Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Kings 11:1

When Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she rose and destroyed all the royal offspring.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Athaliah;   Homicide;   Israel, Prophecies Concerning;   Joash;   Massacre;   Orphan;   Usurpation;   Women;   Thompson Chain Reference - Athaliah;   Bible Stories for Children;   Children;   Evil;   Home;   Pleasant Sunday Afternoons;   Queens;   Religion;   Stories for Children;   Women;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Fatherless;   Kings;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Athaliah;   Jehosheba;   Joash or Jehoash;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Yahweh;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Destroy, Destruction;   Fulfillment;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Judgments of God;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Athaliah;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - King;   Kings, the Books of;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Athaliah;   Canaan, History and Religion of;   Covenant;   History;   Kings, 1 and 2;   Queen;   Sur, Gate of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Athaliah;   Chronicles, I;   Gotholias;   Government;   Jehoash;   Jerusalem;   Marriage;   Priests and Levites;   Solomon;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Athaliah ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Athaliah;   Joash;   Queen;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Athali'ah;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Joash;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Kingdom of Israel;   Kingdom of Judah;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Gotholias;   Heredity;   Jehoash;   Jehoshaphat (2);   Joel (2);   Judah, Kingdom of;   Royal;   Seed;   Text of the Old Testament;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Athaliah;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Athaliah - This woman was the daughter of Ahab, and grand-daughter of Omri, and wife of Joram king of Judah, and mother of Ahaziah.

Destroyed all the seed royal - All that she could lay her hands on whom Jehu had left; in order that she might get undisturbed possession of the kingdom.

How dreadful is the lust of reigning! it destroys all the charities of life; and turns fathers, mothers, brothers, and children, into the most ferocious savages! Who, that has it in his power, makes any conscience

"To swim to sovereign rule through seas of blood?"

In what a dreadful state is that land that is exposed to political revolutions, and where the succession to the throne is not most positively settled by the clearest and most decisive law! Reader, beware of revolutions; there have been some useful ones, but they are in general the heaviest curse of God.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-kings-11.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Athaliah, as wife of Joram and mother of Ahaziah, had guided both the internal and the external policy of the Jewish kingdom; she had procured the establishmeut of the worship of Baal in Judaea 2 Kings 8:18, 2 Kings 8:27, and had maintained a close alliance with the sister kingdom 2 Kings 8:29; 2 Kings 10:13. The revolution effected by Jehu touched her nearly. It struck away from her the support of her relatives; it isolated her religious system, severing the communication with Phoenicia; and the death of Ahaziah deprived her of her legal status in Judaea, which was that of queen-mother (the 1 Kings 15:13 note), and trausferred that position to the chief wife of her deceased son. Athaliah, instead of yielding to the storm, or merely standing on the defensive, resolved to become the assailant, and strike before any plans could be formed against her. In the absence of her son, hers was probably the chief anthority at Jerusalem. She used it to command the immediate destruction of all the family of David, already thinned by previous massacres 2 Kings 10:14; 2 Chronicles 21:4, 2 Chronicles 21:17, and then seized the throne.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-kings-11.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

ATHALIAH; THE QUEEN MOTHER USURPED; THE THRONE OF JUDAH

The reign of this wicked woman must be accounted as the low point in the history of Israel thus far. Athaliah was the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, the daughter of a king, the mother of King Ahaziah whom Jehu had slain, the wife of still another king Jehoram king of Judah; but in this chapter we have the record of how she murdered all of her own grandchildren and everyone else whom she recognized as a possible threat to her authority; and although she was not recognized by Judah as a legitimate ruler, she nevertheless exercised tyrannical authority for over six years.

