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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Peter 2:23

and while being reviled, He did not revile in return; while suffering, He uttered no threats, but kept entrusting Himself to Him who judges righteously;


Adam Clarke Commentary

But committed himself - Though he could have inflicted any kind of punishment on his persecutors, yet to give us, in this respect also, an example that we should follow his steps, he committed his cause to him who is the righteous Judge. To avoid evil tempers, and the uneasiness and danger of avenging ourselves, it is a great advantage in all such cases to be able to refer our cause to God, and to be assured that the Judge of all the earth will do right.

The Vulgate, one copy of the Itala, St. Cyprian, and Fulgentius, read, Tradebat autem judicanti se injuste; "He delivered himself to him who judged unrighteously;" meaning Pontius Pilate. Some critics approve of this reading, but it has not sufficient evidence to recommend it as genuine.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-peter-2.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again - He did not use harsh and opprobrious words in return for those which he received:

(1) He was reviled. He was accused of being a seditious man; spoken of as a deceiver; charged with being in league with Beelzebub, the “prince of the devils” and condemned as a blasphemer against God. This was done:

(a)by the great and the influential of the land;

(b)in the most public manner;

(c)with a design to alienate his friends from him;

(d)with most cutting and severe sarcasm and irony; and,

(e)in reference to everything that would most affect a man of delicate and tender sensibility.

(2) he did not revile those who had reproached him. He asked that justice might be done. He demanded that if he had spoken evil, they should bear witness of the evil; but beyond that he did not go. He used no harsh language. He showed no anger. He called for no revenge. He prayed that they might robe forgiven. He calmly stood and bore it all, for he came to endure all kinds of suffering in order that he might set us an example, and make an atonement for our sins.

When he suffered, he threatened not - That is, when he suffered injustice from others, in his trial and in his death, he did not threaten punishment. He did not call down the wrath of heaven. He did not even predict that they would be punished; he expressed no wish that they should be.

But committed himself to him that judgeth righteously - Margin, his cause. The sense is much the same. The meaning is, that he committed his cause, his name, his interests, the whole case, to God. The meaning of the phrase “that judgeth righteously” here is, that God would do him exact justice. Though wronged by people, he felt assured that he would do right. He would rescue his name from these reproaches; he would give him the honor in the world which he deserved; and he would bring upon those who had wronged him all that was necessary in order to show his disapprobation of what they had done, and all that would be necessary to give the highest support to the cause of virtue. Compare Luke 23:46. This is the example which is set before us when we are wronged. The whole example embraces these points:

(1) We should see to it that we ourselves are guiltless in the matter for which we are reproached or accused. Before we fancy that we are suffering as Christ did, we should be sure that our lives are such as not to deserve reproach. We cannot indeed hope to be as pure in all things as he was; but we may so live that if we are reproached and reviled we may be certain that it is not for any wrong that we have done to others, or that we do not deserve it from our fellow-men.

(2) When we are reproached and reviled, we should feel that we were called to this by our profession; that it was one of the things which we were taught to expect when we became Christians; that it is what the prophets and apostles endured, and what the Master himself suffered in an eminent degree; and that if we meet with the scorn of the great, the frivilous, the rich, the powerful, it is no more than the Saviour did, and no more than we have been taught to expect will be our portion. It may be well, too, to remember our unworthiness; and to reflect, that though we have done no wrong to the individual who reviles us yet that we are sinners, and that such reproaches may not be a useless admonisher of our being guilty before God. So David felt when reproached by Shimei: “So let him curse, because the Lord hath said unto him, Curse David. Who shall then say, Wherefore hast thou done so?” 2 Samuel 16:10.

(3) when this occurs, we should calmly and confidently commit our cause to God. Our name, our character, our influence, our reputation, while living and after we are dead, we should leave entirely with him. We should not seek nor desire revenge. We should not call down the wrath of God on our persecutors and slanderers. We should calmly feel that God will give us the measure of reputation which we ought to have in the world, and that he will suffer no ultimate injustice to be done us. “Commit thy way unto the Lord; trust also in him, and he shall bring it to pass; and he shall bring forth thy righteousness as the light, and thy judgment as the noon-day,” Psalm 37:5-6. The Latin Vulgate has here, “But he committed himself to him who judged him unjustly,” judicanti se injuste; that is, to Pontius Pilate, meaning that he left himself in his hands, though he knew that the sentence was unjust. But there is no authority for this in the Greek, and this is one of the instances in which that version departs from the original.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-peter-2.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:

This is a further deployment upon the sacred page of the beautiful and sinless character of the Saviour. Any person familiar with the Passion of Jesus can visualize what Peter related here. In fact the very words Peter wrote seem to have a suggestion of eyewitness testimony; and this is natural, coming from Peter who was indeed an eyewitness of those very things.

