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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Daniel 7:25

`He will speak out against the Most High and wear down the saints of the Highest One, and he will intend to make alterations in times and in law; and they will be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time.


Adam Clarke Commentary

He shall speak great words against the Most High - Sermones quasi Deus loquetur; "He shall speak as if he were God." So St. Jerome quotes from Symmachus. To none can this apply so well or so fully as to the popes of Rome. They have assumed infallibility, which belongs only to God. They profess to forgive sins, which belongs only to God. They profess to open and shut heaven, which belongs only to God. They profess to be higher than all the kings of the earth, which belongs only to God. And they go beyond God in pretending to loose whole nations from their oath of allegiance to their kings, when such kings do not please them! And they go against God when they give indulgences for sin. This is the worst of all blasphemies!

And shall wear out the saints - By wars, crusades, massacres, inquisitions, and persecutions of all kinds. What in this way have they not done against all those who have protested against their innovations, and refused to submit to their idolatrous worship? Witness the exterminating crusades published against the Waldenses and Albinenses. Witness John Huss, and Jerome of Prague. Witness the Smithfield fires in England! Witness God and man against this bloody, persecuting, ruthless, and impure Church!

And think to change times and laws - Appointing fasts and feasts; canonizing persons whom he chooses to call saints; granting pardons and indulgences for sins; instituting new modes of worship utterly unknown to the Christian Church; new articles of faith; new rules of practice; and reversing, with pleasure, the laws both of God and man. - Dodd.

Until a time and times and the dividing of time - In prophetic language a time signifies a year; and a prophetic year has a year for each day. Three years and a half (a day standing for a year, as in John 9:24;) will amount to one thousand two hundred and sixty years, if we reckon thirty days to each month, as the Jews do.

If we knew precisely when the papal power began to exert itself in the antichristian way, then we could at once fix the time of its destruction. The end is probably not very distant; it has already been grievously shaken by the French. In 1798 the French republican army under General Berthier took possession of the city of Rome, and entirely superseded the whole papal power. This was a deadly wound, though at present it appears to be healed; but it is but skinned over, and a dreadful cicatrice remains. The Jesuits, not Jesus, are now the Church's doctors.

If the papal power, as a horn or temporal power, be intended here, which is most likely, (and we know that that power was given in 755 to Pope Stephen II. by Pepin, king of France), counting one thousand two hundred and sixty years from that, we are brought to a.d. 2015, about one hundred and ninety years from the present [a.d. 1825]. But I neither lay stress upon nor draw conclusions from these dates. If the Church of Rome will reform itself, it will then be the true Christian Church, and will never be destroyed. Let it throw aside all that is ritually Jewish, all that is heathen; all that which pretends to be of God, and which is only of man, all doctrines that are not in the Bible; and all rites and ceremonies which are not of the appointment of Christ and his apostles; and then, all hail the once Roman, but now, after such a change, the Holy, Catholic Church! Every true Protestant would wish rather the reform than the extinction of this Church.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/daniel-7.html. 1832.

The Biblical Illustrator

Daniel 7:25

The Saints of the Most High.

Heavenly Saints

I. DISCRIMINATING FAVOUR. This is intended as a two-fold contrast--saints in contrast to those who are ungodly, and make no profession at all; and saints in contrast to those who are men-made saints, made saints by human device--not saints really. A saint is a men who is enlightened, and is led to see the way in which sin is put away.

II. THE SECOND THING IN SAINTSHIP IS TO KNOW SOMETHING OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LAW AND GOSPEL. And saints are also distinguished by deep downward experiences, and conspicuous deliverances A saint of the Most High is a man that is brought into covenant with God. (James Wells.)

And think to change times, and laws.

Unchangeable Times

The greatest revolution time ever underwent is that which the Saviour himself wrought when He put an end to Levitical time, and introduced His own eternal sacrificial time.

I. TIMES AND LAWS. What were the characteristics of the times the Saviour established?

1. Salvation. A time in which we can be accepted of God.

2. Christ’s time is one of vital and final ingathering.

II. THE TRIBULATION OF THE PEOPLE. “They shall be given into His hand.” What a mercy it is that, if the adversary gain dominion in some measure, yet the sovereignty of God, the hand of God, will protect the people.