"Athaliah was a true daughter of Jezebel. She saw to it that all of her husband's (Jehoram's) brothers were murdered so that his authority might not be challenged (2 Chronicles 21:4). She made the worship of Baal the national religion of Judah; the High Priest Jehoiada was degraded; and all the cruelties, immoralities and irreligion of the house of Ahab were reenacted in the Southern Kingdom, which now fell to the lowest level in its history."[1]

The true people of Judah never recognized Athaliah as a legitimate ruler of their kingdom. "The sacred author did not speak of her as a valid ruler at all, gave no date of her usurpation, nor of her death or burial; and when her successor Jehoash (Joash) was named, it was not written that he reigned `in her stead' (as in the usual records), but merely that, `he began to reign' (2 Kings 11:21)."[2]

The purpose of Athaliah's six-year rule is evident in what she did. Her purpose, as stated by Josephus, was to "See that the entire house of David might be exterminated."[3] And it was only the providence of God that prevented Athaliah's success in that endeavor. However, there was another purpose. She fully intended to establish the worship of the pagan Canaanite deity Baal as the official and exclusive religion of Judah. In line with that, she established and promoted the temple of Baal near Solomon's temple itself, and she degraded Jehoiada from his position of High Priest. The Bible does not fully speak of her cruel tyrannies and murderous deeds, focusing rather upon her murder by the very priest of Jehovah whom she hated and upon the installation of that remaining heir to the throne of David whom she happened to overlook the night when she perpetrated the massacre of David's descendants.

ATHALIAH'S MURDER OF ALL THE ROYAL SEED

"Now when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal. But Jehosheba, the daughter of king Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him away from among the king's sons that were slain, even him and his nurse, and put them in the bedchamber; and they hid him from Athaliah, so that he was not slain; and he was with her hid in the house of Jehovah six years. And Athaliah reigned over the land."

"God had assured David of the continuation of his family; and this cannot appear but a great thing ... Here David's line was almost exterminated, and yet wonderfully preserved."[4] It was by no means all the posterity of David which was threatened with destruction by Athaliah, but only that portion of it that pertained to the dynastic kings. The near-total irrelevance of those wicked sons of David who sat on his earthly throne appears in the fact that the Messiah came through an absolutely independent line of David's posterity, through Nathan, not through Solomon and that parade of reprobate kings.

"Jehosheba, daughter of king Joram, sister of Ahaziah" (2 Kings 11:2). From Josephus we learn that she was a half-sister of Ahaziah. Ahaziah was the son of Athaliah by Joram, and Jehosheba was the daughter of Joram by another woman, not by Athaliah. Still she was the aunt of the infant Joash; and her prompt and courageous action preserved the dynastic posterity of David

"She put him in the bedchamber, and they hid him from Athaliah, so that he was not slain" (2 Kings 11:2). The bedchamber mentioned here was a storage room where mattresses and such things were kept.[5] The problem of keeping him from being discovered by his evil grandmother Athaliah was easily solved. Jehosheba's husband was the High Priest Jehoiada, and they prepared an appropriate place and secreted him in the temple for a period of six years.

"And Athaliah reigned over the land" (2 Kings 11:3). Her six year rule deserved no further comment. Independently of this passage, we learn that, "She established the exclusive worship of Baal throughout Judah; she shut down all services in the temple, gave over the sacred vessels of the sanctuary to the priests of Baal, and used the temple itself as a quarry from which materials were robbed to embellish and build the temple of Baal."[6]

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/2-kings-11.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead,.... Who was the daughter of Ahab, and granddaughter of Omri 2 Kings 8:18, she arose:

and destroyed all the seed royal; that were left, for many had been slain already; the sons of Jehoshaphat, the brothers of Joram, were slain by him, 2 Chronicles 21:4 and all Joram's sons, excepting Ahaziah, were slain by the Arabians, 2 Chronicles 22:1, and the sons of the brethren of Ahaziah were slain by Jehu, 2 Kings 11:8, these therefore seem to be the children of Ahaziah, the grandchildren of this brutish woman, whom she massacred out of her ambition of rule and government, which perhaps she was intrusted with while her son went to visit Joram king of Israel; other reasons are by some assigned, but this seems to be the chief. For the same reason Laodice, who had six sons by Ariarathes king of the Cappadocians, poisoned five of them; the youngest escaping her hands, was murdered by the peopleF24Justin. e Trogo, l. 37. c. 1. , as this woman also was.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-kings-11.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the a seed royal.

