Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 23:4

Is as the light of the morning when the sun rises, A morning without clouds, When the tender grass springs out of the earth, Through sunshine after rain.'
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - David;   Jesus, the Christ;   Psalms;   Rulers;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Clouds;   Day;   Grass;   Light;   Morning;   Rain;   Sun, the;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - David;   Justice;   King;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - King, Kingship;   Psalms, Theology of;   Samuel, First and Second, Theology of;   Easton Bible Dictionary - David;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Rain;   Samuel, the Books of;   Shammah;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Poetry;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ethics;   Giant;   Ithrite, the;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Light;   Living (2);   Pre-Eminence ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Morning;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Samuel first and second books of;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Da'vid;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Rain;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Christ, Offices of;   Clear;   Cloud;   David;   Grass;   Mowing;   Prophecy;   Psalms, Book of;   Samuel, Books of;   Tender;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Poetry;   Sun;  
Devotionals:
Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for September 16;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

He shall be as the light of the morning - This verse is very obscure, for it does not appear from it who the person is of whom the prophet speaks. As the Messiah seems to be the whole subject of these last words of David, he is probably the person intended. One of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. Supplies the word יהוה Yehovah ; and he therefore translates, As the light of the morning ariseth Jehovah (see below) He shall be the Sun of righteousness, bringing salvation in his rays, and shining - illuminating the children of men, with increasing splendor, as long as the sun and moon endure.

As the tender grass - The effects of this shining, and of the rays of his grace, shall be like the shining of the sun upon the young grass or corn, after a plentiful shower of rain.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-samuel-23.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Comparisons illustrating the prosperity of the righteous king.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-samuel-23.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

2 Samuel 23:4

He shall be as the light of the morning when the sun riseth.

King David’s vision of Christ

It is generally allowed that, the Authorised Version is not very happy here, and that the true idea of the passage is got by reading it as a vision--a bright vision of a glorious Ruler, as it rose before the entranced sight of the psalmist. The form of this Ruler is projected before him; He is one who is “righteous,” and who “rules in the fear of God.” A Divine radiance goes from Him, diffusing a silvery brightness on every side. “As the light of the morning!” exclaims the psalmist, recalling the welcome sight of the purple dawn after a dark and stormy night. By-and-by “the sun ariseth,” rejoicing like a strong man to run a race. It is “a morning without clouds”; there is nothing to obstruct the influence of the orb of day as he scatters his treasures from his golden chariot. See how his beams fall on “the tender grass,” making it sparkle with diamonds and pearls! This was King David’s last vision--the vision of a ruler appearing on earth, worthy of these glorious emblems. Who can this Ruler be? Not Solomon, not Jehoshaphat, not Hezekiah: for though these and other kings were noble rulers, they did not come up to the high eulogy of David; neither were they “rulers over men” as such, but only over a small section of them--David’s own kingdom, if even the whole of that. The Ruler of the vision has a wider dominion, and belongs to a nobler order. There are few things that strike the imagination more, or that dwell more vividly in the memory than a beautiful sunrise in an Alpine country. The Alpine horn wakens you in the early morning, and, flushed with the expectation of a rare enjoyment, you hasten to the spot where the view is to be seen. Your patience is somewhat taxed as the minutes slowly pass, and no sun appears. But as you look, the flush of dawn begins to brighten the sky, and now, just over the dark mountain range in the east, you see a speck of ruby peering, brighter than any gem. Quickly broadens into a slender bow, then to a golden semicircle, and in a few more seconds the round globe itself stands above the horizon. And what a glory it spreads over mountain and valley, over lake and river! What a transformation of the dull dark globe, now bright with a hundred hues and sparkling with a thousand smiles! Not only are your eyes feasted, but your soul is thrilled with a holy emotion; your mind carries you to a brighter transformation, to the thought of the new heaven and the new earth, and of the great Resurrection morn, when they that dwell in dust shall awake and sing, and the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads! In the imagery of the vision our Lord is compared to light; and it is interesting to note the successive touches by which the image grows in brilliancy. First, He is as “the light”--the most cheering and reviving, the most beautiful and beautifying of earthly things. Then He is as the light of “the morning,” for morning light is more cheerful and reviving than any other. Then the great fountain of light, the sun, comes into view, suggesting inexhaustible fulness. And lastly, it is a morning “without clouds,” there is nothing to obscure or interrupt the light in its passage to earth; it falls on the face of Nature in an unbroken flood, giving radiance and beauty to every object; and “there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.”

1. It is indeed a gloomy experience when one first feels what it is to be a sinner, and first knows oneself to be a sinner--a great sinner--in the Sight of God. What the Holy Spirit brings home to one may not be dark flagrant acts of sin, but the fact of one’s rebellious will--one’s systematic disregard of the holy will of God. Young Bruce of Kinnaird, three hundred years ago, declared that he would rather wade through a stream of boiling lead half a mile long than endure what befell him one night in the house of Airth, when the Holy Spirit was convincing him of sin. But when one apprehends the true meaning of the Baptist’s call--“Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world”--is it not as if one passed into the light of the morning?

2. There is another gloomy experience to which many are subject after they have entered on the Christian life--the sense of indwelling sin, of the perpetual activity of evil desires, giving birth to a sad contrast between their souls and those saintly, angelic, Christ-like, beings whom they have sometimes met with, or about whom they have read. “Oh, wretched men that we are!” they sometimes cry, “who shall deliver us?” St. Paul was far in the depths when he uttered that groan. But hardly was it uttered when the light of the morning burst on him--“I thank God, through Jesus Christ.” He saw in Jesus Christ, over and above His atoning merit, a sanctifying grace capable of renewing him wholly, and he thanked God.