III. THE OPPOSITE DESTINY OF THESE TWO CLASSES OF PEOPLE--THE ENEMY AND THE FRIEND. What will become of the man who knows nothing of these Christian times, that knows nothing of the law of faith, the law of liberty. The next verse says, the living God shall take away His dominion. Why are we brought under the law of faith, and thereby under the law of love, and life, and liberty, and righteousness? (James Wells.)


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Bibliography
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Daniel 7:25". The Biblical Illustrator. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/daniel-7.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And he shall speak great words against the most High,.... Or, "at the side of the most High"F16לצד עליא "ad regionem, sive latus Altissimi", Calvin; "juxta Altissimum". Cocceius; "ex parte Altissimi", Munster. ; setting himself up as a rival, and upon an equality with him; taking the names and characters of holiness, infallibility, yea, of deity itself, unto him; claiming a power to forgive sin, which is peculiar to God; and preferring his own laws, doctrines, and traditions, to the word of God:

and shall wear out the saints of the most High; by his wars with them, and murders and massacres of them; by taking away their lives and their substance; so lessening their numbers, and weakening their strength and power, wear them out, as a garment is wore out, as the wordF17יבלא παλαιωσει Sept.; "deteret", Junius & Trmellius, Piscator; "abolebit", Montanus; "absumet" Munster; "consumet", Vatablus. signifies; utterly consume and destroy them, at least in his own apprehensions; which will be the case when the witnesses will be slain, Revelation 11:8, and especially will wear out their patience, or however thoroughly exercise it. The wordF18"ingrato et duriore modo tractavit, affixit", Giggeius apud Golium, col. 325. Erpenius apud Castel. col. 363. So Michaelis on the place observes. , in the Arabic language, signifies "to afflict and handle roughly"; and such usage the saints have met with, more or less, in all ages, from the man of sin.

And think to change times and laws: to alter the forms and constitutions of kingdoms, and the customs and usages of them; yea, to set up and pull down kings at pleasure; see Daniel 2:21, or to change the use of times and seasons, by setting apart days as holy for canonized saints; and appointing such days in a week, and such a season in the year, for abstinence from meats; and even to change the laws of God and man, by dispensing with both, and making new ones of his own:

and they shall be given into his hand; either the saints he makes war with, and wears out, who shall be overcome by him; or the times and laws, which he shall not only have it in his mind and purpose to change, but shall have it in his power to do it, and shall do it:

until a time, and times, and the dividing of time; by "a time" is meant a year, the longest part of time; by "times", two years; and "the dividing of time", half a year; in all three years and a half, which is the same with 1260 days, or forty two months, the time of the witnesses prophesying in sackcloth, and of the reign of antichrist; so long shall he continue, exercising his power and authority, his wrath and rage, and blasphemy, and no longer; see Revelation 11:2.


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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/daniel-7.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And he shall speak [great] words against o the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to p change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a q time and times and the dividing of time.

(o) That is, will make wicked decrees and proclamations against God's word, and send throughout all their dominion, to destroy all that did profess it.

(p) These emperors will not consider that they have their power from God, but think it is in their own power to change God's laws and man's, and as it were the order of nature, as appears by Octavius, Tiberius, Calligula, Nero, Domitianus, etc.

(q) God will allow them to rage in this way against his saints for a long time, the time and times, but at length he will soften these troubles, and shorten the time for his elect's sake, (Matthew 24:22), which is here meant by the dividing of time.


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/daniel-7.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Three attributes of Antichrist are specified: (1) The highest worldly wisdom and civilization. (2) The uniting of the whole civilized world under his dominion. (3) Atheism, antitheism, and autotheism in its fullest development (1 John 2:22). Therefore, not only is power taken from the fourth beast, as in the case of the other three, but God destroys it and the world power in general by a final judgment. The present external Christianity is to give place to an almost universal apostasy.

think — literally, “carry within him as it were the burden of the thought.”

change times — the prerogative of God alone (Daniel 2:21); blasphemously assumed by Antichrist. The “times and laws” here meant are those of religious ordinance; stated times of feasts [Maurer]. Perhaps there are included the times assigned by God to the duration of kingdoms. He shall set Himself above all that is called God (2 Thessalonians 2:4), putting his own “will” above God‘s times and laws (Daniel 11:36, Daniel 11:37). But the “times” of His willfulness are limited for the elect‘s sake (Matthew 24:22).

