Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 23:3

"The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me, ‘He who rules over men righteously, Who rules in the fear of God,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - David;   Fear of God;   Jesus, the Christ;   Prophets;   Psalms;   Rock;   Rulers;   Thompson Chain Reference - Duty;   King;   Kings, Duties of;   Magistrates;   Nation, the;   Ruler's Duty;   Rulers;   The Topic Concordance - Foundation;   Government;   Justice;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Clouds;   Fear, Godly;   Justice;   Kings;   Magistrates;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Justice;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - David;   Justice;   King;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - King, Kingship;   Psalms, Theology of;   Samuel, First and Second, Theology of;   Easton Bible Dictionary - David;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Samuel, the Books of;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Fear;   Poetry;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ethics;   Giant;   Ithrite, the;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Pre-Eminence ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Samuel first and second books of;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Da'vid;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Poetry of the Hebrews;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Christ, Offices of;   David;   Fear;   Psalms, Book of;   Samuel, Books of;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Names of God;   Poetry;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The Rock of Israel - The Fountain whence Israel was derived.

He that ruleth over men must be just - More literally, צדיק באדם מושל moshel baadam tsaddik, He that ruleth in man is the just one; or, The just one is the ruler among men.

Ruling in the fear of God - It is by God's fear that Jesus Christ rules the hearts of all his followers; and he who has not the fear of God before his eyes, can never be a Christian.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-samuel-23.html. 1832.

The Biblical Illustrator

2 Samuel 23:3

The Rock of Israel spake to me.

The voice of a rock

The phraseology is peculiarly dramatic and picturesque.

I. The rock has a voice; the Rock of Israel had been speaking to him ever since he had been in the kingly seat of power. David’s wild and outlaw life had made him know what was the value of a stronghold, a shelter, a refuge. Rocks had been in his experience his best friends for many a year. Rocks were unchanging in their affection for him; they were immovable in their stability; they were impregnable for defence; often he had found rest under the “shadow of a great rock in a weary land.” What had this Rock of Israel said to him during this wonderful career?

1. For one thing, it had told him, as a counsel of superior wisdom, that he ought to reign righteously all his life: “He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.”

2. For another thing, the Rock had spoken the terms and the conditions of a fine promise. A just ruler would be prospered in proportion to the purity and piety of his administration: “And he shall be as the light of the morning when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.”

3. And for the best thing of all, the Rock had assured him graciously of a permanent continuance of the Divine favour: “Although my house be not so with God, yet He hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he make it not to grow.”

II. Modern religious experience. What are the conditions of implicit trust in the Lord of our salvation, such trust ah will insure peace and comfort?

1. The main condition of resting in the Lord is found in looking outside of one’s self. There is a habit of morbid self-examination which needs to be shunned. The more conscientious any believer is, the more apt he is to press unnecessary scrutiny of introspection.

2. The next condition of spiritual repose is found in the avoiding of unwise counsellors. Once a Christian friend wrote a letter to me, saying that she had just, after a long struggle, come to something like peace in believing, when along came a “so-called evangelist to torment her before her time,” telling her that “all we have to do is to accept salvation as we would accept a book from Christ’s hand.” She could not do this so easily, and hence she was informed again that her faith had no foundation upon which to be “secure.” It would break up two-thirds of the business firms in the United States if an evangelist were to keep going round among the counting-rooms, telling people that they were in jeopardy every hour unless they could come to absolute confidence in their senior partners; and then they must be sure, still, that they have the-right kind of confidence in them; and then they must be modest, and become surest of all that they are not becoming over-sure of anything this side of heaven. Human beings cannot get on with this; they cannot live so with God or with man. We must cultivate some measure of unquestioning trust. We must learn to trust our trust, and not keep rooting it up. No plant grows which is continually being rooted up.

3. Another condition of rest in God is found in drawing a clear distinction between historic faith and saving faith. What secures to us a perfect salvation is spiritual trust in the Saviour, and this is the gift of the Holy Ghost. And whoever says that we receive Divine grace as we would receive a book from a man’s hand, is simply mistaken in ignorance, or is misunderstood in his statement. Mechanical acts are frightfully poor illustrations of deep religious exercises. Some sort of fervour, some degree of emotion, is needed in order to appreciate Divine grace and receive it fitly. Tameness and lukewarmness are simply insipid. It is a heart-trust that God asks for, not a mere head-trust. A maiden may be told by her enthusiastic lover that it is as easy to trust him for ever with her life as it is to take a flower he offers; she knows better. It is easy to receive facts, perhaps, but not so easy to understand experiences which lie deeper than any mere outward acts. Historic faith is not necessarily saving faith.