3. A third gloomy experience of Christians is that which often arises from the trials and troubles of life. There are St. Sebastians in this world whom God seems to make a target for all His arrows: all His waves and billows seem to pass over them. There is a tradition that once a great painter, seeing a rough block of white marble, said, “I see an angel imprisoned in that stone; but I will set him free.” It was his way of saying that out of the rough block he would carve the form of an angel. But what an infinite amount of labour, what innumerable strokes of the hammer and touches of the chisel, were needed to fulfil the task! Certainly the task of turning the human soul into a pure unsullied spirit is not an easier one. We may be helped here by another emblem of the text--“Clear shining after rain.” Heavy rain, pelting fiercely during the night, batters the tender grass, seems rude, and reckless, arid destructive; but the morning sun not only makes the grass bright, but helps it to rise and helps it to grow; and in a little while the grass is stronger and richer than ever. I knew an eminent Christian, in a prominent position, who said that on looking back on his life he saw that the times of sorest trial--of trials that seemed as if they would crush him utterly were the very times when he got most spiritual good; it was out of such weakness that he was made strong.

4. We note one other gloomy experience against which Jesus is emphatically as the light of the morning--that which is bred under the shadow of death. This is probably due to that feebler faith in the unseen and eternal, in heaven and hell, in rewards and punishments, which marks the present age. But for oneself, and for all who die in the Lord, how welcome is the vision of Him who is as the light of the morning! Jesus has Himself died. O Light of the morning! how welcome is Thy rising to all who have eyes to see! Arise and shine on all the dark places of the earth. Again and again let these words be verified: “The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light!” (The Quiver.)

David’s last and best song concerning Christ

This was a prediction of the advent of Christ uttered by David as his last words: not, probably, the last words that he ever spoke, but the last recorded of his public and inspired utterances.

I. He comes from without. The hope of the world, according to the teaching of the Scriptures, is not in itself. Just as this morning the earth’s face is beautified not by any brilliancy of its own, but by the light that streams from the open heavens, and is reflected by the grateful earth, so when Christ should come He would come to a dark world m the effulgency of the Father’s glory, and the brightness of heaven’s own light.

II. Like the morning without, clouds, the revelation which He will give, and the light and joy which He will shed shall be perfect. There shall be nothing imperfect in His personality or in His teaching or works. The revelation of God in Jesus Christ shall be as the light of the morning when the sun ariseth, a morning without clouds.

III. Christ’s advent would be like the day-dawn because of the certainty of his coming. What, more certain than the morning? You have your dark nights, but then there is the counterbalancing assurance that morning cometh. Yes, the light always succeeds darkness, and day succeeds night. This is the Divine order of things. “God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night, and the evening and the morning were the first day.” All God’s evenings burst into mornings. God began with darkness and finished with light, that is the idea here. The evening of the world has been dark, tedious, and depressing, but “He shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth.”

IV. The fulness of His glory and blessing connected with His advent. He would come to all men alike.

V. Christ would come with the gentleness of the morning. Oh, the gentleness with which the light comes to us! Have you thought of it? There is nothing so gentle. You know that the speed at which light travels is twelve millions of miles per minute. An engine that comes at seventy miles an hour comes dashing through everything in its way; but the light that comes at the rate of 200,000 miles per second has not knocked any of us down yet, nay, not even an insect in its feeble flight. It comes direct from the sun, through space, at the rate of 200,000 miles per second, and yet this sensitive eye of ours, which is hurt if you but touch it with even a feather, and is injured even if a breeze comes at the rate of sixty or seventy miles an hour, and still more if water were splashed against it with any force, receives that ray without the consciousness of being touched at all. Anything else but the light, coming at this fearful velocity, would kill us, yet the eye takes in the light and is thankful for it. The most sensitive nerve is only gratified. Christ’s advent is compared to this coming of that light. Such is the gentle grace of Christ. He comes to enlighten the world--comes with the great impetus of almighty love that began in eternity--and yet a love that falls as gentle as the day of light upon an infant’s eyes.

VI. His coming shall be all the more glorious because of the darkness and sorrow which have preceded it: “When the tender grass springeth out of the earth through clear shining after rain.” It would not be so glorious if the darkness had not preceded it, and the rain had not come. If you would see things clearly, go out in the morning. Just when the sun rises, everything appears at its best. During the day you have the moist land sending up heated vapours, and the denser airs mix up with the rarer atmosphere, so that you see nothing clearly. But the morning light is pure and undisturbed, and it is never so pure as when showers of rain have immediately preceded the dawn. Then it seems as if the rain had cleansed the atmosphere. A shower does wonders in purifying air. That is the figure in our text. Just as when a shower has been cleansing the nit of its impurity, and then the pure light of dawn reveals the landscape, there is nothing so glorious in nature; so in thy spiritual realm there is nothing so charming as the revelation of Christ to the heart after its long night of darkness and grief. Oh, if He but dawned upon the darkness of many of you to-day, you would thank God for all the sorrows which have prepared the way for His more clear shining into your heart and life. (D. Davies.)

Christ’s coming as the light of the morning

These are some of the last` words of David; not the very last which he uttered while on earth, but of those, we may conceive, which he spake when he knew that he was about to close his course below, and which he would leave as his dying testimony to the truth which had been the matter of his faith, and which was still the ground of his hope. These words, as we read them, might be regarded as those which David now recalled as having been spoken to him on his elevation to the throne, conveying a lesson concerning the duties of a sovereign, which he had on the whole endeavoured to fulfil. But a greater than David is here; and the words may be more properly’ regarded as a prophecy, announcing the reign of that descendant of David in whom his throne was to be built up for ever. You see, that to what is here said, considered as a prediction of the Messiah and his times, the voices of the other prophets agree. But I would direct your attention to what may be suggested concerning him, and the effects of his mission and work, by the beautiful imagery here employed.