they — the saints.

given into his hand — to be persecuted.

time … times and … dividing of time — one year, two years, and half a year: 1260 days (Revelation 12:6, Revelation 12:14); forty-two months (Revelation 11:2, Revelation 11:3). That literally three and a half years are to be the term of Antichrist‘s persecution is favored by Daniel 4:16, Daniel 4:23, where the year-day theory would be impossible. If the Church, moreover, had been informed that 1260 years must elapse before the second advent, the attitude of expectancy which is inculcated (Luke 12:38; 1 Corinthians 1:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:9, 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 2 Peter 3:12) on the ground of the uncertainty of the time, would be out of place. The original word for “time” denotes a stated period or set feast; or the interval from one set feast to its recurrence, that is, a year [Tregelles]; Leviticus 23:4, “seasons”; Leviticus 23:44, “feasts.” The passages in favor of the year-day theory are Ezekiel 4:6, where each day of the forty during which Ezekiel lay on his right side is defined by God as meaning a year. Compare Numbers 14:34, where a year of wandering in the wilderness was appointed for each day of the forty during which the spies searched Canaan; but the days were, in these two cases, merely the type or reason for the years, which were announced as they were to be fulfilled. In the prophetic part of Numbers 14:34 “years” are literal. If the year-day system was applied to them, they would be 14,400 years! In Ezekiel 4:4-6, if day meant year, Ezekiel would have lain on his right side forty years! The context here in Daniel 7:24, Daniel 7:25, is not symbolical. Antichrist is no longer called a horn, but a king subduing three out of ten kings (no longer horns, Daniel 7:7, Daniel 7:8). So in Daniel 12:7, where “time, times, and half a time,” again occurs, nothing symbolic occurs in the context. So that there is no reason why the three and a half years should be so. For the first four centuries the “days” were interpreted literally; a mystical meaning of the 1260 days then began. Walter Brute first suggested the year-day theory in the end of the fourteenth century. The seventy years of the Babylonian captivity foretold by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 25:12; Jeremiah 29:10) were understood by Daniel (Daniel 9:2) as literal years, not symbolical, which would have been 25,200 years! [Tregelles]. It is possible that the year-day and day-day theories are both true. The seven (symbolical) times of the Gentile monarchies (Leviticus 26:24) during Israel‘s casting off will end in the seven years of Antichrist. The 1260 years of papal misrule in the name of Christ may be represented by three and a half years of open Antichristianity and persecution before the millennium. Witnessing churches may be succeeded by witnessing individuals, the former occupying the longer, the latter the shorter period (Revelation 11:3). The beginning of the 1260 years is by Elliott set at a.d. 529 or 533, when Justinian‘s edict acknowledged Pope John II to be head of the Church; by Luther, at 606, when Phocas confirmed Justinian‘s grant. But 752 is the most likely date, when the temporal dominion of the popes began by Pepin‘s grant to Stephen II (for Zachary, his predecessor‘s recognition of his title to France), confirmed by Charlemagne. For it was then first that the little horn plucked up three horns, and so became the prolongation of the fourth secular kingdom [Newton]. This would bring us down to about a.d. 2000, or the seventh thousand millenary from creation. But Clinton makes about 1862 the seventh millenary, which may favor the dating from a.d. 529.


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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/daniel-7.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

Until a time and times — The numbers of Daniel and John seem to agree. Daniel was certainly prophetical in these things, and his prophecy reacheth to the end of times, even of antichrist's reign.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/daniel-7.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