4. Yet again: we are to cultivate confidence in the slowly reached answers to our prayers for Divine grace.

5. Yet again: we must distinguish between emotions, and religious states. The one may vary, the other is fixed Faith is a very different thing from the result of faith; and confidence of faith is even a different thing from faith itself; and yet the safety of a soul depends on faith, and nothing else. We are justified by faith--not by joy or peace or love or hope or zeal. These last are the results of faith, generally, and will depend largely upon temperament and education.

6. Finally, this unbroken courage is a condition of rest. We must not think everything is lost when we happen to have become beclouded. That faith is the best which has been tried and tested. In my study lies a little flower. It came to me long ago, by the hand of one who plucked it upon the highest ridge ever reached in the Rocky Mountains. It is of a rich purple colour, light and graceful in form, and retains yet, I imagine, a faint and delicate perfume. The lesson which it teaches me is one of endurance and patience. Away up there, where the snow lies late and the storms come early, it has held its own. The bleak solitudes had no charm for it; nay, I think that this flower was created to give a charm to a solitude which would have been the bleaker without it. To me it is the symbol of trust--absolute and implicit trust in God. It is a living thing that knows how to keep its warmth in despite of ice, and its beauty in despite of desolation all around it. (C. S. Robinson, D. D.)

He that ruleth over men must be just.

The importance of character in rulers

Mr. Stead quotes from Major Lennard’s “How We Made Rhodesia,” a passage to illustrate Dr. Jameson’s opinions on morality and public life. “What differences can it make in a man as a legislator what his morals are, if he has genius and intellect, and can use them? I cannot see how in any way morals can affect a man’s intellect, and so long as he keeps his immoralities to himself, I do not see how they can affect any one else.” So the Prime Minister of Cape Colony. The man who cannot see the influence of morality upon mind, how it affects motive and outlook, and his whole attitude and action in public affairs may have many gifts, but he is unfit to be Prime Minister of any colony or state. Far higher than the view of the modern Prime Minister of South Africa was that which inspired that ancient, Prime Minister of North Africa, who regarded his position as a trust, and his work as a mission from God. “And Joseph said: It was not you that sent me hither, but God; and He hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all ills house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.”

A righteous monarch

When Alfred made his laws his difficulties were only beginning. He had to depend for their execution on the Ealdermen and Thanes, most of whom were rude, uncultivated warriors, unable even to read the laws they had to administer. Many also were careless and unprincipled, either taking no pains about the matter at all, or favouring the rich against the poor. Alfred accordingly undertook the enormous labour of going over in person and in detail “almost all cases” in the kingdom. When he found, as he did very often, that the judgment given was unjust, he would send for the offending judge, and ask him why he had delivered it, taking great pains to ascertain whether this was done out of greed or partiality, or out of simple ignorance. Probably a judge who was convicted of the former would be suspended or superseded. But more often the perplexed Thane or Ealderman, when hard pressed, would stammer out the candid confession, “An’ it please you, my lord king, I did not know any better.” Asset has preserved us a specimen of the reproof that would follow, which he calls “discreet and moderate.” “I wonder truly at your insolence that, whereas, by God’s favour and mine, you have occupied the rank and office of the Wise, you have neglected the studies and labours of the Wise. Either, therefore, at once resign your office or endeavour more zealously to study the lessons of wisdom. Such are my commands.” He adds that the judges, almost without exception, chose to learn their duties properly rather than to resign them. (J. Alcock.)

