Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 15:23

While all the country was weeping with a loud voice, all the people passed over. The king also passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over toward the way of the wilderness.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Citizens;   David;   Kidron;   Loyalty;   Weeping;   Thompson Chain Reference - Brooks;   Social Duties;   Sympathy;   Sympathy-Pitilessness;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Brooks;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Kidron or Cedron;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Jerusalem;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Kidron;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Kedron;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Kidron Valley;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Kidron (1);   Samuel, Books of;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ahithophel ;   Kidron, Kedron, Brook;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Mount olivet;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Absalom;   David;   Jerusalem;   Kidron;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Kid'ron,;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Brook;   Jerusalem;   Kidron, the Brook;   River;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Didascalia;   Kidron;   Shittim;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The brook Kidron - This was an inconsiderable brook, and only furnished with water in winter, and in the rains. See John 18:1.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-samuel-15.html. 1832.

The Biblical Illustrator

2 Samuel 15:23

And all the country wept with a loud voice.

The way of the Cross

Notice the weeping people. (Luke 23:27-31.) David’s experience at this time contains many foreshadowings of the passion of our Lord, but also some contrasts, as the conduct of the priesthood. (Verse 24 compared with John 18:13; John 18:24.)

I. The ark sent back. In this incident David’s character rises to its height of moral grandeur. The ark was the symbol of God’s presence. (1 Samuel 4:1-11.) The Israelites in Eli’s time had degenerated into trust of the symbol, instead of that which it symbolized. (Jeremiah 7:1-4; Matthew 3:9.) David understood the spiritual truth underlying, but not inseparable from, the outward sign.

II. His motives in sending back the ark seem to have been:

1. An expression of his unworthiness, as one who had deeply sinned, and was suffering the consequences of sin, to enjoy the consolation of religion.

2. Trust in Jehovah Himself apart from ordinances and symbols. “If I shall find favour, then I shall be restored to the sanctuary and its blessings; and if not, then what good will the ark do me? “Without God’s favour it will only be a useless responsibility.” This teaches us a deep spiritual lesson, needed in all ages, that mere outward forms of religion can never profit a heart not at peace with God. And in these expressions. David manifested strong faith. (Numbers 14:8; Daniel 3:17-18; 1 John 5:4.)

3. He feared to injure others by the withdrawal of the symbol of God’s presence, but would rather leave a witness in rebellious Jerusalem. (Psalms 69:6; Psalms 69:36.)

4. Besides this, he doubtless feared to imperil the ark itself, remembering the awful lesson of Uzzah’s death.

III. A prayer immediately answered. (2 Samuel 15:31; 2 Samuel 16:23; 1 Corinthians 3:18-19; 1 Corinthians 1:18-25.) Ahithophel’s treachery specially alluded to. (Psalms 41:9; Psalms 55:12-15.) (R. E. Faulkner.)

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Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "2 Samuel 15:23". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/2-samuel-15.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And all the country wept with a loud voice,.... The people that came out of the country villages round about, upon the report of the king's leaving Jerusalem, because of his son's conspiracy against him; these wept when they saw him in the circumstances in which he was, obliged to fly from a rebellious son:

and all the people passed over; the people that were with David passed over Kidron, and so the Cherethites, and Pelethites:

the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron; this explains what place it was they passed over, which is not before mentioned, but is particularly named in the account of the king's passing over it; over which same brook the Messiah, his antitype, passed a little before his sufferings and death; of which brook; see Gill on John 18:1. It is often by JosephusF13Antiqu. l. 8. c. 1. sect. 5. & l. 9. c. 7. sect. 3. De Bello Jud. l. 5. c. 2. sect. 3. c. 4. sect. 2. c. 6. sect. 1. called a valley, sometimes a brook, it having little water, except in winter; Mr. MaundrellF14Journey from Aleppo, &c. p. 102. says, it ran along the bottom of the valley of Jehoshaphat, a brook in the wintertime; but without the least drop of water in it all the time, says he, we were in Jerusalem; and so RelandF15Palestin. Illustrat. tom. 1. p. 294, 351. , that in summertime it ceases to be a river, and has the name of a valley; and Le Bruyn saysF16Voyage to the Levant, ch. 48. p. 188. , it is at present dried up; it runs along the valley of Jehoshaphat, and is not above three paces broad; it has no other but rain water, which flows from the adjacent hills:

and all the people passed over to the way of the wilderness; which lay between Jerusalem and Jericho.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-15.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And all the country wept with a loud voice, and o all the people passed over: the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness.

(o) That is, the four hundred men.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-samuel-15.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

the brook Kidron — a winter torrent that flows through the valley between the city and the eastern side of the Mount of Olives.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-samuel-15.html. 1871-8.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

(23) And all the country wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over: the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness.

