Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Esther 8:9

So the king's scribes were called at that time in the third month (that is, the month Sivan), on the twenty-third day; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded to the Jews, the satraps, the governors and the princes of the provinces which extended from India to Ethiopia, 127 provinces, to every province according to its script, and to every people according to their language as well as to the Jews according to their script and their language.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Babylon;   India;   Month;   Ring;   Scribe (S);   Secretary (Recordist);   Sivan;   Thompson Chain Reference - Months;   Sivan;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Months;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - India;   Sivan;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Persia;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Decrees;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Deputy;   Lieutenant;   Prince;   Sivan;   Tatnai;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Captivity;   Esther;   India;   Judea;   Lieutenants;   Month;   Persia;   Province;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Esther;   India;   Lieutenant;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Deputy;   India;   Satraps;   Time;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Treasure Treasurer Treasury;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Deputy;   India ;   Lieutenants,;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Captivities of the Jews;   In'dia;   Month;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Months;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Hebrew Calendar;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Cush (1);   Deputy;   Governor;   India;   Purim;   Satraps;   Seal;   Sivan;   Text of the Old Testament;   World (Cosmological);   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Ethiopia;   Month;   Satrap;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for June 26;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The month Sivan - This answers to a part of our May and June.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/esther-8.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Sivan corresponds nearly to our June; it was the second month from the issue of the first edict Esther 3:12.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/esther-8.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

A COUNTER-EDICT WAS SENT FORTH BY MORDECAI

"Then were the king's scribes called at Then were the king's scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof, and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language. And he wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud: wherein the king granted the Jews that were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, their little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey, upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus, namely, upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar. A copy of the writing, that the decree should be given out in every province, was published unto all the peoples, and that the Jews should be ready against that day to avenge themselves on their enemies. So the posts that rode upon swift steeds that were used in the king's service went out, being hastened and pressed on by the king's commandment; and the decree was given out in Shushan the palace."

"In the third month, which is the month Sivan" (Esther 8:9). "The name Sivan is another Babylonian name, the third month being sacred to the moon god. It corresponded to our May-June."[9] "The date was June 25,474 B.C., a little over two months after the first decree was issued,"[10] thus allowing over eight months for the Jews to prepare their defenses.

"To destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish" (Esther 8:11). This decree followed very closely the language of the edict of Haman (Esther 3:13) in order to nullify it to the fullest extent possible. "The exact treatment intended for the Jews was to be meted out for their enemies."[11] "The irrevocability of Haman's decree made it necessary for Mordecai to duplicate in reverse all of its provisions, thus inevitably giving the impression of a very harsh decree. When the day came, it stressed that the Jews did not plunder their enemies."[12]

The Jews were authorized to take the property of their attackers, but when the time came they waived that right.

"All the power of the people and province" (Esther 8:11). "This is a reference to the military forces."[13]

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/esther-8.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Then were the king's scribes called at that time,.... As they were to write the former letter, Esther 3:12,

in the third month, that is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; which answers to part of May, and part of June. This was two months and ten days after the writing of the former letters; so long the Jews had been in distress by reason of them, and was a just rebuke upon them for not returning to their own land when they might, as well as for other sins:

and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded to the Jews. Mordecai dictated to the scribes, and ordered what they should write; and which were sent to the Jews in the first place, partly to ease them of their present distress, and partly that they might prepare against that time for their defence, for which they had sufficient time, it being now more than nine months to it:

and to the lieutenants, and the deputies, and the rulers of the provinces, which are from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces. The letters were directed to the same magistrates in the several provinces as the former, giving orders to them, that, notwithstanding them, they were to suffer the Jews to defend themselves, and not punish them for what should be done by them in self-defence; see Esther 1:1,

unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language; some provinces spoke the Persian language, and used the character of it, others Chaldee, others Syriac, &c. and wrote in the usual characters, as the Jews did in Hebrew, and in the characters of that language; and now these letters were written in the language and character of the people of the several provinces they were sent to, that they might be easily read and understood.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/esther-8.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that [is], the month f Sivan, on the three and twentieth [day] thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which [are] from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the g writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.