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Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "2 Samuel 23:3". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/2-samuel-23.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

The God of Israel said,.... To David, or by him; he who was the covenant God of Israel literally considered, and is the covenant God and Father of the whole spiritual Israel, and who is owned, believed in, and worshipped by them:

the Rock of Israel spake to me; the same with the God of Israel in other words, who is the strength and security of Israel; or the second divine Person, the Son and Word of God, is meant, who is often called a rock in Scripture; and is the rock on which the Israel or church of God is built, and in whom it remains safe and firm, the gates of hell not being able to prevail against it; and so here is an instance and proof of a trinity of persons in the Godhead; the God of Israel, Jehovah the Father; the Rock of Israel, Jehovah the Son; and the Spirit of Jehovah, as in 2 Samuel 23:2, who is Jehovah the Spirit: now what was said by these three divine Persons to David, and by him, and concerning himself as a type of the Messiah, follows:

he that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God; which is a character every king among men ought to have, administering justice to their subjects; ruling not only according to the laws of the land, but according to the law of God; having his fear before their eyes, and acting with a view to his honour and glory, whose vicegerents they are, and to whom they are accountable; they should rule with gentleness and humanity, considering they are men, and not brutes, they rule over. Agamemnon in Homer is often called "king of men". This character, in all respects, was found in David, 2 Samuel 8:15; and may be here given as an instruction to his son and successor, Solomon; and is in all respects applicable to the Messiah, who is a "ruler" or King by the designation of his father; a ruler "over men", even over all men, yea, over the greatest of men, King of kings, and Lord of lords, and especially, and in an eminent sense, King of saints; and he is "just", a King that reigns in righteousness, righteous in all his ways and works, and particularly just as a King, as well as in all his other characters, see Jeremiah 23:5; and upon whom, as man and Mediator, the Spirit of "the fear of the Lord" rests, and under the influence of which, as such, he has acted, Isaiah 11:1; so the Targum applies these words to the Messiah thus,"the true Judge said, he would appoint to me a King, who is the Messiah, who shall arise and rule in the fear of the Lord:'and they may be rendered, there shall be "a ruler over men, just, ruling in the fear of God"; or ruling, appointing, ordering, and directing the worship of God, and the ordinances of it under the Gospel dispensation, as Christ did, see Matthew 28:18.

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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-23.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

the Rock of Israel — This metaphor, which is commonly applied by the sacred writers to the Almighty, was very expressive to the minds of the Hebrew people. Their national fortresses, in which they sought security in war, were built on high and inaccessible rocks.

spake to me — either preceptively, giving the following counsels respecting the character of an upright ruler in Israel, or prophetically, concerning David and his royal dynasty, and the great Messiah, of whom many think this is a prophecy, rendering the words, “he that ruleth” - “there shall be a ruler over men.”

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-samuel-23.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.

Rock — He who is the strength, and defence, and protector of his people; which he manifests by directing kings and rulers so to manage their power as may most conduce to their comfort and benefit.

Ruleth — Here are the two principal parts of a king's duty, answerable to the two tables of God's law, justice towards men, and piety towards God, both which he is to maintain and promote among his people.

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Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-samuel-23.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

fear

(See Scofield "Psalms 19:9").

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These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.
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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on 2 Samuel 23:3". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/2-samuel-23.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 23:3 The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men [must be] just, ruling in the fear of God.

Ver. 3. The God of Israel.] God the Father.

The Rock of Israel.] God the Son, who is one with the Father and the Holy Spirit: and is said to have spoken to David by the Holy Spirit.

He that ruleth over men must be just.] This, God told David: and this, dying David telleth his son and successor Solomon; whom he would have to know, that regimen without righteousness is but robbery with authority, and soon turneth into tyranny. An unjust judge is a very thief, saith Columella, (a) as an unskilful physician is a manslayer.

Ruling in the fear of God.] Royalty without religion is but eminent dishonour. This, Jethro knew; and therefore preseribeth that princes and rulers should be men of courage, fearing God, [Exodus 18:21] when he cast Moses a mould for a polity in Israel, &c. [Psalms 2:10-11 2 Chronicles 19:7]