I. He Is Most Glorious In Himself. Light, you will acknowledge, is the most beautiful of all material things: Nature’s resplendent robe, without whose vesting radiance all were wrapt in unrelieved gloom. Its name is associated with all that we know of what is fair and pleasant for the eyes to behold. But when we turn from its lesser sources, from the lamps which man kindles, or even from the moon and the stars which shine by night, to the light of the morning, to the sun when he riseth on a morning without clouds, what an object of splendour is before us! But who is He of whom it is said that “He shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth?” He is one of whom this sun is only a faint image. But in the application of the figure which likens the Messiah to the morning sun, we are to notice not merely the superior excellence of the things represented to those by which they are held up to view, but the truth that they are found in him in similar purity and fulness and perfection to that in which their emblems appear in the natural sun. Wisdom, holiness, benignity, equity, and truth and mercy, are not only more excellent in themselves, more worthy to be admired, more suited in their manifestations to awaken a sense of beauty and grandeur in the mind of the beholder than the most brilliant appearances of the light which is taken in by the bodily eye; but as in him, and shown forth by him of whom we speak, they have a plenitude and an exuberance which place him, we may say, infinitely farther above all created excellence than the sun is above the dim lamps that men kindle by night,. He “is the brightness of the Father’s glory, the express image of His person.” He is the light of the heavenly world. The seraphim that worship there veil their faces with their wings before him. He is the Sun of spirits, and His beams of all-informing thought irradiate every created intellect. He is “the true Light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.” Raise your eyes, O believer, to this Sun of Righteousness. He dwelleth indeed in light to which no man can approach.

II. He came to show to a benighted world the way of truth and peace. The sun is the great fountain of light to the natural world. His absence makes night. Though there be lesser lights to relieve the darkness, even these derive from him their borrowed lustre. The evening’s twilight and the morning’s dawn give us his faint diffused beams, and the moon and the planets shine with his reflected glories. But what would our earth be if he was utterly darkened in the heavens? In the coming of the Messiah, in that revelation of truth and mercy, of which He is the giver and great subject,, the dayspring from on high hath visited us. “I am come,” said Jesus, “a light unto the world, that whosoever believeth in me should not abide in darkness.” How glorious are the discoveries which He makes to mankind, who were sunk under debasing superstition; who, in the depths of their ignorance of the true God, offered the homage due to him to dumb idols, the work of their own hands, nay, to the personified ideas of hate and lust.

III. He comes to put forth on a depraved world a renovating influence. The sun in the natural world not only sheds light, “there is nothing hidden from his heat.” He warms and by his genial influence renews the face of the earth. We have spoken of Him as revealing the way of truth and peace, this He does not only in His external word; it is He who opens the eyes of the understanding to discern it, and inclines the heart to walk in it; to return to God in the faith of offered mercy, in penitence, grief for past wanderings, and new-born love and devotedness to his service. A willing people come to him in the day of his power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning he has the dew of his youth; under His quickening influence the spiritual life and beauty which sin had blasted revive and flourish. He purges out the gross and debasing elements of corruption, implants and cherishes the principles and affections which adorn and bless the soul, and makes it fair and bright in his own reflected image. Arid it is when he comes in the might of his renewing Spirit that a voice is heard, saying to the souls which He visits, “Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee.”

1. We may observe that when he came in the flesh, He appeared in the character and for the ends here assigned. It was to this coming that the Psalmist looked forward when he said, “There shall be a ruler over men,” etc. The Saviour promised long was born. He appears by the blood of whose cross peace has been made, and by whom it hath pleased the Father to reconcile all things to himself.

2. We may observe that He comes in tiffs character, and for the ends we have spoken of, in the dispensation of His gospel, and when it is made effectual, to give “light to them that sit, in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide their feet into the way of peace.” The invitations of mercy are from him, and tell of him; and when it enters a nation or a city, when it is preached to the poor and the guilty among men, there he is evidently set forth, and the light of His salvation diffused.

3. And the time is approaching when He shall thus come in all the world A great part of it yet lieth in wickedness. Monstrous forms of idolatry prevail in many places of the earth, and in others a false prophet has deceived the nations, or Antichristian superstitions perverted the gospel of Jesus. Even where the light shines most clearly multitudes shut their eyes on it, and show that they love the darkness better than the light. But we have a sure promise that thus it shall not always be. The everlasting gospel shall be preached to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people. “The glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.”

4. He is to come in the end of the world, when He shall be to them that look for Him “as the light of the morning when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.” (J. Henderson, D. D.)

Royal emblems for loyal subjects

Eastern despots fleece their subjects to an enormous extent. Even at the present day one would hardly wish to be subjected to the demands of an Oriental government; but in David’s time a bad king was a continual pestilence, plague, and famine--a bane to the lives of his subjects, who were under his caprice; and spoliation to their fields, which he perpetually swept, clean to enrich himself with the produce thereof. Hence, a good king was a rara avis in those days, and could never be too highly prized. So soon as he mounted the throne, his subjects began to feel the beneficent influence, of his sway. He was to them “as when the sun riseth.” The confusion which had existed under weak governors gave place to settled order, while the rapacity which had continually emptied the coffers of the rich, and filched the earnings of the poor, gave place to a regular system of assessment, and men knew how to go about, their business with some degree of certainty. It was to them “a morning without clouds” Forthwith, trade began to flourish; persons who had emigrated to avoid the exactions of the tyrant came back again; fields which had fallen out of tillage, because they would not pay the farmer to cultivate them, began to be sown; and the new ruler was to the land as “clear shining after rain, which makes the tender grass spring up.”