Committed himself unto him that judgeth righteously ... Interestingly enough, the Douay Version translates this, "Committed himself to him that judgeth unrighteously," making the meaning to be that Jesus submitted himself to the judgment of Pilate. While true enough, in a sense, the thought is better in our version; because, although Jesus submitted to Pilate's judgment, he did so in the full realization that Pilate had no power but from above (John 19:11). Of interest also is the marginal reading "his cause" instead of "himself that was committed. As a matter of fact, Jesus committed both himself and his cause to God.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/1-peter-2.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Who when he was reviled, reviled not again,.... When he was reproached as a glutton, a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners, all the reply he made was, that Wisdom is justified of her children; and when he was charged with casting out devils by Beelzebub, the prince of devils, he defended himself, not with bad language, but with strong reasonings; and when he was said to be a Samaritan, and had a devil, his only answer was, that he had not, that he honoured his Father, and they dishonoured him; and when he was reviled on the cross, by those that passed by, by the chief priests, and Scribes, and the thieves that were crucified with him, he made no return, he opened not his mouth, and much less in a recriminating way,

When he suffered he threatened not; when he endured buffetings, and scourgings in his body, when the officers in the palace of the high priests spit in his face, buffeted him, and smote him with the palms of their hands, and bid him prophesy who smote him, all which were very provoking; yet he said not one word to them, much less threatened them with what he would do to them for such usage another day, when he would let them know, with vengeance, who it was that smote him; no, he took all patiently from them, and from Pilate, and the Roman soldiers, when scourged by them; he gave his back to the smiters, and his cheeks to them that plucked off the hair; and when he suffered crucifixion, and was put to such distressing pains and agonies, he did not threaten his crucifiers with a future judgment, when he would take vengeance, and execute his wrath upon them, but prays to his Father for the forgiveness of their sins: and, as it follows,

but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously; he commended his Spirit, or soul, to God his Father, and committed his cause to him, to vindicate it in what way he should think fit, who he knew was the Judge of all the earth, that would do right; and so the Syriac version supplies it with דיניה, "his judgment": which he left with God, the righteous Judge, to whom vengeance belongs; and which is an example, and an instruction to the saints to do so likewise; not to render railing for railing, or to seek revenge, but to leave their cause with their God, who will, in his own time, avenge the wrongs and injuries done them. The Vulgate Latin version reads, contrary to all the Greek copies, and other versions, "but delivered himself to him that judgeth unjustly"; the sense of which is, that Christ delivered himself into the hands of Pilate, who unjustly condemned him to death; but is neither the reading, nor sense of the text.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-peter-2.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but 24 committed [himself] to him 25 that judgeth righteously:

(24) He shows them a remedy against injuries, that is, that they commend their cause to God, by the example of Christ.

(25) He seems now to turn his speech to masters, who have also themselves a master and judge in heaven, who will justly avenge the injuries that are done to servants, without any respecting of people.


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/1-peter-2.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Servants are apt to “answer again” (Titus 2:9). Threats of divine judgment against oppressors are often used by those who have no other arms, as for instance, slaves. Christ, who as Lord could have threatened with truth, never did so.

committed himself - or His cause, as man in His suffering. Compare the type, Jeremiah 11:20. In this Peter seems to have before his mind Isaiah 53:8. Compare Romans 12:19, on our corresponding duty. Leave your case in His hands, not desiring to make Him executioner of your revenge, but rather praying for enemies. God‘s righteous judgment gives tranquillity and consolation to the oppressed.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-peter-2.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

When he was reviled (λοιδορουμενοςloidoroumenos). Present passive participle of λοιδορεωloidoreō old verb (from λοιδοροςloidoros reviler, 1 Corinthians 5:11) as in John 9:28.

Reviled not again (ουκ αντελοιδορειouk anteloidorei). Imperfect active (for repeated incidents) of αντιλοιδορεωantiloidoreō late and rare compound (Plutarch, Lucian, one papyrus example with compound following the simplex verb as here, Moulton and Milligan‘s Vocabulary), here only in N.T. Idiomatic use of αντιanti (in turn, return, back).