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-23.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Samuel 23:3. He that ruleth over men must be just We prefer Dr. Grey's translation of this verse, which appears most agreeable to the whole tenor of the prophesy. He observes, that this is the first time that we meet with the Messiah, or great expected Deliverer of the Jews, under this title of the Just One. He is so called, not so much for having fulfilled all righteousness in his own person, and performed an unsinning obedience to the will of God, as because by his righteousness we are justified or accounted righteous before God upon the terms of the Gospel. The prophet Isaiah, Isaiah 53:11 is more explicit upon this point: By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities; i.e. the punishment of them: and Zechariah 9:9. He is just, and bringing or causing [not, as in the English translation, having] salvation, as all the ancient versions agree. Hence it was, that, as the time of his appearance drew nearer, we find the Messiah was frequently spoken of, and expected by the Jews, under that name; (see Acts 3:14; Acts 7:52; Acts 22:14. 1 Peter 3:18.) insomuch that even the Centurion is by some supposed to have applied to him upon the cross; Luke 23:47. Certainly this man was [not a righteous man, but] the Just One, or expected Messiah. The construction of the latter part of this verse in the original is remarkable. It is not in the fear of God, which would rather have expressed the religious character of the ruler, than the spiritual nature of his kingdom; but ruling the fear of God; that is, his rule and dominion should be such as was founded in the fear of God, by turning the hearts of the disobedient to the wisdom of the just.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-samuel-23.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The Rock of Israel; he who is the strength, and defence, and protector of his people; which he here manifests by obliging and directing kings and rulers so to manage their power and authority. as may most conduce to their comfort and benefit.

Spake to me, by way of command; or, of me, by way of prediction and promise concerning me and my house, and the Messias who is to come out of my loins.

He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God: thus it is a precept or declaration of the duty of kings, and particularly of Solomon his son, (to whom as a dying man he gives this advice,) and of his successors the kings of God’s Israel, for whose instruction he gives this rule. And so here are the two principal parts of a king’s duty, answerable to the two tables of God’s law, justice towards men, and piety towards God, both which he is to maintain and promote among his people; to which if you add benignity and clemency, whereby a king renders his government not frightful and burdensome, but acceptable and amiable to his people, which possibly may be meant by the following similitudes, here is a complete character of an excellent prince or governor. Others make it a prophecy of Christ; and then the words are or may be thus rendered, There shall be a Ruler over men, (or rather, among men, as the Hebrew word properly signifies, to wit, the Messias, who, though he be the eternal and invisible God, yet shall visibly appear and rule among men,) a just or righteous one, (a title oft given to Christ, as Isaiah 53:11 Jeremiah 23:5,6 33:15 Zechariah 9:9)

ruling in the fear of the Lord, making it his great business to advance the service, and worship, and glory of the Lord; or, as it is in the Hebrew, ruling the fear of the Lord, i.e. governing and ordering the worship of God, which is oft called the fear of God. And so this clause is added to prevent or remove scandals and offences which might be taken at the Messias when he should come, because of his changing and abrogating the ceremonial law; and to insinuate that he should have no less power in the governing of God’s house and worship than Moses had, and that he might make such laws as he thought meet. And if this be the meaning of the place, then as Jacob, being greatly afflicted with the troubles which he by the Spirit of prophecy foresaw were coming upon his posterity, comforts himself with the thoughts of that great and glorious salvation of God, which he also foresaw and waited for, Genesis 49:18; so David, reflecting upon the great disorders, and miscarriages, and calamities which had already arisen in his house, and either wisely presaging or foreseeing by the Spirit of the Lord, 2 Samuel 23:2, that the same sins and miseries should be fall his posterity and successors, he supports and comforts himself with this consideration, that one of them should be a most excellent person, just, and pious, and merciful, and an unspeakable blessing to David himself, and to all his family and people, and to the whole world, even the great Messias, who was undoubtedly revealed to and expected by David, as appears by many passages of the Psalms, and by other scriptures.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-23.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

3.Rock of Israel — So called because he was their firm foundation, their sure protection and defence. See Deuteronomy 32:4.

He that ruleth — The exact grammatical construction of the word thus translated (מושׁל it is impossible to decide, for it seems to be left designedly uncertain. The psalmist, by a few master strokes, draws the picture of a righteous, God-fearing ruler, and the blessings of his reign, but he does not say that he himself was that ruler, nor does he say decidedly at all who he was, or when he should appear; but the reference in 2 Samuel 23:5 to the everlasting covenant which God had made with his house makes it very evident that his eye was upon that promised “Seed” of Nathan’s prophecy, of whom Jehovah said: “I will be his father and he shall be my son.” Chap. 2 Samuel 7:14.