1. David says of Christ, “He shall be as the light of the morning when the sun riseth.” This he is as king, already, in His church, and as the rightful monarch in the individual heart of the believer. Wherever Christ comes into a soul, it, is as the light of the morning when the sun riseth. And, how glorious is the; sun when from his pavilion he looks forth at morn! Job describes the sunrise as being the stamping of the earth with a seal; as if, when in darkness, the earth were like a lump of clay that is pervious; then, as it is turned to the light, it beginneth to receive the impress of Divine wisdom; mountain and vale all stream with it, till impressed on its, surface we begin to perceive the glorious works of God. So when Christ riseth upon the heart, what a glorious transformation is wrought! Where there has been no love, no faith, no peace, no joy, none of the blessed fruits of the Spirit, no sooner doth Christ come than we perceive all the graces in blossom; yea, they soon become fragrant and blooming, for we are made complete in Him. The advent of Christ bringeth to the heart celestial beauty; faith in Him decketh us with ornaments and clothes us as with royal apparel. The sunrise, moreover, is very much like the coming of Christ, because of that which it involveth. Those rays of light which first forced the darkness from the sky with golden prophecy of day, tell of flowers that shall open their cups to drink in the sunlight; they tell of streams that shall sparkle as they flow; they tell of the virgins that shall make merry, and the young men that shall rejoice, because the sun shineth on them, and the darkness of night is fled. And so the coming of Christ into the heart is a prophecy of years of sweet enjoyment--a prophecy, of God’s goodness and long-suffering, let night reign, elsewhere, as it may--yea, and it is a prophecy of the fulness of the river of God, for ever and ever, before the throne of God in heaven.

2. We must proceed to notice that the psalmist uses another figure: “Even as a morning without clouds.” There are no clouds in Christ when He ariseth in a sinner’s heart. The clouds that mostly cover our sky come from Sinai, from the law, and from our own legal propensities, for we are always wishing to do something by which we may inherit eternal life; but there are none of these clouds in Christ.

4. But, now, to the last figure. David says of Christ, the king, that his sway is like “clear shining after rain, whereby the tender grass is made to spring out of the tartly.” We have often seen how, after a very heavy shower of rain, and sometimes after a continued rainy season, when the sun shines, there is a delightful clearness and freshness in the air that we seldom perceive at other times. Perhaps, the brightest weather is just when the wind has drifted away the clouds, and the rain has ceased, and the sun peers forth from his chambers to look down upon the glad earth. Welt, now, Christ, is to His people lust like that--exceedingly clear-staining when the rain is over.

The character of Christ’s government

These words are generally understood to describe duties of civil governments and the happiness of a people righteously ruled. But they have doubtless a further reference even to Christ Himself. They designate His character most appropriately. The energetic manner in which the prophecy is introduced, and the strong profusion which the dying king makes of his immediate inspiration, leave no doubt that something more is conveyed than a mere direction to magistrates.

I. The nature of the saviour’s government. In the sacred writings peculiar stress is laid on the equity of that dominion which the Saviour exercises over His people (Isaiah 9:7). And who that has submitted to His government will not confirm the truth?

1. Behold His laws. Is there one which does not kind to the happiness of His subjects? They are all comprehended in one--love to God and man. And can anything be conceived more excellent in itself and more beneficial to man? Well does the apostle say of it that it is holy, just, and good.

2. Behold His administration. Is there any one point in which a righteous governor can excel, that is not found in its most perfect measure in Him? He relieves the needy, succours the weak, protects the oppressed, and executes judgment without respect of persons.

II. The benefits it confers.

1. Illumination and joy. The sun rising on the unclouded hemisphere cheers and gladdens all who behold it. And when it shines on the earth that has been refreshed, with gentle showers it causes the grass to grow almost visibly. And is it not thus with all who submit to Christ?

2. Abundant fruitfulness. What an astonishing effect, too, does the light of his countenance produce in respect to fruitfulness in good works. Let the soul watered with tears of penitence, or softened by contrition, once feel the influence of His genial rays, and there is a change in the whole deportment.

Inferences:

1. How earnestly should we desire the universal establishment of Christ’s kingdom. Little do men consider the import of the petition, “Thy kingdom come.” In uttering it we desire that our whole souls, and the souls of all mankind, may be subjected to Christ.

2. What madness is it to continue in rebellion to Christ. It is not at our option whether Christ be our ruler or not. For God has set Him king on the holy hill of Zion. In due season He will “put all His enemies under His feet.” (Evangelical Preacher.)

The character of the Messiah’s rule genial and beneficent

This psalm describes the empire of the King of kings, and our text exhibits the gracious and genial character of His dominion. Some men say that Christianity is not genial, that the Christian scheme exhibits God in a most unlovely aspect, that the doctrines of Christ are dark with awful mysteries, that the promises of the Christian dispensation offer but little of present benefit, and therefore of certain and tangible advantage, that its precepts demand conduct which is too high and self-sacrificing, that its ordinances are depressing rather than elevating, and that, as a whole, Christianity promotes a narrow mind and a feeble judgment, morbid and morose feelings, an enslaved will, a too sensitive conscience, an unmanly bearing, and a character which is intellectually low, and unsocial, and melancholy. Is this charge against the religion of Jesus Christ just, and can it be substantiated? We assert that it is most unjust, and cannot be maintained. (Samuel Martin.)