Threatened not (ουκ ηπειλειouk ēpeilei). Imperfect again (repeated acts) of απειλεωapeileō old compound (from απειληapeilē threat, Acts 9:1), in N.T. only here and Acts 4:17.

But committed himself (παρεδιδου δεparedidou de). Imperfect active again (kept on committing himself) of παραδιδωμιparadidōmi to hand over, usually of one to a judge, but here not of another (as the Sanhedrin), but himself (supply εαυτονheauton), for Jesus uses this very idea in Luke 23:46 as he dies. Jesus thus handed himself and his cause over to the Father who judges righteously (τωι κρινοντι δικαιωςtōi krinonti dikaiōs dative of present active articular participle of κρινωkrinō).


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/1-peter-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Reviled - again ( ἀντελοιδόρει )

Only here in the New Testament.

Committed himself ( παρεδίδου )

But this gives a reflexive force to the verb which has no parallel. Commentators are divided, some supplying his cause, as Rev., in margin; others, his judgment; others, his revilers. Better, the subject of the contest - his insults and injuries. Salmond renders, but left it to him, etc.

Judgeth righteously

Compare without respect of person, 1 Peter 1:17.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/1-peter-2.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

23.] who when reviled, reviled not again (a proof of his ὑπομονή. Isaiah 53:7 is before the Apostle), when suffering threatened not (both these, imperfects, denoting constant habit. The order is again that of climax: from λοιδορούμενος to πάσχων, from οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει to οὐκ ἠπείλει): but (see on this particular use of δέ as a stronger contrast than ἀλλά, on Hebrews 2:6. It is nearly our ‘yea, rather:’ removing the thing previously negatived altogether out of our field of view, and substituting something totally different for it) delivered (them) (see below) up (what? Most Commentators supply ἑαυτόν [ so E. V.], or ‘causam suam,’ both of which seem out of place and hardly justified by the usage of the verb. Rather would I supply an object out of the λοιδορούμενος and πάσχων foregoing, either, with Huther and Wiesinger, “His reproaches and sufferings,” or, which seems to me better, “those who inflicted them:” perhaps not without reference to “Father, forgive them: for they know not what they do”) to Him that judgeth (pres., whose office it is to judge) righteously (i. e. the Father: designated in ref. as ὁ ἀπροσωπολήμπτως κρίνων. Calv. says well, “Qui sibi ad expetendam vindictam indulgent, non judicis officium Deo concedunt, sed quodam modo facere volunt suum carnificem”).


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Bibliography
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/1-peter-2.html. 1863-1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

23When he was reviled, or, reproached. Here Peter points out what we are to imitate in Christ, even calmly to bear wrongs, and not to avenge wrongs. For such is our disposition, that when we receive injuries, our minds immediately boil over with revengeful feelings; but Christ abstained from every kind of retaliation. Our minds, therefore, ought to be bridled, lest we should seek to render evil for evil.

But committed himself, or, his cause. The word cause is not expressed, but it is obviously understood. And Peter adds this for the consolation of the godly, that is, that if they patiently endured the reproaches and violence of the wicked, they would have God as their defender. For it would be a very hard thing for us, to be subjected to the will of the ungodly, and not to have God caring for our wrongs. Peter, therefore, adorns God with this high attribute, that he judgeth righteously, as though he had said, “It behoves us calmly to bear evils; God in the meantime will not neglect what belongs to him, but will shew himself to be a righteous judge.” However wanton then the ungodly may be for a time, yet they shall not be unpunished for the wrongs done now to the children of God. Nor is there any cause for the godly to fear, as though they were without any protection; for since it belongs to God to defend them and to undertake their cause, they are to possess their souls in patience.

Moreover, as this doctrine brings no small consolation, so it avails to allay and subdue the inclinations of the flesh. For no one can recumb on the fidelity and protection of God, but he who in a meek spirit waits for his judgment; for he who leaps to take vengeance, intrudes into what belongs to God, and suffers not God to perform his own office. In reference to this Paul says, “Give place to wrath,” (Romans 12:19;) and thus he intimates that the way is closed up against God that he might not himself judge, when we anticipate him. He then confirms what he had said by the testimony of Moses, “Vengeance is mine.” (Deuteronomy 32:35.) Peter in short meant this, that we after the example of Christ shall be more prepared to endure injuries, if we give to God his own honor, that is, if we, believing him to be a righteous judge, refer our right and our cause to him.