(f) Which contains part of May and part of June.

(g) That is, in such letters and languages as was usual in every province.

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/esther-8.html. 1599-1645.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.

Then — Which was above two months after the former decree. All which time God suffered the Jews to lie under the error of this dreadful day, that they might be more throughly humbled for, and purged from those many and great sins under which they lay; that they might be convinced of their great sin and folly in the many offers they had had of returning to their native country, by which means being dispersed in the several parts of this vast dominion, they were like to be a very easy prey to their enemies, whereas their brethren in Judea were in a better capacity to preserve themselves: and for the greater illustration of God's glorious power, and wisdom, and goodness, in giving his people such an admirable and unexpected deliverance.

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Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/esther-8.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

third month

i.e. June.

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These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.
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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Esther 8:9". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/esther-8.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Esther 8:9 Then were the king’s scribes called at that time in the third month, that [is], the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth [day] thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which [are] from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.

Ver. 9. Then were the king’s scribes called] This verse is noted to be the longest in all the Bible. It was Robert Stevens, the printer (I think), that first distinguished the chapters by verses; and this he hath done not so well in some places as were to be wished. These scribes were as ready at Mordecai’s call as before they had been at Haman’s, Esther 3:12, neither cared they much what they wrote, so that they might be sure it was the king’s pleasure they should do it. As for their religion, it may seem to be the same with that of Gallio, the proconsul, Acts 18:17, a mere irreligion, their motto, Mihi placet quicquid Regi placet, Whatsoever pleaseth the king shall please me; and if their hearts could be ripped up, there would be found written therein, The god of this present world.

At that time] As soon as the word was out of the king’s mouth; delay might have bred danger. Habent aulae suum cito, cito. Courtiers are quick of despatch, as they carefully observe their mollissima fandi tempera, so when once they have got a grant they lose no time, they know that opportunities are headlong, and once lost irrecoverable. Hannibal, when he could have taken Rome, would not; when he would, could not. Vincere scis Hannibal victoria uti nescis, said one to him (Plutarch). Mordecai made use of the present, the nick of time. Esther could tell him, by experience, that a well chosen season is the greatest advantage of an action, which, as it is seldom found in haste, so it is too often lost in delay. It is not for Mordecai to drive off any longer, the whole Church was in heaviness, and needed comfort; and some might be slain ere notice came to the contrary. Ad opera brevis hora ferendam est (Ovid. Metam. 1. 4).

In the third month] Two months and more the poor Jews lay under the sentence of death, in a forlorn condition. God loves to help such as are forsaken from their hopes, to help at a dead lift, to comfort the abject, 2 Corinthians 7:6. Though Jacob be a worm, yet God will not crush him, but cherish him. And "I will re store health unto thee, and I will heal thee of thy wounds, saith the Lord; because they called thee an outcast, saying, This is Zion whom no man seeketh after," Jeremiah 30:17. The seasonableness of God’s mercies doth much commend them. These poor wretches cried, and the Lord heard them, and saved them out of all their troubles, Psalms 34:6.

This is the month Sivan] That is, May, when all things are in their prime and pride, and the earth checkered and entrailed with variety, of flowers, and God is seen to be Magnus in minimis, great in the smallest creatures. Then did the Sun of righteousness arise to these afflicted exiles, with healing in his wings, Malachi 4:2 like as the sunbeams did to the dry and cold earth, calling out the herbs and flowers, and healing those deformities that winter had brought upon it.