A morning without clouds.

A morning without clouds

David is at the head of this chapter a representation of all the people of God; he is raised up on high; do every one who is born of the Spirit is raised up by the atonement and righteousness of Christ Jesus; even as the poor out of the dust, and made to inherit that life, and light, and glory, which can be only by faith in Him in whom they are complete and accepted. David was the anointed of the God of Jacob: so are all who have the spirit of Christ. This anointing means consecration to God; and in, and by which, anointing, they know all things essential to salvation. Also David is called “the sweet Psalmist of Israel.” He was indeed the poet of the Hebrew nation. But all the people of God shall be sweet singers of Israel: God and salvation their theme; truly with them the bitterness of death is past, and they are passed from death unto life--a life of eternal delight. “The Rock of Israel spake to me, and showed me the way to prosper; he that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.” And unto none do these words apply as unto the Son of God: He was that Just One that died for the unjust, that He might bring us to God; He feared God in perfection, and did always those things that pleased Him. Can we say this of ourselves? We cannot, for there is not a just man upon the earth that doeth good and sinneth not: but He did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth; He is, therefore, as the light of the morning when the sun riseth, and as fresh as new grass springing out of the earth; by clear shining after rain, He is “a morning without clouds;” and is thus a pattern of what all the mystic morning stars shall be.

I. It was when Adam fell. A morning without clouds.

1. Sin came in as a cloud, a thick cloud, a tempestuous cloud, a gloomy cloud. And this cloud of darkness is universal--all are involved therein, all are encompassed thereby; no light from any quarter, but darkness every way. And we, by nature, love this darkness, and hereby prove ourselves to be under condemnation. We cannot endure the true light! But if God, who “commanded the light to shine out of darkness,” shine into our hearts, then we see and feel the desperate wickedness of our hearts, and become a terror to ourselves, and begin to be drawn by and to love the light of the bright and morning Star.

2. But not only is there the cloud of sin, but also the cloud of Sinai, where God is inaccessible. Here “clouds and tempests are round about him!”

3. But there is the cloud not only of sin, and of Sinai, but also of tribulation. The clouds of tribulation will more or less darken the path of every one whose face is truly set Zionward: “Many are the afflictions of the righteous.”

4. But there is also the cloud of death. It casts its shadow over everything; and this King of Terrors is, indeed, often a terror of kings. But to those who love the Gospel light, unto such the cloud of death will be but a passing shadow.

II. What the morning is without clouds. The morning without clouds is the morning of Christ’s resurrection. He dieth no more. “Death hath no more dominion over him.” And now let us carefully trace out how the Lord was unto David a morning without clouds. It was by a covenant. “He hath made with me a covenant.” This means a testamentary will.

1. But this covenant is an everlasting covenant. This made David say, “The mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting.”

2. But this covenant is ordered in all things and sure; there is nothing vague--nothing at random; as the ark, the tabernacle, and temple, were not made at random, so this covenant in all its arrangements, is such as shall meet, and establish, and make good all its provisions and designs. Jesus Christ is the executor of this will, “And the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in His hands.”

3. And this covenant is all our salvation; it is included in this covenant; here none are reckoned otherwise than sons, saints, and kings, and priests to God.

4. But not only is this covenant all salvation, but it answers all desires. No Christian desires anything more, yet nothing less can save, supply, and satisfy; while neither faith, nor hope, nor love, nor prayer, nor godly fear, nor good works are the rule of measurement here as to what our real standing in the covenant is, these graces of the Spirit distinguish the real Christian from others. (J. Wells.)

Rain clouds not devoid el beauty

Ruskin reminds us that we habitually think of the rain-cloud only as dark and grey, yet we owe to it, some of the fairest hues of heaven. “Often in our English mornings,” says he, “the rain-clouds in the dawn form soft level fields, which melt imperceptibly into the blue.” He describes them, too, as gathering into apparent bars that cross the sheets of broader clouds, all bathed in soft, unspeakable light, the barred masses, composed of tresses of cloud, “looking as if each knot were a little swathe or sheaf of lighted rain.”

As the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.--

Clear shining after rain

The beautiful picture that David draws is produced by a combination, first, rain, and then, clear shining after rain; and the most flourishing condition of spirituality is produced by the same two causes; it comes as the result of a combination of rain and sunshine.

I. How the “clear shining after rain” is manifested in the heart of the convert.

1. The work of grace begins in the heart with a time of gloom. Clouds gather; there is a general dampness round about; the soul seems saturated with doubt, fear, dread. There is something coming, but the soul knows not what; it feels that it is very sinful, and deserves whatever punishment God may send.

2. After the clouds, in the next place, the rain falls. The real work of the. Spirit of God often follows upon an inward depression of spirit. An Irish friend of mine once said, that he had carefully noticed that it did not rain when the sun was shining; but that, whenever it rained, there were always some clouds to keep the sunshine off. There is a great truth in what my friend said. Rain becomes doubly precious to the earth when all the surroundings are suitable for its reception. All the atmosphere becomes damp; whereas, if rain could fall when all is dry and warm, mischief might come of it. Well, now, God’s Holy Spirit loves to come and work ill man a congenial atmosphere, a holy tenderness, a devout heartbreaking; then with the clouds He brings a heavenly rain.

3. Then the sun shines: “Clear shining after rain.” The man perceives that he is a sinner, but that Christ has come to save him. He sees his own blackness; but he believes that Christ can make him whiter than the snow.