It may however be asked, How did Christ commit his cause to the Father; for if he required vengeance from him, this he himself says is not lawful for us; for he bids us to do good to those who injure us, to pray for those who speak evil of us. (Matthew 5:44.) To this my reply is, that it appears evident from the gospel-history, that Christ did thus refer his judgment to God, and yet did not demand vengeance to be taken on his enemies, but that, on the contrary, he prayed for them, “Father,” he said, “forgive them.” (Luke 23:34.) And doubtless the feelings of our flesh are far from being in unison with the judgment of God. That any one then may commit his cause to him who judgeth righteously, it is necessary that he should first lay a check on himself, so that he may not ask anything inconsistent with the righteous judgment of God. For they who indulge themselves in looking for vengeance, concede not to God his office of a judge, but in a manner wish him to be an executioner. He then who is so calm in his spirit as to wish his adversaries to become his friends, and endeavors to bring them to the right way, rightly commits to God his own cause, and his prayer is, “Thou, O Lord, knowest my heart, how I wish them to be saved who seek to destroy me: were they converted, I should congratulate them; but if they continue obstinate in their wickedness, for I know that thou watchest over my safety, I commit my cause to thee.” This meekness was manifested by Christ; it is then the rule to be observed by us.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/1-peter-2.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

23 Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:

Ver. 23. But committed himself] Or, the whole matter. We also shall do ourselves no disservice, by making God our chancellor, when no law else will relieve us. And indeed the less a man strives for himself, the more is God his champion. He that said, I seek not mine own glory, adds, But there is one that seeketh it, and judgeth. God takes his part ever that fights not for himself.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-peter-2.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

1 Peter 2:23. Who, when he was reviled, &c.— Our Lord, during the course of his teaching and ministry, pronounced dreadful woes and denunciations against the wicked and hypocritical Scribes and Pharisees: but when he came to suffer, he forbore, lest his denunciations should be thought to proceed, not from a love of truth and righteousness, but from anger and hatred, and resentment of the cruel usage which he met with. Amidst all the barbarous treatment which he suffered, he never uttered one impatient or threatening word.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/1-peter-2.html. 1801-1803.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

1 Peter 2:23. The second feature: the patience of Christ in His sufferings. A reference, however slight, to Isaiah 53:7, cannot but be recognised.

ὃς λοιδορούμενος οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει, πάσχων οὐκ ἠπείλει] De Wette and Wiesinger rightly draw attention to the climax between λοιδορ. and πάσχων, ἀντελοιδ. and ἠπείλει; λοιδορία omnis generis injuriae verbales; παθήματα omnis generis injuriae reales (Gerhard).

ἀντιλοιδ. ἅπ. λεγ.; cf. ἀντιμετρέω, Luke 6:38.

ἠπείλει, is here used of threat of vengeful recompense. The announcements of divine judgment on unbelievers, to which Christ more than once gave expression, are of a different nature, and cannot be considered as an ἀπειλεῖν, in the sense in which that word is here used. Comp. with this passage the exhortation of the apostle, chap. 1 Peter 3:9.

παρεδίδου δὲ τῷ κρίνοντι δικαίως] παρεδίδου not in a reflexive sense: “He committed Himself” (Winer p. 549 [E. T. 738]; de Wette),(153) neither is causam suam (Gerhard, etc.) nor κρίσιν (from κρίνοντι) to be supplied; the supplement is rather λοιδοροῦσθαι and πάσχειν (Wiesinger, Schott). Luther’s translation is good: “He left it to Him.”(154)

Didymus arbitrarily understands παρεδίδου of Christ’s prayer for His enemies;(155) the meaning is rather that Christ left it to the God who judges justly to determine what should be the consequences of the injustice done to Him on those who wrought it. That His desire was only that they should be punished, is not contained in παρεδίδου (similarly Hofmann). Consequently the reference formerly made in this commentary to Jeremiah 9:20; Jeremiah 20:12, as illustrative of the passage, is erroneous. With τῷ δικαίως κρίνοντι, cf. chap. 1 Peter 1:17 : τὸν ἀπροσωπολήπτως κρίνοντα, “a direct designation of God, whose just judgment is the outcome of His being” (Wiesinger).


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Bibliography
Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/1-peter-2.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

1 Peter 2:23. οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει, He reviled not again) Isaiah 53:7.— οὐκ ἠπείλει, He threatened not) although, as Lord, He might have done so.(20) The more befitting is it that servants should exercise patience.(21)παρεδίδου δὲ, but committed) viz. the judgment.— δικαίως, righteously) The righteousness of God is the foundation of tranquility to the afflicted.


