Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 10:16

And Hadadezer sent and brought out the Arameans who were beyond the River, and they came to Helam; and Shobach the commander of the army of Hadadezer led them.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Armies;   Hadadezer;   Helam;   Shobach;   Zobah;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Syria;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Mesopotamia;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Joab;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Hadadezer;   Helam;   Joab;   Shobach;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Edom;   Helam;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Ammonites;   Disciples;   Hadad-Ezer;   Helam;   Rivers and Waterways in the Bible;   Samuel, Books of;   Syria;   Zoba(h);   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Abishai;   Ammon, Ammonites;   Euphrates;   Helam;   Joab;   Maacah;   Shobach;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Hadadezer ;   Helam ;   Shobach ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Hadadezer;   Hanun;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Da'vid;   He'lam;   River;   Sho'bach;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Hebrew Monarchy, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - David;   Hadadezer;   Helam;   Joab;   Shobach;   Zobah;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Aram;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Aram-Naharaim;   Aram-Zobah;   Hadadezer;   Helam;   Joshua, the Samaritan Book of;   Shobach;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The Syrians that were beyond the river - That is, the Euphrates.

Hadarezer - This is the same that was overthrown by David, 2 Samuel 8:3; and there called Hadadezer; which is the reading here of about thirty of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS. But the ר resh and ד daleth are easily interchanged.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-samuel-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Helam - The place is unknown. Some prefer the translation of the Latin Vulgate: “their host came.”

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-samuel-10.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And Hadarezer sent,.... The same with Hadadezer, 2 Samuel 8:3, who was at the head of this confederacy, and to whom the rest of the kings of Syria were servants, 2 Samuel 10:19,

and brought out the Syrians that were beyond the river; the river Phrat or Euphrates, as the Targum; so the Arabic version and JosephusF25Ut supra, (Antiqu. l. 7. c. 6.) sect. 3. , who says, that he hired them:

and they came to Helam; which, according to the same writer, was king of the Syrians beyond Euphrates; but it seems to be the name of a place, where was the general rendezvous of the Syrian army. Junius conjectures that it is the same with the Alamatha of PtolemyF26Geograph. l. 5. c. 15. , which he places with the Trachonite Arabs near the Euphrates:

and Shobach the captain of the host of Hadarezer went before them: before the whole combined army, which according to JosephusF1Ut supra. (Antiqu. l. 7. c. 6. sect. 3.) , consisted of eighty thousand foot, and ten thousand horse: this general is called Shophach, 1 Chronicles 19:16 the letters "B" and "P" being of the same pronunciation in the Hebrew tongue, as Kimchi observes, though it is there read "Shobach", in the Syriac and Arabic versions; he was no doubt a very able, valiant, and skilful general, since he is particularly mentioned by name, and whose name was then famous; the Arabic version calls him a spear bearer of Hadarezer.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-10.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Hadarezer sent and brought out the Syrians that were beyond the river — This prince had enjoyed a breathing time after his defeat (2 Samuel 8:3). But alarmed at the increasing power and greatness of David, as well as being an ally of the Ammonites, he levied a vast army not only in Syria, but in Mesopotamia, to invade the Hebrew kingdom. Shobach, his general, in pursuance of this design, had marched his troops as far as Kelam, a border town of eastern Manasseh, when David, crossing the Jordan by forced marches, suddenly surprised, defeated, and dispersed them. As a result of this great and decisive victory, all the petty kingdoms of Syria submitted and became his tributaries (see on 1 Chronicles 19:1).

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-samuel-10.html. 1871-8.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 10:16 And Hadarezer sent, and brought out the Syrians that [were] beyond the river: and they came to Helam; and Shobach the captain of the host of Hadarezer [went] before them.

Ver. 16. And Hadarezar sent.] He is elsewhere called Hadadezar: Daleth and Resh ( ד and ר) being letters very like one to another. Hence some collect probably that the Hebrew letters had the same figure of old as now they have, and therefore were not the same with the Samaritan charactars. The Samaritan Jod is one of the largest; but the Hebrew Jod is one of the least letters, whence that of our Saviour. [Matthew 5:18] {Hebrew Text Note}

And they came to Helam.] A place nowhere else mentioned in Scripture. Perhaps it was the same town of the Arabes Trachonitae, (a) which Ptolemy calleth Alamtha.

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-10.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Samuel 10:16. The Syrians that were beyond the river Beyond the river Euphrates. Hadarezer is the same with Hadadezer, mentioned chap. 2 Samuel 8:3. Houbigant says, that he found it wrote Hadadezer in five manuscripts which he consulted. It is probable that Helam was situated upon the banks of the river Euphrates.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-samuel-10.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Hadarezer; the same with Hadadezer, 2 Samuel 8:3.

The Syrians that were beyond the river; who having engaged themselves in the former expedition, as was noted before, were now obliged to proceed in their own defence, being also persuaded and hired to this second expedition, 2 Samuel 10:19. Shobach, or Shopach, 1 Chronicles 19:16.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-10.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

16.Brought out the Syrians’ beyond the river — By which act he seems to have lost his dominion in that border. See 2 Samuel 8:3. When the Syrian cities beyond the Euphrates learned that their king had been smitten by the army of David they openly renounced their allegiance to the kingdom of Zobah.

Helam — A place somewhere beyond the Jordan, and probably near the borders of Syria; but its situation has never been discovered.

Shobach the captain — Who was to Hadarezer’s army what Joab was to David’s.

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Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-10.html. 1874-1909.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

river: i.e. the Euphrates.

Shobach. Another name, Shophach (1 Chronicles 19:16).

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-10.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And Hadarezer sent, and brought out the Syrians that were beyond the river: and they came to Helam; and Shobach the captain of the host of Hadarezer went before them.

Hadarezer sent, and brought out the Syrians that were beyond the river, [ 'Araam (Hebrew #758); Septuagint, teen Surian ek tou peran tou potamou chalamak]. This prince had enjoyed a breathing-time after his defeat (2 Samuel 8:3); and, alarmed at the increasing power and greatness of David, as well as being an ally of the Ammonites, levied a vast army, not only in Syria, but in Mesopotamia, among his tributaries and vassals (2 Samuel 10:19), to invade the Hebrew kingdom. Shobach, his general, in pursuance of this design, had marched his troops as far as Helam, a border-town of Eastern Manasseh, when David, crossing the Jordan by forced marches, suddenly surprised, defeated, and dispersed them.

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-10.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(16) Hadarezer.—On the form of the name see Note on 2 Samuel 8:3. He felt the importance of the defeat he had sustained, and now evidently made an effort to rally all his forces, even calling together vassal tribes from beyond the Euphrates.

They came to Helam.—The Hebrew word here is not necessarily a proper name, and might be translated their host; but as the name unquestionably occurs in 2 Samuel 10:17, it is better taken as a proper name here also. It is entirely omitted in Chronicles. Its exact situation is unknown, but from 2 Samuel 8:3; 1 Chronicles 18:3, it is plain that it was in the general direction of the Euphrates and not very far from Hamath.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And Hadarezer sent, and brought out the Syrians that were beyond the river: and they came to Helam; and Shobach the captain of the host of Hadarezer went before them.
Hadarezer
8:3-8; 1 Chronicles 18:3,5
the river
i.e., Euphrates. Shobach. or, Shophach.
1 Chronicles 19:16
Reciprocal: Psalm 48:4 - GeneralPsalm 60:1 - when he strove

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:16". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-10.html.