4. Then everything grows. The grass is sure to grow when we have mist and heat together; and When a soul, having felt its need of Christ, at last beholds the light of His countenance, then it begins to grow.

II. This “clear stoning after rain” often produces the very best condition of things in the soul of the believer.

1. Trial followed by deliverance.

2. This experience is realised in humiliation of self followed by joy in the Lord. It is a very healthy thing for a man to be made to know himself; and if he is made to know himself, he will have no cause for boasting.

3. Tenderness mixed with assurance. I like to meet with that man, whom Mr. Bunyan speaks of in his “Pilgrim’s Progress,” who was, above many, tender of sin. He was not afraid of lions; but he was dreadfully afraid of sins. Mr. Fearing is very tender of sin.

4. The blending of experience and knowledge.

III. Our text makes a very happy combination in the ministry of the word.

1. He who would have a fruitful ministry must have clear shining after the rain, by which I mean, first, law,, and then, Gospel.

2. First, repentance, and then zeal: rain, and then clear shining.

3. If your service is to be successful, bringing glory to God, there must be in it, first, prayer, and then blessing.

4. My text also means grace softening, and then shining.

IV. The clear shining after rain in the ages to come.

1. And, first, times of gloom are to be expected.

2. Although times of gloom are to be expected, an age of light will follow. There will come a day when Christ shall reign amongst His ancients gloriously; when the ungodly shall hide themselves in obscure places, and the meek shall have dominion in the earth, and the sons of God in that morning shall be owned as the noblest of men. There is to come yet “a thousand years” (whatever that period may mean) of a reign of righteousness, wherein the whole of the earth shall be filled with the glory of God, and become the vestibule of heaven. Have comfort about that glorious truth. (C. H. Spurgeon.)

God causeth the grass to spring forth

The grass springs up; the bud opens; the leaf expands; the flowers breathe forth their fragrance as if they were under the most careful cultivation. All this must be the work of God, since it cannot even be pretended that man is there to produce these effects. Perhaps one would be more deeply impressed with a sense of the presence of God in the pathless desert, or on the boundless prairie, where no man is, than in the most splendid park, or the most tastefully cultivated garden which man could make. In the one case, the hand of God alone is seen; in the other, we are constantly admiring the skill of man. (A. Barnes.)

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Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "2 Samuel 23:4". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/2-samuel-23.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds,.... That is, such a ruler that rules in righteousness, and in the fear of God; he is the light and glory of his people, who guides and directs them, makes them cheerful and comfortable; his administrations are pleasant and delightful, and promise a growing and increasing happiness to them, like the morning light and rising sun; and there are no clouds, nor forebodings of dark times, affliction and distress, coming upon them, but all the reverse: and with Christ these metaphors well suit, who is the true light that shines, John 1:9; the morning star, Revelation 22:16; the dayspring from on high, Luke 1:78; the sun of righteousness, Malachi 4:2; and light of the world, John 8:2; his going forth or appearance in human nature, at his incarnation, was as the morning, Hosea 6:3; the first discovery him to Adam, after sin had brought a night of darkness on the world, was as the dawn of the morning; and this light like that of the morning increased, fresh and clearer discoveries of him being made to the patriarchs afterwards; and though as yet the sun was not up, and it was not a morning without clouds, yet the discoveries then made brought joy with them, as to Abraham and others, and were a sure sign of the sun rising. When Christ appeared in the flesh, the sun of righteousness then arose, and scattered the darkness of the night, both in the Jewish and Gentile world; introduced the light of the Gospel to a greater degree than it was under the legal dispensation, and made the Gospel day; which was not only like the morning light, growing and increasing, but was as a morning without clouds, without the darkness of the ceremonial law, the shadows of which now disappeared; and without the storms and tempests of the moral law, its curses being bore and removed by Christ; and without the frowns of divine wrath, reconciliation and satisfaction being made by him: and this is all applicable particularly to the government of Christ, which is delightful and grateful to his people, serviceable and beneficial to them, under which they enjoy great peace and prosperity; and which will more and more increase, and stilt be more glorious and illustrious, see Psalm 72:7. A learned writerF9Dr. Kennicott's State of the Hebrew Text, Dissert. 1. p. 468. has observed, that in an ancient manuscript the word "Jehovah" is inserted and read thus,"and as the light of the morning shall arise Jehovah the sun,'which clearly points to Christ the sun of righteousness; and be it an interpolation, it gives the true sense of the words: a glorious, beautiful, and illustrious person is described in OvidF11"Talisque apparuitilli", &c. Metamorph. l. 14. Fab. 16. ver. 767. by the same figure as here:

as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain; which springs up the faster, and is more flourishing after a shower of rain, and when upon that the sun breaks out and shines clearly: or "from clear shining from rain"F12מנגה ממטר "a splendore, a pluvia germen de terra", Pagninus, Montanus, Vatablus. ; that is, the springing of the tender grass out of the earth is owing partly to the rain which falls in the night, and partly to the sun rising in the morning, and the clear shine of it: this may denote the fruitful and flourishing estate which a good and righteous ruler over men is the happy instrument of bringing his people into; and may be applied both to the incarnation of Christ, when he grew up as a tender plant, or as the tender grass, mean in his original and descent, weak in himself as man; and yet this fruit of the earth was excellent and comely, beautiful and glorious, and the springing of it owing to the favour and good will of God, and his coming was as the latter and former rain to the earth, Hosea 6:3; and to the government of Christ, and the benefits of it to his church and people; who flourish under it the light of his grace and favour, and through rains of Gospel doctrines they are blessed with: or "than clear shining, than rain"; Christ is more beneficial to his people, who are comparable to grass for their meanness, and weakness, and number, than the sun and rain are to the grass in the field.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-23.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And [he shall be] as the light of the morning, [when] the sun riseth, [even] a morning without clouds; [as] the tender c grass [springing] out of the earth by clear shining after rain.