The angel now explains a little more clearly what the Prophet had formerly touched upon but briefly, namely, this last king should be a manifest and professed enemy to the Church. We yesterday showed how miserably and cruelly the Church had been harassed by many tyrants. And if we compare these tyrants with each other, we shall find the Church to have been much more heavily afflicted after Christ’s advent, and to have been opposed by the Caesars in open warfare. The occasion arose in this way. The doctrine of the Gospel had been dispersed through almost all the provinces of the empire. The Jewish name was hateful; and the novelty of the teaching added greatly to that unpopularity. Men thought the Jews had invented a new deity for themselves — even Christ;, as their language seemed to imply the worship of a new divinity. As, therefore, some material for rage against the pure worship of God was afforded them, the Caesars became more and more stirred up to carry on war against the elect, and to oppress the Church. It was not their fault if they did nor; extinguish the whole light of the celestial doctrine, abolish true religion, and banish: the knowledge of God from the world. This agrees very well with what Daniel relates of this king becoming so headstrong, as to utter words against the most High God. Some translate it, on the part of the most High, but I know no reason for their doing so. לצד, letzed, signifies on the side or the region. The equivalent phrase is this; so great should be the pride of this new king, who did not exercise his power openly but by hidden deceit, that he should sit as it were on the side of God and in opposition to him. This means he should be manifestly God’s enemy. Those who understand this of Antichrist, think their opinion confirmed by the conduct of other tyrants who carried on their warfare against God with arms and violence, but not by words. But the Prophet does not speak so subtlety here. For by words he does not here mean doctrine, but that verbal boasting by which the Caesars dared to promulgate their edicts throughout the whole world, urging all the proconsuls to punish the Christians, and not to permit that impious and cursed sect to flourish; and thus terrors flew about throughout the whole world. What Daniel now relates was then fulfilled, namely, the utterance of words of defiance against God; for those tyrants thought their own edicts, without the armament of soldiers, would be sufficient to extinguish the memory of Christ. Thus, also, true piety was disgracefully traduced, and the very name of Christ lacerated by horrible reproaches, as historians have amply informed us.

This explanation, therefore, is most suitable to the little horn speaking or uttering words against the most High. He shall afflict, says he, the saints of the lofty ones We have already briefly explained the meaning of this expression, according to its grammatical construction. By saints he doubtless means sons of God, or his elect people, or the Church. He calls these “saints of lofty ones,” because as elect they depend upon heaven; and although they are pilgrims in the world, yet their life is in heaven, where the eternal inheritance remains for them which was obtained by Christ. As, therefore, their treasure is now heaven, they deservedly boast of being citizens of heaven, and allies and brethren of angels. Thus they are properly called “saints of lofty ones;” they are separated from the world, and know themselves to live here day by day until they arrive at firm and enduring repose. We know this to have been fulfilled, because overwhelming terror fell upon all the pious, and the Church almost perished, while multitudes who were suspected of being Christians were subjected to cruel tortures. The prevalence of this universal license for persecuting all the pious explains how the saints were then afflicted by the small horn.

The Prophet or rather the angel next says, He will think, or meditate, to change time and law, and they shall be delivered into his hand. As to the time here spoken of, many refer it to holy days. But we may understand it generally of the small horn overthrowing whatever was formerly customary in the world; and thus also I interpret the word רת, reth, not the Law of God or the Gospel, but any rites, customs, and institutions. While interpreters are contending about this word, some referring it to the Decalogue, and others to the preaching of the Gospel, I think the simple sense of the Prophet to be this: the Caesars perverted all laws, both human and divine. We have seen how they attempted this, and how far they accomplished it. It is not surprising then if the Prophet; assigns this unbridled audacity to this last king, who thought to change whatever had been formerly ordained in the world. And for this reason it had been formerly said this horn should be furnished with human eyes; and next, should speak mightily, thundering horribly, and inspiring all men with fear through its voice alone. We know this to have been represented as in a glass, if we consider how far the Caesars proceeded in their arrogance. First, as to Octavius, while he restrained himself within due bounds politically, he suffered himself to be adored as a god, and altars to be erected to him; he wished the public to be persuaded of his deity, and celebrated a banquet in which he sat among the superior deities. Tiberius neglected religious ceremonies entirely, and yet we see how he despised all men. Although he was of an obtuse disposition, in his daring he was extreme, and was all the while craftily deceiving the senate. Next, as to Caligula, he threatened Jupiter in this way, — “What! thou art an exile here and I a native: I will banish thee into Greece thy native place.” He often inflicted blows upon the statue of Jupiter, and not content with the name of a god, he ordered the chief sacrifices to be offered to himself. This diabolic fury increased in Domitian. And considering the Caesars as men, what was their character? One of them said, “I wish the Roman people had but one need.” He enjoyed the slaughter of the senate as a sport, and wished to make his horse a consul. How disgraceful was such conduct! We see, then, how this prediction was not uttered without a cause; namely, so great should be the arrogance of the small horn that it would dare to change and turn into a new almost all “law,” meaning all order of every kind, and “times,” meaning the very series and nature of all things. The Prophet then says he thought He does not express the result, but simply signifies the arrival of the small horn at such a degree of madness as to suppose it could draw down the sun from heaven, turn light: into darkness, and leave nothing entire, nothing in order, throughout, the world. Those occurrences really happened in accordance with this prophecy. I cannot enter into details here. I should have to detain you many days or even months while citing history; I can only touch shortly upon what: is necessary for explaining the Prophet’s words and the meaning of his prediction.