Much as I am pleased with what is here said of the affection of the people to David, I gladly leave the subject of David's passing over Kidron, to view thee, thou dear Redeemer, accompanied with thy chosen few, going over the very same memorable brook, in the night of thy sufferings, when thou enteredst into the garden. Had my soul seen thee, dearest Jesus, in that awful hour; and had I then known what through thy gracious teachings I now know, that that Kidron's brook, into which all the black, polluted waters, emptied themselves from the sacrifices of the temple, was typical of the guilt and defilement of my soul, which is poured upon thee; Oh! how should I, like the people following David, have lifted up my voice and wept. John 18:1.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/2-samuel-15.html. 1828.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And all the country wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over: the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness.

Kidron — Or, Cedron, which was near Jerusalem. The very same brook that Christ passed over when he entered upon his sufferings, John 18:1.

Wilderness — Which was between Jerusalem and Jericho.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-samuel-15.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 15:23 And all the country wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over: the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness.

Ver. 23. And all the country wept with a loud voice.] All David’s friends did, when Absalom and his complices were jolly and jocund: but their good times lasted not long.

The king also himself passed over the brook Kidron.] Which had its name from darkness, and was the town ditch. Herein he became a type of Christ, who passed over the same brook, when he was in danger of the Jews. [John 18:1]

Toward the way of the wilderness.] The wilderness of Jericho.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-15.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

All the country, i.e. the generality of the people by whom they passed; for it must be considered that Absalom’s friends and partisans were gone to him to Hebron, and the rest of the people thereabouts were either well-willers to David, or at least moved with compassion at the sad and sudden change of so great and good a king, which was able to affect a heart of stone.

The brook Kidron was near Jerusalem. See Matthew 26:36 John 18:1.

Toward the way of the wilderness; which was between Jerusalem and Jericho.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-15.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

23.The brook Kidron — This mountain ravine commences a little more than a mile northwest of Jerusalem, runs more than a mile in an easterly direction, and then turns southward and passes directly below the walls of the city on the east. To the south of the city it joins with the valley of Hinnom, and runs off in a southeasterly direction, through a deep, wild gorge, to the Dead Sea. It contains the bed of a streamlet, but no water runs in it except after heavy rains have fallen on the surrounding hills.

Toward the way of the wilderness — The way that led through the wild desert of Judah, which lay between Jerusalem and the Jordan, and extended south along the Dead Sea.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-15.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Samuel 15:23. All the country wept — All about Jerusalem, and the generality of the people by whom they passed, being extremely afflicted to see their king, under whom they had lived in great peace and prosperity, reduced to such extremities. It must be considered, that Absalom’s friends and partisans were gone to him to Hebron, and the rest of the people thereabouts were either well-wishers to David, or at least moved with compassion at the sad and sudden change of so great and good a king, which was sufficient to affect a heart of stone. All the people passed over All that continued faithful to David in those parts. The king also passed over the brook Kidron — Or Cedron, which was near Jerusalem. The very same brook which Christ passed over, when he entered upon his sufferings, John 18:1. Toward the way of the wilderness — Which lay between Jerusalem and Jericho.

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Bibliographical Information
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-samuel-15.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Cedron. Hebrew nachal Kidron, may signify, "the shady torrent," or "vale," as it is styled by Josephus. It does not take its name from cedars. It is dry in summer, and when filled with water, in only three steps across. (Doubdan xxvii.) --- Desert, of Bethel, (Calmet) or of Jericho, where St. John the Baptist and our Saviour dwelt for some time. David passed over Kedron, only after he had dismissed the priests. (Menochius)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-samuel-15.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

all: i, e. all the country round him. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Whole). App-6.

country. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject) for the people. Figure of speech Prosopopceia. App-6.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-15.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And all the country wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over: the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness.

The brook Kidron - a winter torrent that flows through the valley between the city and the eastern side of the mount of Olives.

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-15.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(23) The brook Kidron.—A valley with a watercourse, filled in winter, lying immediately east of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-15.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And all the country wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over: the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness.
all the country
Romans 12:15
the brook
The brook Kidron, which is but a few paces broad, runs along the valley of Jehoshaphat, east of Jerusalem, to the south-west corner of the city, and then, turning to the south-east, empties itself into the Dead Sea. Like the Ilissus, it is dry at least nine months in the year, being only furnished with water in the winter, and after heavy rains: its bed is narrow and deep, which indicates that it must formerly have been the channel for waters which have found some other, and probably subterraneous course.
Kidron
1 Kings 2:37; John 18:1
Cedron
the wilderness.
16:2; Matthew 3:1,3; Luke 1:80
Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 15:28 - General1 Kings 15:13 - the brook;  2 Kings 23:4 - Kidron;  2 Chronicles 30:14 - the brook;  Nehemiah 2:15 - the brook;  Isaiah 15:5 - with;  Jeremiah 31:40 - the brook

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 15:23". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-15.html.