(c) Which grows quickly, and fades soon.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-samuel-23.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain — Little patches of grass are seen rapidly springing up in Palestine after rain; and even where the ground has been long parched and bare, within a few days or hours after the enriching showers begin to fall, the face of the earth is so renewed that it is covered over with a pure fresh mantle of green.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-samuel-23.html. 1871-8.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

(4) And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.

Who can this be but JESUS? Of whom, among the sons of men, could it ever be said that he was as a morning without clouds? Neither angels, nor men; nor ordinances, nor graces, nor all the moons of the night, nor the suns of the day, ever shone as a morning without clouds. What a sweet similitude to represent him, and his all-perfect salvation, with whom there is no variableness, neither shadow of turning!

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/2-samuel-23.html. 1828.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.

Shall be — These words are a farther description of the king's duty, which is not only to rule with justice and piety, but also with sweetness, and gentleness, and condescension to the infirmities of his people; to render his government as acceptable to them, as is the sun-shine in a clear morning, or the tender grass which springs out of the earth by the warm beams of the sun after the rain.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-samuel-23.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 23:4 And [he shall be] as the light of the morning, [when] the sun riseth, [even] a morning without clouds; [as] the tender grass [springing] out of the earth by clear shining after rain.

Ver. 4. And he shall be as the light of the morning.] "Which shineth more and more unto the perfect day." [Proverbs 4:18] He shall prosper and proceed, do great exploits, as did Joshua and Josiah, [Jeremiah 22:15] Constantine, Gustavus, king of Sweden, &c. But all these things are chiefly to be understood concerning Christ, saith Vatablus. Lyra applieth the next words thus to Christ, "As the tender grass springeth out of the earth," &c. As the ground is barren and bringeth forth no fruit but by the rain falling upon it, so the blessed Virgin could not have brought forth a son, but by the Spirit of God making her fruitful. Peter Martyr also understandeth this and the next verse of the kingdom of Christ.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-23.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Samuel 23:4. And he shall be as the light, &c.— Bishop Sherlock suggested that interpretation of this verse which Dr. Grey has given: according to which, says the Bishop, taking the sun to be an image or character of the Just One, the sense will be, "This sun shall be like the kind gentle light of the morning free from clouds, and when the earth, refreshed by kind showers, is putting forth fresh verdure." The passage is beautiful, and gives an idea of a sun that never scorches, but is ever gentle, and shining with a genial heat; a sun with healing under his wings. Dr. Kennicott, in the first volume of his Dissertation, has confirmed this interpretation of the Bishop. He observes, that this song will certainly be determined to contain a prophesy of the Messiah, if a various reading in one of the oldest manuscripts, respecting the words above quoted, should appear to be genuine. It is said in our translation, that he shall be as the light of the morning when the sun riseth. Now is not the sun the light of the morning? Or is not the morning light the certain effect of the sun-rising? And can any thing be compared to itself, or the cause to its effect? The various reading which, if true, not only frees us from this difficulty, but proves this passage to be prophetical, stands thus: and as the light of the morning, Jehovah, the sun shall arise. This word Jehovah is regularly written in the oldest manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, as here expressed, and seems to have been omitted on account of the similitude between the adjoining words יזרח iizrach, shall arise, and יהוה iehovah, Jehovah in the original. It is impossible to read these words without recollecting the allusion to them in Malachi (iv. 2.) Shall the sun of righteousness arise, &c. which words in the original farther confirm the reading in the manuscript; for in Malachi we have the same verb, and the same noun as in this place. Here we read,—shall Jehovah the sun arise:—in Malachi—shall the sun of righteousness arise:—in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 23:6; Jeremiah 33:16.)—Jehovah, our righteousness:—in Isaiah 60:1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of JEHOVAH is risen upon thee. 2 Samuel 23:2. For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but יהוה יזרח iizrach iehovah, JEHOVAH SHALL ARISE upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee. 2 Samuel 23:3. And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising. I leave the inference to the reader. It should be observed, that the two principal characters of Christ's kingdom are represented to us in the fine image contained in this verse: the first, that light or knowledge, which, when the sun of righteousness should arise, was to fill the earth, and to dispel the clouds of ignorance under which the world had so long sat: the other, that reviving consolation, or peace of mind, which a deliverance from the dominion of sin and death would afford true believers under the Gospel dispensation: a state, which cannot be more fitly represented than by that of the tender grass, when, after rain, it is cherished and invigorated by the kind and genial influence of the sun.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-samuel-23.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

These words are either,

1. A further description of the king’s duty, which is not only to rule with exact justice and piety, but also with sweetness, and gentleness, and condescension to the infirmities of his people; to render his government as pleasant and acceptable to them as is the sunshine in a clear morning, or the tender grass which springs out of the earth by the warm and refreshing beams of the sun after the rain, which hath a peculiar kind of sweetness and fragrancy in it. Or rather,

2. A prediction or declaration of the sweet and blessed effects of such a government, both to the governor himself; in that peace, and prosperity, and glory, and happiness which it brings to him, and to his people; to whom it is no less grateful,, and comfortable, and beneficial, than those great and public blessings of sunshine and rain, and the fruits which they produce; which is true of every good king or governor, but most eminently of the Messias.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-23.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