(a) Meaning, all the posterity of Jehoshaphat, to whom the kingdom belonged: thus God used the cruelty of this woman to destroy the family of Ahab.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-kings-11.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

2 Kings 11:1-3. Jehoash saved from Athaliah‘s massacre.

Athaliah — (See on 2 Chronicles 22:2). She had possessed great influence over her son, who, by her counsels, had ruled in the spirit of the house of Ahab.

destroyed all the seed royal — all connected with the royal family who might have urged a claim to the throne, and who had escaped the murderous hands of Jehu (2 Chronicles 21:2-4; 2 Chronicles 22:1; 2 Kings 10:13, 2 Kings 10:14). This massacre she was incited to perpetrate - partly from a determination not to let David‘s family outlive hers; partly as a measure of self-defense to secure herself against the violence of Jehu, who was bent on destroying the whole of Ahab‘s posterity to which she belonged (2 Kings 8:18-26); but chiefly from personal ambition to rule, and a desire to establish the worship of Baal. Such was the sad fruit of the unequal alliance between the son of the pious Jehoshaphat and a daughter of the idolatrous and wicked house of Ahab.

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-kings-11.html. 1871-8.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

The sacred historian in this chapter is relating the affairs of the kingdom of Judah. Athaliah destroys all the seed royal; one only escaped the general massacre, which is Jehoash. At six years of age Jehoida anoints him king. Athaliah is slain.

2 Kings 11:1

The character of this woman is given by the Holy Ghost in a short, but expressive manner: 2 Chronicles 27:7. Whether from a spirit of revenge, or from a spirit of cruelty, she perpetrated those wicked deeds, is not said. But we must look higher than the instrument. God had said to David, concerning the matter of Uriah, that the sword should not depart from his house. And, although the same God had graciously promised that the seed of David he would make to endure forever, because that Christ, after the flesh, was to be the offspring of David, yet many of David's branches were lopped off. 2 Samuel 12:10; Psalms 80:19.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/2-kings-11.html. 1828.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.

She destroyed — This was the fruit of Jehoshaphat's marrying his son to a daughter of that idolatrous house of Ahab. And this dreadful judgment God permitted upon him and his, to shew how much he abhors all such affinities.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-kings-11.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Kings 11:1 And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.

Ver. 1. And when Athaliah.] Ahab’s daughter by Jezebel: Gotholiah, the Septuagint and Sulpitius call her; a most wicked woman, another Medea, by whom the devil sought utterly to root out that race whereof Christ was to be born. Josephus saith that out of envy - which Augustine (a) calleth vitium diabolicum, a devilish vice - she sought to destroy the house of David, as Jehu had destroyed her father Ahab’s house. Others, that she thus strengthened herself, that she might be revenged upon Jehu. Most likely, she was carried on to this tragic fact by ambition - which ever rideth without reins - and zeal for Baalism, which - to her grief - she saw was now rooted out by Jehu in the kingdom of Israel. Such another imperious whorish woman - as the Scripture speaketh [Ezekiel 16:30] - was Semiramis, queen of Assyria; (b) Tullia, the wife of Tarquinius Superbus; (c) Irene, empress of Constantinople, and mother of Constantinus Copronymus - whose eyes she put out to make him incapable of the empire, that she might reign alone; Drahomira, queen of Bohemia; and Brumchildis, queen of France, (d) who is said to have been the death of ten princes of the blood, and was herself afterwards put to a cruel death by king Cletharius. But the likest in cruelty to Athaliah was Laodice, the wife of Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia; who, her husband being dead, seized upon the government, raged cruelly against all sorts both of the nobility and commons, whom she caused to be murdered; yea, against her own family, poisoning six of her own sons, that so she might keep the kingdom more securely: only one little one escaped her fury, whom the people at last advanced to the crown, and slew her. (e)

Destroyed all.] Conatu scilicet, non effectu: she endeavoured it, but God remembered his promise to David, to leave him a lamp in Jerusalem, [1 Kings 15:4] and to this promise Joash owed his life and kingdom.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-kings-11.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Kings 11:1. When Athaliah, the mother of Ahaziah, &c.— The consideration of the fate which attended these royal families, is sufficient to make one thankful to God for having been born of meaner parentage. The whole offspring of Jeroboam, Baasha, and Ahab, kings of Israel, were cut off for their idolatry; and the kings of Judah having contracted an affinity with the house of Ahab, and being by them seduced into the same crime, were so destroyed by three successive massacres, that there was but one left: for, first Jehoram slew all his brethren, then Jehu slew all his brother's children, and now Athaliah destroys all the rest whom her executioners can meet with. Enraged to see Ahab's family cut off, she resolved to revenge it on the house of David. As she was one of Ahab's family, she had reason to apprehend that Jehu, who had a commission to extirpate all, would not be long before he called upon her; her only way therefore to secure herself against him was, to usurp the throne; but this she knew she could not do without destroying all the royal progeny, who were no well-wishers to the worship of Baal, which she had abetted, and was resolved to maintain.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-kings-11.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