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/1-peter-2.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

By Christ’s being reviled, we are to understand all those injurious words, reproaches, slanders, blasphemies, which his persecutors cast out against him.

Reviled not again; therefore when he told the Jews they were of their father the devil, John 8:44, that was not a reviling them, but a just accusation of them, or reproof of their devilish behaviour.

When he suffered; when he was affected not only with verbal but real injuries, buffeted, spit upon, crowned with thorns, crucified.

He threatened not; he was so far from avenging himself, or recompensing evil for evil, that he did not so much as threaten what he would afterward do to them.

But committed himself; or his cause; neither is in the Greek, but either may be well supplied, and to the same purpose: the sense is, Christ did not retaliate, nor act any thing out of private revenge, but so referred himself, and the judgment of his cause, to his Father’s good pleasure, as rather to desire pardon for his persecutors, than vengeance on them, Luke 23:34.

To him that judgeth righteously: the apostle adds this of God’s judging righteously, for the comfort of servants to whom he speaks, as Ephesians 6:8,9 Col 3:24 4:1, and for the terror of masters, that the former might learn patience, and the latter moderation.


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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-peter-2.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

To him; God, who although he commands his people to manifest a Christian spirit towards all, will nevertheless condemn and punish those who oppress or injure them. Matthew 25:40-46. The commands of God to exercise right feelings when suffering under wrongs, were not designed to excuse the authors of those wrongs; and to quote these commands for such a purpose is a gross perversion of Scripture.


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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Family Bible New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/1-peter-2.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

23. οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει. The imperfects ἀντελοιδόρει, ἠπείλει, παρεδίδου are sometimes explained as denoting the habitual attitude of the life of Christ as opposed to the one definite act of the crucifixion ἀνήνεγκεν. But more probably the imperfects describe St Peter’s own recollections of our Lord’s sufferings of which he claims to have been a witness 1 Peter 5:1, “When I saw Him being reviled and threatened, He was all the while using no revilings or threats but was committing His cause to God.” The aorists ἐποίησεν, εὑρέθη, ἀνήνεγκεν on the other hand describe His life and death as a whole.

τῷ κρίνοντι δικαίως. The Vulgate reads “judicanti injuste,” submitted to him that was judging unjustly, i.e. Pilate. But no Greek text reads ἀδίκως, and the real meaning is that Christ could patiently submit to man’s injustice because He committed His cause to the just judgment of God, cf. 2 Thessalonians 1:4.


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Bibliography
"Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/1-peter-2.html. 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

23. His patience next appears.

Reviled—Mocked, slandered, insulted, blasphemed. Yet for it all he had no reviling retort. Repeatedly, indeed, did he speak with severity, but never in revenge.

Suffered—Spit upon, smitten, buffeted, scourged, crowned with thorns, crucified, killed.

Threatened not—Though he had power to destroy on the spot.

Committed—Most commentators say himself, with our version; or his cause, with the margin; or his judgment, as Steiger; but a better answer, with Huther and Wiesinger, is the revilings and sufferings. These he turned over to Him that judgeth justly, and will properly reward those who inflicted them.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-peter-2.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Peter referred specifically to Jesus" sufferings when He was on trial and during His crucifixion. Certainly Peter"s readers could find a strong example to follow there. "Revile" means to heap abuse on someone. Often our threats are empty; we cannot follow through with them. However, Jesus could have followed through. Instead He trusted God to deal with His persecutors justly, as we should.

"Peter"s picture of what Jesus did not do seems clearly molded by his memory of the messianic picture in Isaiah 53:6-7. Yet rather than quoting this passage, he gives his own confirmatory witness, thereby underlining the veracity of the prophetic portrayal." [Note: Hiebert, "Following Christ"s ...," p37.]


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Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/1-peter-2.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

1 Peter 2:23. who, when reviled, reviled not again; when suffering, threatened not. Peter continues to speak partly under the influence of Isaiah’s description (Isaiah 53:7 seems clearly in his mind, although he no longer reproduces the very words), and partly under that of personal recollection of what he had seen in Christ. The tenses change now from the simple historical past to imperfects expressive of sustained action. Most interpreters notice the climax from the reviling, or injury by word, to the more positive suffering, and from the abstinence from returning reviling in kind (the verb ‘reviled not again’ is another word peculiar to Peter) to abstinence even from threats of retaliation where actual retaliation was impossible. The sentence, therefore, exhibits Christ’s example in suffering in its quality of silence and patience, as the former verse dealt with the quality of innocence.

