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fēr ( יראה , yir'āh , ירא , yārē' ; φόβος , phóbos , φοβέω , phobéō ):

Terms, Etc

"Fear" is the translation of many words in the Old Testament; the chief are: yir'āh , "fear," "terror," "reverence," "awe," most often "the fear of God," "fear of Yahweh" (Genesis 20:11; 2 Chronicles 19:9 , etc.); also of "fear" generally (Job 22:4; Isaiah 7:25; Ezekiel 30:13 , etc.); yārē' , "to be afraid," "to fear," "to reverence" (Genesis 15:1; Leviticus 19:3 , Leviticus 19:14; Deuteronomy 6:2 , etc.); paḥadh , "fear," "terror," "dread" (Genesis 31:42 , Genesis 31:53; Deuteronomy 11:25; 1 Samuel 11:7 the King James Version; Job 4:14; Isaiah 2:10 the King James Version, etc.).

"Fearful" (timid) is the translation of yārē' (Deuteronomy 20:8; Judges 7:3 ); "to be feared," yārē' (Exodus 15:11; Deuteronomy 28:58; compare Psalm 130:4 ); in Isaiah 35:4 , it is the translation of māhar , "hasty," "them that are of a fearful heart," margin "Hebrew hasty"; perhaps, ready to flee (for fear).

"Fearfully" ( Psalm 139:14 ): yārē' , "I am fearfully (and) wonderfully made," so the Revised Version (British and American); "and" is not in the text, so that "fearfully" may be equivalent to "extremely," to an awesome degree; compare Psalm 65:5 , "by terrible things ... in righteousness"; Psalm 66:3 , "How terrible are thy works (yārē' "fearful"); the Septuagint, Peshitta, Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible , 390-405 ad) have "Thou art fearfully wonderful."

"Fearfulness" occurs In Psalm 55:5 ( yir'āh ); Isaiah 21:4 ( pallācūth ), the Revised Version (British and American) "horror"; Isaiah 33:14 ( re‛ādhāh , "trembling"), "Fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites," the Revised Version (British and American) "Trembling hath seized the godless ones."

In the New Testament the chief words are phobos , "fear," "terror," "affright" (Matthew 14:26; Matthew 28:4 , Matthew 28:8; Luke 21:26; 1 John 4:18 , etc.), and phobeō , "to put in fear" (both used of ordinary fear) (Matthew 1:20; Matthew 10:26; Matthew 28:5; 2 Corinthians 12:20 , etc.); of the fear of God, the noun (Romans 3:18; 2 Corinthians 7:1 ), the verb (Luke 18:4; Luke 23:40 , etc.); deilı́a , "timidity," "fear," occurs in 2 Timothy 1:7 , "God hath not given us the spirit of fear," the Revised Version (British and American) "a spirit of fearfulness"; ékphobos , "frightened out (of one's senses)," "greatly terrified" (Hebrews 12:21; compare Deuteronomy 9:19; The Wisdom of Solomon 17:9 the King James Version); apó tḗs eulabeı́as is translated (Hebrews 5:7 ) "(of Christ) who was heard in that he feared," the Revised Version (British and American) "having been heard for his godly fear"; so all the Greek commentators; eulábeia , properly, "caution," "circumspection," is used in the New Testament for godly fear (Hebrews 12:28 , the Revised Version (British and American) "reverence and awe," margin as the King James Version); compare eulabēs (Luke 2:25; Acts 2:5; Acts 8:2 ); eulabéomai , "to act with caution" (Acts 23:10 ). Deilós , "fearful," "timid," occurs in Matthew 8:26; Mark 4:40; Revelation 21:8 , "Their part shall be ... the second death"; phoberós , "fearful," "terrible" (Hebrews 10:27 , Hebrews 10:31 ); phóbētron , "something fearful," "a terrible sign or portent" (Luke 21:11 , Revised Version (British and American) "terrors").

Fear is a natural and, in its purpose, beneficent feeling, arising in the presence or anticipation of danger, and moving to its avoidance; it is also awakened in the presence of superiors and of striking manifestations of power, etc., taking the form of awe or reverence. Fear has been said to be the source of religion, but religion can never have originated from fear alone, since men are impelled to draw nigh with expectation to the object of worship.