They shall be delivered into his hands means, — however the small horn should leap forward in desperate fury, yet: God should always rule over him, and nothing should happen without his permission,. It was God then who delivered into the hands of that identifying the saints, the political government, and the institutions of piety, allowing him to pour out promiscuously human blood, to violate every national right, and to ruin as far as possible all religion. It brings us then no little comfort to know when God’s permission is given to tyrants to harass the Church and interfere with His lawful worship; for if we were left to the mercy of their lusts, how distressing would be the universal confusion! But he succors us, as the angel says, when tyrants assail us and disturb all order by their horrible licentiousness and cruel rage against the miserable and the innocent: he succors us, I say, so that they are unable to move to finger against us without God’s permission. We are not permitted to know why God relaxes the rein in favor of the enemies of his Church; perhaps it is to prove and try the patience of his people. It is sufficient for us, if, when tyrants scheme and plot in every way, they are unable to do anything without the divine permission.

But a greater consolation is added in the last clause, even for a time and times, and the division of a time, or half, as some translate it; it is properly a division. Interpreters differ widely about these words, and I will not bring forward all their opinions, otherwise it would be necessary to refute them. I should have no little trouble in refuting all their views, but I will follow my own custom of shortly expressing the genuine sense of the Prophet, and thus all difficulty will be removed. Those who consider a “time” to mean a “year,” are in my opinion wrong. They cite the forty-two months of the Apocalypse, (Revelation 13:5,) which make three years and a half; but that argument is not conclusive, since in that case a year will not consist of 365 days, but the year itself must be taken figuratively for any indeterminate time. It is better then to keep close to the Prophet’s words. A “time,” then, is not put for a certain number of months or days, nor yet for a single year, but for any period whose termination is in the secret counsel of God. They shall be given, then, for a time, says he, and afterwards addstimes; that is, for a continuance of times; and again, even to a section or division of a time; meaning, these calamities should come to an end whenever God, in mercy to his Church, should restrain those tyrants by his wrath against them. As long, therefore, as the cruelty of the Caesars oppressed God’s Church, it was committed into their hands. We have already seen how many Caesars were enemies of the true Church. First, of all, Nero raged most cruelly, for he burnt some thousands of Christians at Rome, to extinguish the infamy which raged against himself. The people could not endure his barbarity; for, while the fourth part of the city was destroyed by Nero, he was enjoying his pleasure and rejoicing so mournful a spectacle! As he feared the popular tumult against himself, he laid hold of many Christians, and offered them to the people as a kind of expiation. Those who followed him, did not cease to pour forth innocent blood, and those who seemed to be endued with some degree of clemency and humanity were all at length seized with a diabolic fury. Trajan was esteemed a very excellent prince, and yet we know how he commanded the Christians everywhere to be slain, since he thought them obstinate in their error. And others were more savage still. No wonder, therefore, the angel predicts, even for a time, and times, and the division of a time, that license would be given to the tyrants and enemies of the Church to pervert all things, to despise God, and set aside all justice, and to execute a cruel and barbarous slaughter. This ought to be predicted for two reasons: first, lest through length of time the faithful should fall away, because when “the time” — a space of about ten years — had passed, they would come tothe times, consisting of about fifty or a hundred years.