2 KINGS CHAPTER 11

Athaliah destroyeth all the royal family: only Joash escapeth; is hid six years in the house of God, 2 Kings 11:1-3. Jehoiada, giving order to the captains, in the seventh year anointeth him king, 2 Kings 11:4-12. Athaliah is slain, 2 Kings 11:13-16. The covenant is renewed between God, the king, and the people; and Baal’s worship is destroyed: the king is set on his throne, 2 Kings 11:17-21.

i.e. All of the royal family left after those slaughters, 2 Chronicles 21:2,4 22:1 2 Kings 10:13,14, except one, as the next verse limits and explains it. This she did, partly, out of rage at the extirpation of her family, resolving that David’s family should not outlive liers; partly, from ambition and desire of rule, for which many persons have destroyed their nearest relations; partly, from the zeal which she had for idolatry, and the worship of Baal, which she intended to establish, to which she knew the house of David were implacable enemies; and partly, in her own defence, that she might secure herself from Jehu’s fury, who was commanded by God, and resolved in himself, utterly to destroy all the branches of Ahab’s family, whereof she was one, 2 Kings 8:18,26; for had she not done this, she suspected that either the king or people of Judah would have delivered her up to Jehu upon his demand. Possibly those whom she slew were Joram’s children by another wife; of which See Poole "2 Kings 1:2". And this was the fruit of Jehoshaphat’s marrying his son to a daughter of that idolatrous and wicked house of Ahab, even the extirpation of all his posterity but one. And this dreadful judgment God permitted, and inflicted upon him and his, to show how much he abhors all such sinful and unequal affinities.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-kings-11.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

ATHALIAH’S USURPATION, 2 Kings 11:1-3.

1.Destroyed all the seed royal — The ferocious Athaliah, a worthy daughter of the bloody Jezebel, acted at Jerusalem as queen mother, (see 1 Kings 15:10; 1 Kings 15:13, notes,) and probably exercised her royal functions during her son’s absence in Jezreel. As soon as she heard of Ahaziah’s death she resolved to usurp his throne, and, in perfect accordance with her own savage character, and the notions of the time as to making a throne secure, she secured the death, as she supposed, of all her grandchildren, and all the royal family who might claim a title to the throne. Her great authority and influence, as queen mother, explains the apparent ease with which she seems to have accomplished her purpose.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-kings-11.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Kings 11:1. And destroyed all the seed royal — All of the royal family that had not been cut off by Jehu and others, except one, mentioned 2 Kings 11:2. To this wickedness she was impelled by many motives: 1st, By rage to see Ahab’s family destroyed, which made her resolve that the family of David should share the same fate. 2d, By ambition and desire of rule, to make way for which many persons have destroyed their nearest relations. 3d, By her zeal for idolatry and the worship of Baal, which she intended to establish, and to which she knew the house of David were implacable enemies. 4th, By a regard to her own defence, that, by getting into the throne, which she could not do without destroying the royal family, she might secure herself from Jehu’s fury, who, she understood, was resolved utterly to destroy all the branches of Ahab’s house, of which she was one. Possibly those whom she slew were Jehoram’s children by another wife. This was the fruit of Jehoshaphat’s marrying his son to a daughter of that idolatrous house of Ahab: and this dreadful judgment God permitted to come upon him and his, to show how much he abhors all such affinities. “The consideration of the fate,” says Dr. Dodd, “which attended these royal families, is sufficient to make one thankful to God for having been born of meaner parentage. The whole offspring of Jeroboam, Baasha, and Ahab, was cut off for their idolatry; and the kings of Judah, having contracted an affinity with the house of Ahab, and being by them seduced into the same crime, were so destroyed, by three successive massacres, that there was but one left: for first Jehoram slew all his brethren, then Jehu all his brother’s children, and now Athaliah destroys all the rest that her executioners can meet with.”