"Fear" is certainly a prominent element in Old Testament religion; the "fear of God" or of Yahweh, "the fear of the Lord," is indeed synonymous with religion itself (Psalm 34:11; Proverbs 1:7; Isaiah 11:2 , Isaiah 11:3; Jeremiah 2:19; Ecclesiastes 12:13 , "the whole duty of man," the Revised Version, margin "the duty of all men"). But although the element of dread, or of "fear" in its lower sense, is not always absent and is sometimes prominent in the earlier stages especially, though not exclusively (Exodus 23:27 , 'ēmāh ; 1 Samuel 11:7; 2 Chronicles 20:29; Psalm 119:120; Isaiah 2:10 , Isaiah 2:19 , Isaiah 2:21 ), it is more the feeling of reverent regard for their God, tempered with awe and fear of the punishment of disobedience. As such it is a sentiment commanded and to be cherished toward Yahweh (Exodus 20:20; Deuteronomy 6:13; Joshua 4:24; 1 Samuel 12:24; Job 6:14; Psalm 33:8; Psalm 34:9; Proverbs 23:17; Ecclesiastes 5:7 , etc.). It is an essential element in the worship and service of Yahweh (2 Ki 17 often; Psalm 2:11 , etc.); it is a Divine qualification of the Messiah (Isaiah 11:2 , Isaiah 11:3 ). This "fear of Yahweh" is manifested in keeping God's commandments, walking in His ways, doing His will, avoiding sin, etc. (Exodus 20:20; Deuteronomy 6:13 , Deuteronomy 6:14; 2 Samuel 23:3; Psalm 34:4 , Psalm 34:9 parallel Proverbs 8:13; Proverbs 16:6 ). It is the true wisdom (Job 28:28; Psalm 25:14; Proverbs 1:7; Proverbs 15:33 ); it gives life (Proverbs 10:27 , etc.), blessedness (Psalm 128:1 , Psalm 128:4 ), sufficiency (Psalm 34:9 ), Divine friendship (Psalm 25:14 ), protection (Psalm 34:7 ), deliverance (Psalm 85:9 ), forgiveness (Psalm 130:4 ). In Psalm 90:11 the King James Version has "According to thy fear so is thy wrath," the Revised Version (British and American) "and thy wrath according to the fear that is due unto thee"; the meaning probably is "thy wrath is in proportion to thy fear."

The "fear of the Lord" is a frequent phrase in Apocrypha, and is highly exalted, e.g. Ecclesiasticus 1:11-30; the idea of it became gradually more and more elevated; in 2:15, 16 it is joined with the love of God.

"Fear" is the natural consequence of sin (Genesis 3:10; Genesis 4:13 , Genesis 4:14; Proverbs 28:1 ); it comes as a punishment (Deuteronomy 28:25 , Deuteronomy 28:28 ). The fear of man and of evils are dangers to be avoided, from which the fear of God delivers (Numbers 14:9; Numbers 21:34; Psalm 23:4; Psalm 31:14 , etc.).

"Fear" sometimes stands for the object of fear ( Proverbs 10:24; Isaiah 66:4 ); for the object of worship (Genesis 31:42 , Genesis 31:53 , "the God of Abraham, and the Fear of Isaac," paḥadh ).

In the New Testament dread, or fear of God in the lower sense, is removed; He is revealed as the loving and forgiving Father, who gives to men the spirit of sonship (Romans 8:15; 2 Timothy 1:7; 1 John 4:18 ); we are invited even to come "with boldness unto the throne of grace," with confidence, assurance (parrhēsı́a ), which, however, may have its literal meaning of free "utterance" (Hebrews 4:16; Hebrews 10:19 ); but there remains a filial fear and sense of awe and of the greatness of the issues involved (Romans 11:20; Ephesians 5:21 , the Revised Version (British and American) "of Christ"; 1 Timothy 5:20; Hebrews 4:1 ); all other fears should be dismissed (Matthew 8:26; Matthew 10:26-28 , Matthew 10:31; Luke 12:32 ); in Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:5 , "fear" is used in the sense of "stand in awe of," so perhaps Luke 23:40; to "fear God" is sometimes used in the New Testament as equivalent to religion (Luke 18:4; Acts 10:2 , Acts 10:35; Acts 13:16 , Acts 13:26 , used of proselytes); in Hebrews 10:27 , it is said that if Christ be willfully rejected, nothing remains but "a fearful looking for (the Revised Version (British and American) "expectation") of judgment," and Hebrews 10:31 , "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God," in which places "fearful" means "terrible," something well to be feared. the Revised Version (British and American) gives frequently a more literal rendering of the words translated "fear."

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Fear'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.

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