves, is Christ (Ephesians 6:5-6). ‘Christianity introduced a new attitude to work. It is the conviction of the New Testament that all work must be done for Jesus Christ….work is not done (primarily) for personal prestige…to make so much money…It is, of course, true that a man must work in order to earn a wage, and he must work to satisfy a master; but beyond that there is for the Christian the conviction that his work must be done well enough to take it and to show it to God without shame.’ (Barclay pp. 253-254). 4. Another New Testament verse which reveals that suffering or hardship do not release us from our obligations. In contrast, the person who believes in a situational ethic must disagree with what God revealed through Peter on this point. 5. For the slave to rise up and kill his master, riot and loot, would prove that the slave was just as evil has his cruel master.


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Bibliography
Dunagan, Mark. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Mark Dunagan Commentaries on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dun/1-peter-2.html. 1999-2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Servants. App-190.

be subject = submit, 1 Peter 2:13.

masters. App-98.

with = in. App-104.

gentle. Greek. epieikes. See Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:5.

also, &c. = to the froward also.

froward. Greek. skolios. See Acts 2:40.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-peter-2.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

Servants , [ oiketai (Greek #3610)] - 'household servants:' not [ douloi (Greek #1401)] 'slaves;' including freedmen remaining in their master's house. Masters were not commonly Christians: he therefore mentions only servants' duties. These were often persecuted by unbelieving masters. Peter's object is to teach them submission, whatever the master's character is. Paul not having this design, includes masters' duties. Be subject , [ hupotassomenoi (Greek #5293)] - being subject: a particular instance of the general exhortation, 1 Peter 2:11-12, of which the first particular precept is 1 Peter 2:13. The general exhortation is taken up again, 1 Peter 2:16; and so, 1 Peter 2:18, 'being subject,' is joined to the imperatives, "abstain," "submit yourselves," "honour all men."

With - Greek, 'IN.'

All - all possible: under all circumstances.

Fear - the awe of one subject. God is its ultimate object: fear "for the Lord's sake" (1 Peter 2:13), not merely slavish fear of masters.

Good - kind.

Gentle - indulgent toward errors [ epieikesin (Greek #1933)]; yielding, not exacting all which justice might demand.

Froward - perverse. Those bound to obey must not make the disposition of the superior the measure of their obligations.


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-peter-2.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

You servants. This includes both servants and slaves. Christianity did not change social status, and a servant was still a servant. As a Christian servant, each was to do their best, not only for a good master, but also for one who was harsh! See Ephesians 6:5-8; Colossians 3:22-24. [But Christian principles eventually destroyed slavery.]


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "The Bible Study New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/1-peter-2.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(18) Servants—Second division of the second prudential rule: subordination social. This word is not the same as is used by St. Paul—e.g., Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22—but is used only besides in Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7; Romans 14:4. It brings forward the family or household relation of servant or slave to master, and not (as does the common word used in 1 Peter 2:16) the mere fact of ownership. We need not be surprised at directions for household servants, or slaves, in a letter addressed to Jewish Christians, for there were large numbers of Hebrews in this position both now and later; St. Clement, for example, was probably both.

Be subject.—Rather, being subject, or submitting yourselves. The participle joins this clause loosely to the “submit yourselves” of 1 Peter 2:13, where the word is the same. (Comp. 1 Peter 3:1.)

With all fear.—“All” implies everything which goes to make up true fear, every kind of fear; and the “fear” (as when we speak of the fear of God) is not intended to mean any unmanly cowardice, dread of punishment, or such terror as is involved in having secrets which one dreads to have divulged. One commentator well defines it as “the shrinking from transgressing the master’s will, based on the consciousness of one’s own inferiority.”

Masters.—This is the word which properly corresponds to the word by which the “servants” are described, not merely “owners,” as in Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22.

The froward.—Literally, the crooked. Its meaning is made clear by the contrasted adjectives, “good,” i.e., kindly, considerate; and “gentle,” or, rather, reasonable, not disposed to take too stern a view of matters. A “froward” master, then, is one with a warped nature, who is unreasonably exacting, capricious, and cross-grained; in fact, one who will deal with his servants in the manner spoken of in the following verses.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-peter-2.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.
be
Ephesians 6:5-7; Colossians 3:22-25; 1 Timothy 6:1-3; Titus 2:9,10
the good
2 Corinthians 10:1; Galatians 5:22; Titus 3:2; James 3:17
but
Psalms 101:4; Proverbs 3:32; 8:13; 10:32; 11:20

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-peter-2.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

The subject of servants is commented upon at length at Ephesians 6:5 and the reader is asked to see that place. The masters were not all of the same temperament and they showed it in their treatment of their servants. Froward means to be unfair and surly, but whether they were thus or were gentle, the servant was told to obey them even though it cause them much unpleasantness.


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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:18". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/1-peter-2.html. 1952.

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