but left it to him that judgeth righteously. The Rhemish Version, following the singular reading of the Vulgate, renders ‘to him that judgeth him unjustly,’ as if Pilate were the judge in view. Here, as in 1 Peter 1:17, God the Father’s prerogative ‘of judgment’ is introduced. There the impartial righteousness of His judgment was a reason for a walk in godly fear. Here it is the ground of assurance for the innocent sufferer. What is it, however, that Christ is said to have committed to this Righteous Judge? Many interpreters (e.g. Winer, de Wette, etc.) and Versions (including Wycliffe, the Rhemish, and both the A. V. and the R. V. in the text) supply himself as the object of the committal. This however, is to give the active verb a reflexive force; of which there is no example in the case of this verb, Mark 4:24, which is appealed to, not being really in point. Hence others make it = committed his judgment, or his cause (so Gerhard, Calvin, Beza, the Syriac, Tyndale, and the margin of both the A. V. and the R. V.), or his punishment (the Genevan), or his vengeance (Cranmer). The unnamed object, however, should naturally be supplied from the things dealt with in the immediate context. These are clearly the wrongs patiently endured by Christ. With Luther, therefore, etc., we may best render it indefinitely ‘left it,’ understanding the ‘it’ to refer to the subjection to reviling and suffering just mentioned. This is better than (with Alford) to make it = committed His revilers and injurers; although we might thus secure an allusion to Christ’s prayer in behalf of His enemies (Luke 23:34).


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Bibliography
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/1-peter-2.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

1 Peter 2:23. Combination of the Scripture οὐκ ἀνοίγει τὸ στόμα (Isaiah 43:7) with the saying ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν και διώξωσιν (Matthew 5:11). For λοιδ. cf. 1 Corinthians 4:12. λοιδορούμενοι εὐλογοῦμεν of Matt. l.c.), John 9:28, the Jews ἐλοιδόρησαν the once blina man as Jesus’ disciple and, for O.T. type Deuteronomy 33:8, ἐλοιδόρησαν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ ὕδατος ἀντιλογίας (Levi = Christ the Priest, cf. ἀντιλογία, Hebrews 12:3).— οὐκ ἠπείλει the prophecy ἀπειλήσει τοῖς ἀπειθοῦσιν (Isaiah 66:14) is yet to be fulfilled (Luke 13:27). Oec. notes that He threatened Judas, seeking to deter him and reviled the Pharisees, but not in retort.— παρεδίδου. It is doubtful what object, it any, is to be supplied. The narrative of the Passion suggests two renderings: (i.) He delivered Himself ( ἑαυτὸν omitted as in Plato, Phaedrus, 250 E). cf. Luke 23:46 (Psalms 31:5), παρατίθεμαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου and Isaiah 53:6; κύριος παρέδωκεν αὐτόν, Isaiah 53:12 παρεδόθη. (ii.) He delivered the persecutors (latent in passive participles λοιδ. and πάσχων), when He said Father forgive them. In ordinary Greek παραδίδωμι without object = permit; but this hardly justifies the rendering He gave way to (cf. δότε τόπον τῇ ὀργῇ, Romans 12:19), i.e., permitted God to fulfil His will. But most probably παρ. τῷ … represents the Hebrew ellipse, גל אלֹ י״ commit to Jehovah (Psalms 22:9) for the normal commit, way, works, cause; LXX (Syriac) has ἤλπισεν = Matthew 27:43. Compare Joseph. Ant. vii. 9, 2, David περὶ πάντων ἐπιτρέψας κριτῇ τῷ θεῷ.— τῷ κρίνοντι δικαίως, cf. 1 Peter 1:17; the award was the glory.


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Bibliography
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/1-peter-2.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

, who was incapable of sinning, did not revile (7) them that reviled him; he suffered all with patience; he willingly gave himself up to Pontius Pilate, that judged him, and condemned him unjustly (8) to the death of the cross: and remember that all he suffered was to satisfy for your sins, that he bore our sins in his own body on the tree of the cross. Remember always this great benefit of your redemption, and of your being called to believe in him, and to be eternally happy by following his doctrine; that all of you were as sheep going astray, lost in your ignorance and in your sins, but that by his grace and by his merits you are now called and converted to Jesus Christ, the great pastor and bishop of your souls. You are happy if you live under his care, inspection, and protection. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Cum malediceretur, non maledicebat, Greek: loidoroumenos, convitiis appetitus; improperly translated, cursed, by Mr. N.