On the three and twentieth day thereof] The precise time is thus noted, not only to set forth the certainty and truth of the history, but also to let us see what was the present state of the Church, and what is God’s usual dispensation and dealing with his people. For two months and more they were in a very low, and as it might seem, a lost condition. Now they have eight months’ opertunity to breath and prepare themselves to their just and lawful defence yet they are not without various difficulties and discouragements, until God had given them a full and final victory over their enemies. The saints’ prosperity here, like checker-work, is interwoven with fears and crosses. They must not look for a perpetual serenity till they come to heaven. I shall die in my nest, said Job; I shall never be moved, saith David. How apt are the holiest to be proud and secure, to settle upon their lees, unless God pour them from vessel to vessel! This the wise God well knoweth, and therefore exerciseth them with interchanges. See the circle that he goeth in with his Davids, Psalms 30:5-10, and reckon upon this, that if our sorrows be long, they are light, if sharper, the shorter; as thunder, the more violent, the less permanent.

Flebile principium melior fortuna sequetur.

Tears first followed by better fortune.

And it was written according to all that Moredecai commanded] Had he not been a man of singular parts he had not been fit for such a service. It could not otherwise be, but that many eyes were upon him, and some evil eyes, that would more curiously pry into his proceedings than Laban once did into Jacob’s stuff. It behoved him, therefore, to look to his behaviour, and to weigh well his words in dictating such a ticklish edict as this to the king’s secretaries. But God, who had called him to this high employment, did likewise gift him for it. He was with his mouth (as once with Moses, Exodus 4:11), and taught him what he should say. There is no mouth into which God cannot put fit words: and how oft doth he choose the weak and unwise to confound the learned and mighty, as he did Balaam’s ass to convince his master!

Unto the Jews] To them first, because they were in their deepest dumps, and stood in need of comfort. Go, tell my disciples and Peter; let him know with the first that I am risen, for he is in greatest heaviness.

And to the lieutenants, and the deputies, &c.] That they might know that the king’s mind was altered, and that the Jews were now to be favoured and furthered in their just and necessary defence. The equity of this edict, so opposite to the former, they were not to dispute but to despatch. To argue or debate the business were presumption, proud curiosity; to search the reason thereof, to detract or disobey, high offence, equal to rebellion.

Unto every province according to the writing thereof] In their several characters, and manner of writing. The China and Japan writing is from the right hand to the left, but with the lines down the leaf, not crossing, &c.

And unto every people after their language] The whole earth was once of one language, lip, and speech, Genesis 11:1. This was the Hebrew tongue, called the Jews’ language here, and more plainly, Isaiah 36:11 (though some fond men have given the seniority to other languages, many ages younger than the Hebrew). Ever since the building of Babel languages were confounded, and thereby a great labour laid upon the sons of men. The Hebrew doctors say, that thenceforth for one tongue there were seventy-two languages. Others think there were as many tongues as several kindreds and families; and these have multiplied also since that time exceedingly. It was Mordecai’s care here, that all nations under the Persian dominion might have the king’s edict in their various dialects, that so none might plead ignorance. It should be the magistrate’s care that their people have the law of God, the Holy Scriptures, in a known language, since the ignorance thereof is destructive to the soul. This the pope denieth to those misled and muzzled souls, that are fast locked up in his dark dungeon; and giveth this bald reason, Ne sacra verba vilescerent, lest those holy words should be undervalued, and become too cheap. This is good Turkism; the Mahometans read their Koran (which is their Bible) in the Arabic (which is their learned) tongue, lest, if translated, it should be profaned by the vulgar.

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/esther-8.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

In the third month, on the three and twentieth day thereof; which was above two months after the former decree; all which time God suffered the Jews to lie under the terror of this dreadful day partly, that they might be more thoroughly humbled for and purged from those many and great sins under which they lay; partly, and particularly, that they might be convinced of their great sin and folly in neglecting the many offers and opportunities they had of returning to their native country, and to the free and full exercise of the true religion, which could be had no where but in Jerusalem; by which means they being now dispersed in the several parts of this vast dominion, were like to be a very easy prey to their enemies, whereas their brethren in Judea were in a better capacity to preserve themselves; partly, that their most malicious and inveterate enemies might have an opportunity of discovering themselves to their ruin, as the event showed; and partly, for the greater illustration of God’s glorious power, and wisdom, and goodness, in giving his people such an admirable and unexpected deliverance. Yet God so ordered things, that this letter should be sent in due time before it was too late; for there were yet near nine months to come before that appointed day.