Righteous — An epithet describing the character and administration of him that ruleth. The inspired singer portrays that coming Ruler by the disconnected exclamatory utterances of an emotional style. The meaning is, however, clear. Under the righteous rule of the person here described, no worthy subject shall go unrewarded, no offender escape the strictest penalties of law. The prominent virtue of the model ruler and magistrate is righteousness.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-23.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Strong one. This is one of the most common titles of God, 1 Kings ii. 2. Hebrew, "the rock." --- In the fear. Hebrew, "of the fear;" that is, of the just, who live in the fear of God. Such abstract expressions are frequent; so "the son of the captivity, of riches," &c., mean a captive or a rich man. (Calmet) --- God spoke such words to David as tended to promote solid virtue and piety. (Haydock) --- We may explain the ruler, &c., of the Messias, who shall diffuse grace and glory throughout the earth. Protestants, "He that ruleth over men, must be just, ruling in the fear of God." An excellent lesson for all in power. (Haydock)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-samuel-23.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Israel. The higher title (not Jacob), because human instrumentality not in question here.

said. Here Hebrew. "amar, referring to the matter of the Divine revelation. See App-73.

spake. See note on "spike", 2 Samuel 23:2.

men. Hebrew. "adam, App-14.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-23.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.

The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me. The epithet, "the Rock," applied to God, expresses His immutability and inviolable faithfulness (see the notes at 2 Samuel 22:3; 2 Samuel 22:32; 2 Samuel 22:47; Deuteronomy 32:4). A revelation made by the God of Israel, who is so unchangeable and true to His covenant promises, must have some reference either to the interests of Israel as a nation, or to their subserviency, in the economy of Providence, to the future well-being of the world at large. "Spake to me," may be rendered, 'promised to me.' [In this sense diber (Hebrew #1696) is used, Deuteronomy 6:3; Deuteronomy 19:8, etc.]

He that ruleth ... must be just, [ mowsheel (Hebrew #4910), participle; a ruler, a prince] - applied to the Messiah (Micah 5:1).

Over men, [ baa'aadaam (Hebrew #120)] - over mankind, the human race (2 Sam. ). The passage, according to the sense thus given to the words, will stand thus:

`The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel promised to me A Ruler, just (righteous), a ruler-fear of God (i:e., ruling in the fear of God).'

This was to be the character of the Uuniversal Ruler (Isaiah 53:11; also 2 Samuel 11:2-3). The foundation of His government was to be righteousness, founded on principles of pure and undefiled religion (cf. Isaiah 9:6-7; Micah 5:2).

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-23.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(3) The Rock of Israel.—Comp. 2 Samuel 22:3. A frequent Scriptural comparison, appropriate here, to show the perfect reliability of what God declares.

He that ruleth.—The English gives the true sense, but the original is exceedingly elliptical, both here and in the following verse. The fundamental point of all just government has never been more perfectly set forth:—that it must be “in the fear of God.”

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-23.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.
God
Genesis 33:20; Exodus 3:15; 19:5,6; 20:2
the Rock
22:2,32; Deuteronomy 32:4,30,31; Psalms 42:9
He that ruleth
or, Be thou ruler, etc.
Psalms 110:2
must be just
Exodus 23:6-8; Deuteronomy 16:18-20; Psalms 82:3,4; Proverbs 31:9; Isaiah 11:4,5; 32:1; Jeremiah 23:5; Zechariah 9:9; Hebrews 1:8
ruling
Exodus 18:21; 2 Chronicles 19:7-9; Nehemiah 5:14
Reciprocal: Genesis 44:17 - God forbid;  Deuteronomy 1:16 - Hear;  Deuteronomy 25:1 - General1 Samuel 15:1 - hearken;  2 Samuel 8:15 - David executed;  1 Kings 10:9 - to do;  2 Chronicles 9:8 - to do judgment;  2 Chronicles 19:9 - in the fear;  Nehemiah 7:2 - feared God;  Job 34:17 - even;  Psalm 58:1 - Do;  Psalm 69:6 - O God of Israel;  Psalm 75:2 - When;  Psalm 99:4 - strength;  Proverbs 16:10 - A divine sentence;  Proverbs 17:7 - much;  Song of Solomon 2:10 - spake;  Isaiah 16:5 - judging;  Jeremiah 22:3 - Execute;  Jeremiah 33:15 - and he;  Luke 6:48 - rock;  Acts 24:25 - righteousness;  Philippians 4:8 - are just;  Hebrews 7:2 - King of righteousness

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:3". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-23.html.