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Judicanti se injuste. In the present Greek we read Greek: dikaios, juste, as also some Latin Fathers read. St. Augustine, (tract. 21. in Joan.) Commendabat autem judicanti juste; and so the sense is, that he commanded and committed his cause to God, the just judge of all.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-peter-2.html. 1859.

Mark Dunagan Commentary on the Bible

1 Peter 2:23 ‘and while being reviled, He did not revile in return; while suffering, He uttered no threats, but kept entrusting Himself to him who judges righteously;’

‘while being reviled’-At the very moment He was suffering abuse. Godly patience must be exercised right at the moment that suffering hits. ‘Reviled’-‘heap abuse upon’ (Thayer p. 382). Present tense, they kept on reviling Him. Macknight notes, ‘They said he was possessed with a devil; they called him a Samaritan, a glutton, a wine-bibber, a blasphemer, a demonic, one in league with Beelzebub, a perverter of the nation, and a deceiver of the people. In the high priest’s palace, his judges spit in his face. The servants covering his face, smote him with the palms of their hands, and in derision of his pretensions to inspiration bade him prophesy who it was that smote him. In the common hall, the soldiers crowned him with thorns; put a reed into his hand, and smote him therewith, and bowing the knee, said, “Hail King of the Jews”. While hanging on the cross, the chief priests, with the scribes and elders, mocking him, said, He saved others, himself he cannot save. But, though he could both save himself, and have destroyed them, he did not threaten or punish.’ (p. 464)

‘He did not revile in return’-The picture is of Jesus being continually harassed, spoken against, abused, and yet he never retaliated. (Isaiah 53:7 ‘He was oppressed, yet when he was afflicted he opened not his mouth…). Carefully note that lashing out with the tongue is a form of retaliation. Enduring hardship includes keeping our speech in line (James 1:26). Jesus observed His own teaching concerning loving one’s enemies (Matthew 5:38-48). ‘Unlike the Maccabean martyrs of Jewish history, who called for God’s vengeance on their persecutors….Jesus was silent (Mark 14:61; Mark 15:5; Luke 23:9).’ (Davids p. 111) We are not given the right to get even, or to hurt in return for being hurt. ‘Or if that is impossible people will threaten to get even later, trying to give their enemies at least the anxiety that revenge may be taken sometime in the future.’ (Grudem p. 130)

‘but kept entrusting Himself to Him who judges righteously’-POINTS TO NOTE: 1. ‘Jesus was not, however, simply a Stoic who had moved beyond feeling to detachment.’ (Davids p. 111). 2. ‘Kept entrusting’-present tense. ‘He committed his cause to the one who judges’ (Arndt p. 615) ‘handed over, delivered’. 3. Revenge and retaliation is the response given to hardship , by people who are trusting in themselves. ‘To the suffering person who trusts deeply in God and believes that God is indeed in control of every situation, there is another response (besides retaliation)….Rather than depending on his own abilities to retaliate (which were far greater than the powers of his opponents), when Jesus was suffering he kept entrusting the situation to God the Father, knowing that God would be just and fair, for he is the one who judges justly. It is important to note that Peter here commends neither the supposed therapeutic value of expressing one’s anger when wronged, nor merely holding the anger in and trying to suppress it (both are self-dependent solutions), but rather repeatedly and continually committing the situation into God’s hands’ (Grudem pp. 130-131) 4. Thus, taking our own revenge, or striking back, is a demonstration that we don’t believe that God is just, or that God can be trusted to judge righteously.

‘who judges righteously’-(). 1. Therefore Jesus could entrust Himself, His persecutors, every injustice committed, the whole situation, to the Father. For every act will be recompensed (2 Corinthians 5:10); and none will escape justice. God has the ability to sort everything out. 2. God will recompense the evil-doer (1 Peter 4:5) ‘This knowledge that God will ultimately right all wrongs is essential to a Christian response to suffering. (Colossians 3:25; 2 Thessalonians 1:5-9; James 5:7-8).’ (Grudem p. 131) 2. See also Romans 12:17-21.


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Bibliography
Dunagan, Mark. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Mark Dunagan Commentaries on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dun/1-peter-2.html. 1999-2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

reviled. Greek. loidoreo. See John 9:28.

reviled . . . again. Greek. antiloidoreo. Only here.

threatened. See Acts 4:17.

committed. See John 19:30.

judgeth. App-122.

righteously. Greek. dikaios. See 1 Corinthians 15:34.