It was written unto the Jews; that they might understand their liberty, and be encouraged to use it for their own defence.

And to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces; that they should publish and disperse them into all parts, that both themselves and others might take notice of the king’s pleasure and kindness to the Jews.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Esther 8:9". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/esther-8.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

9.The third month’ Sivan — Corresponding with our June: about two months after Haman’s letters had been sent.

It was written according to all that Mordecai commanded — How signally has Mordecai risen to the power so recently wielded against himself and his kindred. Compare the language of Esther 3:12.

Deputies — Prefects or governors.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/esther-8.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Esther 8:9. On the three and twentieth day thereof — Which was above two months after the former decree. All which time God suffered the Jews to lie under the terror of this dreadful day, that they might be more thoroughly humbled for, and purged from, those many and great sins under which they lay, that they might be convinced of their great sin and folly, in neglecting the many offers and opportunities they had had of returning to their native country, and to the free and public exercise of the true religion, which could be had nowhere but in Jerusalem, by which means they, being now dispersed in the several parts of this vast dominion, must be a very easy prey to their enemies, whereas their brethren in Judea were in a better capacity to preserve themselves; that their most malicious and inveterate enemies might have an opportunity of discovering themselves to their ruin, as the event showed; and for the greater illustration of God’s glorious power, and wisdom, and goodness, in giving his people such an admirable and unexpected deliverance. And God so ordered things, that this letter should be sent in due time, before it was too late; for there were yet near nine months to come before that appointed day. And it was written unto the Jews — That they might understand their liberty, and be encouraged to use it for their own defence. And to the rulers of the provinces — That they should publish and disperse it into all parts, that both themselves and others might take notice of the king’s pleasure, and kindness to the Jews.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/esther-8.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

CHAPTER VIII.

Third. Roman Septuagint, "first....Nisan," ten days after Aman's decree, who seems to have been presently brought to judgment. Yet two whole months might easily elapse, (Calmet) and ten days more, before this contrary edict was dispatched. (Haydock) --- The day of slaughter was still remote. (Menochius)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/esther-8.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

commanded unto = charged. Hebrew. zavah. See note on "law", Esther 3:2.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/esther-8.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces,ccording to their language.

It was written ... to the lieutenants, [ haa'

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/esther-8.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(9) The month Sivan.—This name also occurs in Baruch 1:8. Sivan began with the new moon in May. Rather more than two months had thus passed since the first edict had been sent out.

Lieutenants.—Satraps. (See Note on Esther 3:12.)

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/esther-8.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.
the king's
3:12
and to the lieutenants
1:1,22; 3:12,13; Daniel 6:1
India
The Hebrew word Hoddo, in Syriac, Hendoo, and in Arabic, Hind, is rendered India by all the versions. India, or Hindostan, is a large country of the south of Asia, extending from north to south about 2,400 miles, and from east to west 1,800, between 8 degrees and 35 degrees N. lat. and 68 degrees and 92 degrees E. long.; being bounded on the west by the Indus, east by the Birman empire and Thibet, north by the Indian Caucasus, and south by the Indian Ocean. It is probable, however, that all the country east of the Indus was anciently called India.
and according
1:22; 3:12; 2 Kings 18:26; Daniel 4:1; 1 Corinthians 14:9-11
Reciprocal: Genesis 49:28 - the twelve;  2 Chronicles 15:10 - the third month;  Ezra 2:1 - the children;  Esther 2:16 - the tenth month;  Esther 9:3 - the rulers;  Esther 9:17 - of the same;  Esther 9:20 - in all the provinces;  Esther 9:30 - the hundred;  Esther 10:1 - laid a tribute;  Daniel 3:4 - O people;  Daniel 6:25 - king;  Acts 23:34 - he asked

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Esther 8:9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/esther-8.html.