This, then, was one reason why God admonished the faithful concerning the time and times. But he wished also to mitigate their sorrow by adding half a time, thus promising some moderation and ending to such great calamities. The language of our Lord to his Apostles concerning the various commotion of the earth, corresponds very well with this view. “There shall arise wars and rumors of wars, and no end as yet,” says he. He announces them as the preludes to greater evils, when the whole of Judea should be devastated with wars and other slaughters. He afterwards adds, “Unless those days had been shortened.” (Matthew 24:6; Mark 13:7; Luke 21:9.) This shortening of the days is here noticed as if the Lord cut short; a continued succession of them. For when the possession of the tyranny appeared fierce, then suddenly and beyond the expectation of all, God at length snatched away his Church, and then the evangelical doctrine emerged, and was celebrated everywhere. God, therefore, then shortened the days on account of his own elect, and this is understood by the last clause, a division of a time. I will defer the rest till to-morrow.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/daniel-7.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Daniel 7:25 And he shall speak [great] words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

Ver. 25. And he shall speak great words.] As Pope Julius III did, when he called for his pork flesh, forbidden him by his physician as naught for his gout, al despito di Dio, in despite of God; and missing a cold peacock which he commanded to be set up for his supper, he raged extremely at his steward; and being desired to be more patient, he replied, If God were so angry with our first parents for an apple, may not I, who am his vicar, be so much more for my peacock? (a) See on Revelation 13:5.

And shall think to change times and laws,] i.e., He shall usurp a power over religion and men’s consciences, set up holidays, canonise saints, appoint fasts, order times, &c.

Until a time and times and half a time,] i.e., Until that time which God alone knoweth, and hath in his power.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/daniel-7.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Daniel 7:25. He shall speak great words Symmachus reads, He shall speak great words, as the Most High; setting up himself above all laws divine and human; arrogating to himself godlike attributes, and titles of holiness and infallibility. Exacting obedience to his ordinances and decrees, in preference to, and in open violation of reason and Scripture; insulting men and blaspheming God. In Gratian's Decretals, the pope has the title of god given to him!

And shall wear out the saints By wars, and massacres, and inquisitions, persecuting and destroying the faithful servants of Jesus, and the true worshippers of God, who protest against his innovations, and refuse to comply with the idolatry practised in the court of Rome. Instead of, wear out, Houbigant reads, lie in wait for, or form schemes of deceit against. He shall think to change times and laws;—appointing fasts and feasts, canonizing saints, granting pardons and indulgences for sins, instituting new modes of worship, imposing new articles of faith, enjoining new rules of practice, and reversing at pleasure the laws of God and man.

And they shall be given, &c.— A time, all agree, signifies a year, and a time and times, and the dividing of time, or half a time, are three years and a half: the ancient Jewish year consisting of twelve months, and each month of thirty days; a time, and times, and half a time, are reckoned in Revelation 11:2-3; Revelation 6:14 as equivalent to forty-two months, or a thousand two hundred and threescore days: and a day, in the style of the prophets, is a year. This is expressly asserted, Ezekiel 4:6 and it is confessed, that the seventy weeks, in chap. 9: of this book, are weeks of years, and consequently one thousand two hundred and sixty days are one thousand two hundred and sixty years. So long antichrist, or the little horn, will continue; but from what point of time the commencement of these twelve hundred and sixty years is to be dated, is not so easy to determine. It should seem that they are to be computed from the full establishment of the power of the pope; and no less is implied in the expression given into his hand.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/daniel-7.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The numbers of Daniel and John seem to agree. Daniel was certainly prophetical in these things, and his prophecy reacheth to the end of times, even of antichrist’s reign. I will not deny but Antiochus might be a type and forerunner of antichrist, and did many things against the Jewish church, with craft, cruelty, and blasphemy; but he was no part of the fourth, but of the third beast; whereas Daniel here points mainly at the Roman power and persecution, especially by

the little horn, which lasted to his ruin; after which it is clear the Lord Christ will reign in and over his saints much more gloriously; which the Jews will never be beaten from, because there are so many signal places in the prophets speaking of it yet unfulfilled, and in the Apocalypse, to the wise reader, after the beast and whore are destroyed, with all their supporters. But enough of that at present.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/daniel-7.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