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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-peter-2.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:

Servants are apt to 'answer again' (Titus 2:9). Threats of divine judgment against oppressors are often used by those who have no other arms. Christ, who could have threatened with truth, never did so.

Committed himself - His cause, as man in His suffering: cf. Jeremiah 11:20; Isaiah 53:8. Compare Romans 12:19, on our corresponding duty. Leave your case in His hands: not to make Him executioner of your revenge, but praying for enemies. God's righteous judgment gives tranquillity to the oppressed.


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-peter-2.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

He did not answer back. "Christ was insulted by the Jewish leaders, but he did not answer them back with an insult!" He did not threaten. "When he suffered crucifixion, he did not threaten, even though he could have destroyed his persecutors!" But placed his hopes in God. "He did not take revenge, but turned the whole matter over to God, and forgave his murderers."


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Bibliography
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "The Bible Study New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/1-peter-2.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(23) Who, when he was reviled.—This “who” might be rendered by and yet He. Conscious though He was of being blameless (John 8:46), it did not make Him retaliate upon His accusers by counter-accusations, true though these might have been. The word here translated “revile” is the same which reappears in 1 Peter 3:9 as “railing,” and a sample of what it means is given in John 9:28. The servants would be particularly liable to be thus abused, and instances are not wanting in the comic poets where they lose their self-control under it, and openly rate their owners in return. The “suffering,” on the other hand, implies actual bodily maltreatment, “buffeting” (1 Peter 2:20) and the like, to which the slaves could not answer directly by striking in return, but would sometimes take their revenge by “threats” of what they would do—run away, or burn the house, or poison the food, or do little acts of spite. Instances of our Lord’s silence or meekness under “reviling” may be seen in John 7:20; John 8:40; Matthew 12:24, as well as in the accounts of the Passion. There are no recorded instances, until the last day of His life, of His “suffering” in the sense here intended; but the tense of the verbs “reviled,” “threatened,” “committed,” shows that the writer was not thinking exclusively of any one occasion, but of our Lord’s constant habit, though naturally there would be uppermost in St. Peter’s mind the hours while he stood warming himself at Caiaphas’ fire, with the denial on his lips, and saw the Messiah blindfold and buffeted. He is also thinking of Isaiah 53:7.

But committed himself.—This was His only form of revenge. As the Greek does not express the grammatical object of the verb, it is better not to supply one so definite as “Himself” or “His cause,” rather, “but would leave it to Him that judgeth righteously.” M. Renan (Antéchrist, p. 117) says that this passage “requires it to be understood that the incident of Jesus praying for His murderers was not known by Peter;” and other critics have held the same view. But (1) St. Peter, as we have said, is speaking of what was the constant habit of Jesus, not of what He did on the day of His crucifixion only. (2) The word does not necessarily imply any act or word of direct appeal to God to judge between His murderers and Him; on the contrary, the leading thought is that of “passing the matter over” to God (comp. Romans 12:19), by simply refusing to take any action in self-defence. (3) It would have been unlike the usual method of the Epistles to make direct reference to any of the minor details of our Lord’s history. (4) Such a reference here would be beyond the point, for St. Peter said nothing in 1 Peter 2:19 about praying for the bad masters, and here he is only justifying by Christ’s example the position he had laid down there.

To him that judgeth righteously.—God is described in the aspect which is most reassuring to men who are suffering unjustly (2 Thessalonians 1:5). This looks back to that “consciousness of God” spoken of in 1 Peter 2:19. There is a curious various reading which is adopted by the Vulgate, though without any solid authority, and evidently a mere blunder, the interpretation of which we may leave to those who are committed to it: “He gave Himself over to him (or, to one) who judgeth unrighteously.” St. Cyprian seems to have understood it of our Lord’s voluntary self-surrender to Pilate.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-peter-2.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:
when he was
Psalms 38:12-14; Isaiah 53:7; Matthew 27:39-44; Mark 14:60,61; 15:29-32; Luke 22:64,65; 23:9,34-39; John 8:48,49; 19:9-11; Acts 8:32-35; Hebrews 12:3
threatened
Acts 4:29; 9:1; Ephesians 6:9
but
4:19; Psalms 10:14; 31:5; 37:5; Luke 23:46; Acts 7:59; 2 Timothy 1:12
himself
or, his cause. judgeth.
Genesis 18:25; Psalms 7:11; 96:13; Acts 17:31; Romans 2:5; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; 2 Timothy 4:8; Revelation 19:11

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:23". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-peter-2.html.

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Tuesday, October 20th, 2020
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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