Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Samuel 18:19

So it came about at the time when Merab, Saul's daughter, should have been given to David, that she was given to Adriel the Meholathite for a wife.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Adriel;   Armies;   Character;   David;   Humility;   Instability;   Jealousy;   Malice;   Meholathite;   Merab;   Prudence;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Adriel;   Barzillai;   Merab;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Prayer;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Adriel;   Michal;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Adriel;   David;   Saul;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Adriel;   David;   Meholathite;   Merab;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Abel-Meholah;   Adriel;   Barzillai;   Marriage;   Meholathite;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Adriel ;   Meholathite ;   Merab ;   Michal ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Meholathite;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Adriel;   Barzillai;   Merab;   Smith Bible Dictionary - A'dri-El;   Mehol'athite, the,;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Abel-Meholah;   Adriel;   Barzillai;   David;   Marriage;   Meholathite;   Merab;   Samuel, Books of;   Saul;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Adriel;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Abel-Meholah;   Adriel;   Merab;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Adriel the Meholathite - The five sons of this marriage perished by the hands of the Gibeonites (marginal reference), where we learn further that the name of Adriel‘s father, or ancestor, was Barzillai. His birth-place was Meholah, probably the same as Abel-Meholah. (See 1 Kings 19:16 note).

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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-samuel-18.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

But it came to pass, at the time when Merab, Saul's daughter,

should have been given to David,.... Either when the giving of her to him was talked of, or when the time fixed for her marriage was come:

that she was given to Adriel the Meholathite to wife: Saul either having in reality never designed she should be given to David, only proposed it to please the people, or to affront David, and expose him to shame and confusion by the step he meant to take, or however he soon changed his mind; though Abarbinel's notion is, that the young lady had disposed of herself to this person without her father's knowledge, which seems not likely; the person she was given to was the son of Barzillai the Meholathite, 2 Samuel 21:8; and some have observed, as the curse of God on this match, that all her sons were delivered to the Gibeonites, and hanged up, as related in the same place; for though these sons are said to be brought up by Michal, they were bore by Merab to him.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-samuel-18.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that h she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.

(h) By whom he had five sons who David put to death at the request of the Gibeonites, (2 Samuel 21:8).
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Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/1-samuel-18.html. 1599-1645.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.

Adriel — The son of Bar-zillai, as he is called, 2 Samuel 21:8. This was an act of great injustice; and accordingly this marriage was accursed by God, and the children begotten in it, were, by God's appointment cut off, 2 Samuel 21:8,9.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-samuel-18.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Samuel 18:19 But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul’s daughter should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.

Ver. 19. At the time when Merab, &c.] This affront and disgrace was done to David purposely to provoke him (as is probable) to do or say something that might bring him under censure, and give Saul some colour to cut him off. But David was too hard for him that way too: leaving it to God to right his wrongs, as indeed he did notably when Merab’s five sons by this Adriel were all hanged. [2 Samuel 21:8]

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-samuel-18.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

When Merab should have been given to David; when the marriage was even ready to be solemnized.

Adriel the Meholathite, the son of Barzillei, as he is called, 2 Samuel 21:8. This was an act of great injustice and perfidiousness; and accordingly this marriage was accursed by God, and the children begotten in it were by God’s appointment cut off, 2Sa 21$.

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These files are public domain.
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Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-samuel-18.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

19.She was given unto Adriel — In shameful violation of the king’s word.

The Meholathite — Perhaps a native of Abel-Meholah, the home of Elisha, (1 Kings 19:16,) and whither Gideon’s three hundred men pursued the Midianites. Judges 7:22. The sons of this marriage were subsequently put to death by the Gibeonites. 2 Samuel 21:8.

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Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-samuel-18.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

1 Samuel 18:19. She was given unto Adriel — The son of Barzillai, as he is called 2 Samuel 21:8. This was an act of great injustice, at the same time that it was a most high affront to David, and accordingly this marriage was accursed by God, and the children begotten in it were, by God’s appointment, cut off, 2 Samuel 21. How Jonathan resented this usage of David we are not told. It is likely his duty to his father made him entreat him to take it patiently, and to look upon Saul as sometimes beside himself, and one that did not know what he did.

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Bibliographical Information
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/1-samuel-18.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Wife. If this were the case, the character of Saul is rendered more despicable and perfidious. David never reclaims Merob, as he did Michol. (Haydock) --- All the children of the former were gibbeted, 2 Kings xxi. 9. The latter was given to David for his destruction, like Cleopatra (Daniel xi. 17,) to Ptolemy. (Tirinus)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-samuel-18.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

was given = had (already) been given. This is the key to 1 Samuel 20:30.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-samuel-18.html. 1909-1922.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(19) She was given unto Adriel.—Saul’s capricious wavering nature, so painfully prominent in the last part of his reign, displayed itself in this sudden change of purpose. It may have been brought about owing to some great fit of jealousy of David; or possibly the large gifts in money or valuables offered by the wealthy Adriel for the princess’s hand may have occasioned this arbitrary act of Saul. Such gifts to the father in return for the daughter’s hand were customary. In the case of such a prize as the Princess Merab, the gift would doubtless have been very costly. David, who was comparatively a poor man, was of course unable to show such liberality; besides, the young hero looked, no doubt, upon the marriage as the fulfilment of the old promise to the victor in the combat with the giant. The marriage, however, of the daughter of King Saul and Adriel was consummated, and was disastrous in its consequences. They had five sons, and they fell victims to the blood revenge exacted by the Gibeonites from the family of Saul: the five hapless youths were “hanged” (we read in 2 Samuel 21:9) “in the hill before the Lord.” These three verses (17-19) are entirely omitted by the LXX., apparently because they failed to see any reason for Saul’s sudden change of purpose.

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Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-samuel-18.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.
Adriel
Judges 14:20; 2 Samuel 21:8
Meholathite
Judges 7:22
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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:19". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-samuel-18.html.