25. Antiochus Epiphanes is said (xi, 36) to “speak marvelous things against the God of gods,” and Jewish history is full of his brutal impieties and persecutions which wore out the saints (1 Macc. i and ii; 2 Macc. i and v; Josephus, Wars, I, 1:1; Antiquites, XII, 5:3; Apion, 2:1). The “times and law” (Hebrews) which he sought to change were those connected with the religious feasts and other sacred rites which must be offered in “due season” (compare Leviticus 23:4; Numbers 28:2; Numbers 28:4; Numbers 28:8; Numbers 28:11; Numbers 28:16-18; Numbers 28:26), and especially the Holy Sabbath. Antiochus sought to make Greeks of the Jews (Tacitus, Daniel 5:8), decreeing that all his subjects should be one people in religious customs, and specifically prohibiting circumcision and the observance of the Sabbath, on penalty of death, so “that they might forget the law, and change all the ordinances” (1 Maccabees 1:41; 1 Maccabees 1:49; Polyb., 38:18). The whole temple was defiled (see notes Daniel 11:31) and the Jews were forced, under severest penalties, to give up their own worship and to take part in the orgies of the Grecian festivals (2 Maccabees 6:7). The “time, times, and half a time” probably refers to the three and a half years during which Antiochus succeeded in interfering with the sacrificial offerings in the temple, yet it may have also been used as a symbol of persecution and evil, being the fracture of a perfect seven. (Compare Revelation 12:14, and Introduction to Ezekiel, VIII.) This symbolic meaning was probably understood not only by the Jews but by the Babylonians; for in the old Babylonian myth the horned dragon Tiamat, the enemy of the gods, who hurled one third of the stars of heaven into ruin by one whisk of her tail, was also given a period of rule somewhat resembling this (Gunkel, Shopfung und Chaos, pp. 266-278, 360, 390). See also notes Daniel 4:16-23; Daniel 5:25-28; Daniel 9:27; Daniel 12:7.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/daniel-7.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Daniel 7:25. He shall speak great words against the Most High — Symmachus reads, He shall speak great words, as the Most High; “setting himself above all laws, divine and human: arrogating to himself godlike attributes, and titles of holiness and infallibility; exacting obedience to his ordinances and decrees, in preference to, and in open violation of, reason and Scripture; insulting men and blaspheming God. In Gratian’s Decretals, the pope has the title of God given to him. And shall wear out the saints — By wars, and massacres, and inquisitions, persecuting and destroying the faithful servants of Jesus, and the true worshippers of God; who protest against his innovations, and refuse to comply with the idolatry practised in the Church of Rome. He shall think to change times and laws — Appointing fasts and feasts, canonizing saints, granting pardons and indulgences for sins, instituting new modes of worship, imposing new articles of faith, enjoining new rules of practice, and reversing at pleasure the laws of God and man.” — Bishop Newton.

And they shall be given, &c. — “A time, all agree, signifies a year; and a time, and times, and the dividing of time, or half a time, are three years and a half; and the ancient Jewish year, consisting of twelve months, and each month of thirty days, a time, and times, and half a time, or three years and a half, are reckoned in the Revelation 11:2-3; Revelation 12:6; Revelation 12:14, as equivalent to forty-two months, or twelve hundred and sixty days; and a day, in the style of the prophets, is a year; (see Ezekiel 4:4;) and it is confessed that the seventy weeks, in Daniel 9. are weeks of years, and consequently twelve hundred and sixty days are twelve hundred and sixty years. So long antichrist, or the little horn, will continue: but from what point of time the commencement of these twelve hundred and sixty years is to be dated, is not easy to determine. It should seem that they are to be computed from the full establishment of the power of the pope, and no less is implied in the expression, given into his hand. Now the power of the pope, as a horn, or temporal prince, it hath been shown, was established in the eighth century; and twelve hundred and sixty years from that time, will lead us down to about the year of Christ 2000, or the year of the world 6000: and there is an old tradition, both among Jews and Christians, that at the end of 6000 years the Messiah shall come, and the world shall be renewed; the reign of the wicked one shall cease, and the reign of the saints upon earth shall begin. But, as Irenæus says in a like case, it is surer and safer to wait for the completion of the prophecy than to conjecture and divine about it. When the end shall come, then we shall know better whence to date the beginning.” — Bishop Newton.