4.As the light of morning — That is, the righteous ruler, on whom the vision of the psalmist rests, commences his reign as grandly and auspiciously as breaks the light of an oriental morning. Travellers describe an eastern sunrise as exquisitely beautiful and grand. After a night of storm the atmosphere becomes transparent as crystal, and the cloudless sky is of a peculiarly deep dark blue, which one never sees in a land of clouds and haze. The twilight is very short, but before the sun becomes visible his beams shed a rich glow over the whole eastern sky, making it gleam like burnished gold. Suddenly he emerges from behind the horizon and all nature starts into life and action, and hills and valleys ring with joy. The sparkling rivulet, the forest glades, and the happy birds, the tender grass of the pastures — and the frisking flocks and herds that follow the shepherd forth — all seem to exult and sing for joy, and the very trees of the field “clap their hands.”

From clear shining — The springing up of the tender grass is a result from the clear sunshine of such a morning. So the auspicious reign of “David’s greater Son” awakens new life in all the universe. And so, too, the clear, unsullied administration of every righteous ruler will be the source of innumerable blessings to his people and to the land he rules.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-23.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Samuel 23:4. He shall be as the light of the morning — These words are a further description of the king’s duty, which is not only to rule with justice and piety, but also with sweetness, and gentleness, and condescension to the infirmities of his people; to render his government as acceptable to them as is the sunshine in a clear morning, or the tender grass which springs out of the earth by the warm beams of the sun after the rain.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-samuel-23.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

As the light, &c. So shall be the kingdom of Christ. (Challoner) --- Hebrew, "Like the morning light, shall the sun arise." But is this sense? Is not the sun the light of the morning? The oldest Hebrew manuscript in England has the word Jehova before Sun, which seems to have acknowledged by the Septuagint, though now unintelligible; and thus we are freed from this difficulty, and the passage is proved to be prophetical of the great sun of justice, Malachias iv. 2., and Isaias lx. 2. (Kennicott, Dis. i., p. 471.) --- The Hebrew is extremely obscure. (Calmet) --- Protestants, And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springeth out of the earth by clear shining after rain. (Haydock) --- These comparisons may be applied to the Psalms and other inspired writings, which enlighten the eyes; (Psalm xviii. 9,) or to Christ, whose glory surpasses that of the sun, (Psalm lxxi. 5,) and whose graces produce the just, Isaias xlv. 8. (Menochius) --- We might expect that David was going to compare the glory of his reign and of his family, with that of the rising sun, Judges v. 31. But he does not finish the comparison, being filled with a sense of his own misery. (Calmet)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-samuel-23.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

And he shall be. Translate in present tense, describing such an ideal rule.

sun, Compare Psalms 72:6, Psalms 72:7, Psalms 72:16, Jeremiah 23:5, Jeremiah 23:6. Malachi 4:2.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-23.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.

And he shall be as the light of the morning when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds.

Kennicott, founding on the text of the old manuscript referred to, which has the word 'Yahweh' in this passage, renders it, 'and as the morning light shall Yahweh, the Sun, arise, even an unclouded morning, and the verdure shall spring out of the earth by the warm, bright splendour after rain.' The Messiah is frequently compared to the sun (Malachi 4:2; Revelation 22:16), and the blessings of His reign to "the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain" (cf. Psalms 72:6; Psalms 110:3; Isaiah 44:3). Little patches of grass are seen rapidly springing up in Palestine after rain; and even where the ground has been long parched and bare, within a few days or hours after the enriching showers begin to fall, the face of the earth is so renewed that it is covered over with a pure, fresh mantle of green. This beautiful imagery was designed to convey an idea of the auspicious effects that would result from the reign the great Ruler; and how truly descriptive it really was of the ministry and the religion of Christ needs no illustration-the morning sun representing its gladdening influences, and the springing of the tender grass symbolizing the growth, the beautiful development and progress, the silent, but rapid and steady advancement of piety and virtue among nations and people that are subject to the benign power of Christianity.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-23.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(4) A morning without clouds.—This description of the blessings of the ideally perfect government is closely connected with the Divine promise made through Nathan (2 Samuel 7). David recognises that the ruler of God’s people must be just, and here, as in Psalms 72, the highest blessings are depicted as flowing from such a government. David knew far too much of the evil of his own heart and of the troubles in his household to suppose that his ideal could be perfectly realised in any other of his descendants than in Him who should “crush the serpent’s head “and win the victory over the powers of evil. The sense of the verse will be made clearer by the following translation: “And as the light of the morning when the sun ariseth, a morning without clouds; as by means of sunlight and by means of rain the tender grass grows from the earth:—is not my house so with God?”

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-23.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.
as the light
Judges 5:31; Psalms 89:36; 110:3; Proverbs 4:18; Isaiah 60:1,3,18-20; Hosea 6:5; Malachi 4:2; Luke 1:78,79; John 1:7
mourning
Hosea 6:3
tender
Deuteronomy 32:2; Psalms 72:6; Isaiah 4:2; Micah 5:7
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 33:14 - the precious;  2 Samuel 8:15 - David executed;  Psalm 45:6 - the sceptre;  Psalm 75:2 - When;  Psalm 99:4 - strength;  Proverbs 16:10 - A divine sentence;  Proverbs 19:12 - his;  Proverbs 20:8 - GeneralSong of Solomon 6:10 - looketh;  Isaiah 18:4 - like a clear;  Jeremiah 32:40 - I will make;  Hosea 14:5 - as the dew

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-23.html.