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-kings-11.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Seed. What cruelties are occasioned by ambition! (Worthington) --- This is one of the most extraordinary proofs recorded in history. Agrippina was but a faint copy of the unnatural Athalia, (Calmet) who knew that she was destined for slaughter, if she should fall into the hands of Jehu. (Menochius) --- Her impiety might also prompt her to destroy all the posterity of David, that she might introduce the worship of idols more easily. (Theodoret)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-kings-11.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Athaliah. For genealogy see App-55.

she arose, &c. Another of the ten occasions of deaths being caused by a woman. See note on Judges 4:21.

destroyed: or thought she did. They were left for dead.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-kings-11.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.

Athaliah - (see the notes at 2 Chronicles 22:2.) She had possessed great influence over her son, who, her counsels, had ruled in the spirit of the house of Ahab.

Destroyed all the seed royal - all connected with the royal family who might have urged a claim on the throne, and who had escaped the murderous hands of Jehu (2 Chronicles 21:2-4; 2 Chronicles 22:1; 2 Kings 10:13-14). This massacre she was incited to perpetrate, partly from a determination not to let David's family outline her's-partly as a measure of self-defense, to secure herself against the violence of Jehu, who was bent on destroying the whole of Ahab's posterity, to which she belonged (2 Kings 8:18-26); but chiefly from personal ambition to rule, and a desire to establish the worship of Baal. Such was the sad fruit of the unequal alliance between the son of the pious Jehoshaphat and a daughter of the idolatrous and wicked house of Ahab. Athaliah's horrid policy of 'destroying all the seed royal' was carried on until lately at Constantinople, and is stiff practiced, at Bokhara (Joseph Wolff's 'Missionary Labours,' p. 493).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-kings-11.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

XI.

ATHALIAH USURPS THE THRONE OF JUDAH, BUT IS DEPOSED AND SLAIN, AND HER GRANDSON JOASH CROWNED, THROUGH THE INSTRUMENTALITY OF THE HIGH PRIEST JEHOIADA. (Comp. 2 Chronicles 22:10; 2 Chronicles 23:21.)

(1) And when Athaliah . . . saw.—Rather, Now Athaliah . . . had seen. (The and, which the common Hebrew text inserts before the verb, is merely a mistaken repetition of the last letter of Ahaziah. Many MSS. omit it.)

As to Athaliah and her evil influence on her husband Jehoram, see 2 Kings 8:18; 2 Kings 8:26-27. By her ambition and her cruelty she now shows herself a worthy daughter of Jezebel.

Her son.—Ahaziah (2 Kings 9:27). The history of the Judæan monarchy is resumed from that point.

Destroyed all the seed royal.—“The seed of the kingdom” (see margin) means all who might set up claims to the succession. Ahaziah’s brothers had been slain by the Arabs (2 Chronicles 21:17); and his “kinsmen” by Jehu (2 Kings 10:14). Those whom Athaliah slew would be for the most part Ahaziah’s own sons, though other relatives are not excluded by the term.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-kings-11.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.
A. M. 3120. B.C.884. Athaliah
2 Chronicles 22:10; 24:7
the mother
8:26; 9:27
and destroyed
A similar history is related by Mr. Bruce, as having occurred in Abyssinia. Judith "surprised the rock Damo, and slew the whole of the princes, to the number, it is said, of about 400;" while the infant king, Del Naad, was conveyed for safety to a loyal province, and afterwards restored.
Matthew 2:13,16; 21:38,39
seed royal
Heb. seed of the kingdom.
25:25; *marg:; Jeremiah 41:1
Reciprocal: Judges 9:5 - slew;  1 Kings 1:12 - the life;  2 Kings 10:7 - slew seventy;  2 Kings 10:14 - neither left;  2 Kings 11:14 - Treason;  2 Kings 12:1 - the seventh;  2 Chronicles 18:1 - joined affinity;  Psalm 109:14 - let not;  Proverbs 14:1 - the foolish;  Isaiah 3:12 - children;  Isaiah 49:15 - they may;  Jeremiah 41:7 - slew;  Matthew 14:8 - Give

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 11:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-kings-11.html.