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Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/daniel-7.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Against, or "over against," like an accuser. Sym.: "as if he were God." --- Laws. He did this with regard to the Jews, (1 Machabees i. 41.) (Calmet) prohibiting their festivals. Antichrist will do the like, and pretend to work miracles. (Haydock) --- A time, &c. That is, three years and a half; which is supposed to be the length of the duration of the persecution of antichrist. (Challoner) (Apocalypse xi. 2. and xii. 14.) --- Josephus (Bel. pref. [Jewish Wars, preface]) says the sacrifices were discontinued so long, or rather this time elapsed from the publishing his edict till the temple was purified. During six months, people offered sacrifice clandestinely. (1 Machabees iv. 36. 52.)


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/daniel-7.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

wear out = afflict.

laws = law.

time and times, &c.: i.e. three and a half years = one half of the "one week" of Daniel 9:27. It is repeated as forty-two months (Revelation 11:21, Revelation 11:3). See App-90and App-91; and Compare Daniel 8:14; Daniel 12:7, Daniel 12:11, Daniel 12:12.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/daniel-7.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

He shall speak great words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High.

Three attributes of Antichrist are specified:

(1) The highest worldly wisdom and civilization.

(2) The uniting of the whole civilized world under his dominion (Revelation 17:13; Revelation 13:7, "power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations;" Revelation 13:12-18).

(3) Atheism, antitheism and autotheism in its fullest development (1 John 2:22).

Therefore, not only is power taken from the fourth beast, as in the case of the other three, but God destroys it and the world-power in general by a final judgment. The present external Christianity is to give place to an almost universal apostasy.

And think , [ w


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/daniel-7.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(25) And he shall speak.—The marks of identification of the little horn are—(1) blasphemy of God; (2) persecution and affliction of the saints; (3) attempts, apparently ineffectual (he will “think to change”), against all institutions, whether of Divine or human authority: in short, a general spirit of lawlessness and unbelief. It appears that the little horn, the Antichrist of the last days, or the beast, will be successful for a time in his blasphemies and persecutions, but in the end he will be destroyed. (See 2 Thessalonians 2:8.)

Time and times and the dividing of time.—This is frequently explained to mean three years and a half. Those who adopt this explanation assume that by “times” a dual is implied, which in Chaldee is represented by the plural. They next assume that by “a time” is meant one year, resting their assumption partly on Daniel 4:16, and partly on a comparison of Daniel 12:7 with Revelation 13:5; Revelation 11:2-3. This gives a sum of three years and a half, which is interpreted either literally, or explained to mean half a sabbatical period, or half some divinely-appointed period symbolised by the number “seven.” According to the second interpretation, Daniel teaches us that the days of tribulation shall be shortened (Matthew 24:22). But it may be questioned whether “years” are intended in Daniel 4:16. Also the language in Daniel 12:7 is very obscure. A more correct view of the prediction is that the reign of Antichrist will be divided into three periods—the first long, the second longer, the third shortest of all. It also appears that the last is to be the severest time of trial. It may be remarked that in Daniel 9 the seventy weeks are divided into three periods, forming a similar series, 7 + 62 + 1 = 70.


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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/daniel-7.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.
he shall speak
In assuming infallibility, professing to forgive sins, and to open and shut heaven, thundering out bulls and anathemas, excommunicating princes, absolving subjects from their allegiance, and exacting obedience to his decrees in open violation of reason and Scripture.
8,20; 8:24,25; 11:28,30,31,36,37; Isaiah 37:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 13:5,6,11
shall wear out
By wars, crusades, massacres, etc.
Revelation 6:9,10; 11:7-10; 13:7-10; 14:12; 16:6; 17:6; 18:24
and think
Appointing feasts and fasts, canonizing saints, etc.
2:21; 11:31,36-38; 12:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Timothy 4:1-3; Revelation 13:15-17
a time
That is, three years and a half, or, reckoning thirty days to a month, 1,260 days, equal to the same number of years in prophetic language; which, dated from the decree of Phocas constituting him the supreme head of the church, A.D. 606, terminated in 1866.
4:25,32; 12:7,11,12; Revelation 11:2,3; 12:6,14; 13:5,7

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Daniel 7:25". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/daniel-7.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, October 24th, 2020
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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