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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Month. From the time of the institution of the Mosaic law downward, the religious feasts, commencing with the Passover, depended not simply on the month, but on the moon; the 14th of Abib was coincident with the full moon; and the new moons themselves were the occasions of regular festivals. Numbers 10:10; Numbers 28:11-14.
The commencement of the month was generally decided by observation of the new moon. The usual number of months in a year was twelve, as implied in 1 Kings 4:7; 1 Chronicles 27:1-15 , but since twelve lunar months would make, but 354 1/2 days, the years would be short twelve days of the true year, and therefore, it follows as a matter of course that an additional month must have been inserted about every third year, which would bring the number up to thirteen. No notice, however, is taken of this month in the Bible.
In the modern Jewish calendar, the intercalary month is introduced seven times in every nineteen years. The usual method of designating the months was by their numerical order, for example, "the second month," Genesis 7:11, "the fourth month," 2 Kings 25:3, and this was generally retained, even when the names were given, for example, "in the month Zif, which is the second month." 1 Kings 6:1.
The names of the months belong to two distinct periods. In the first place, we have those peculiar to the period of Jewish independence, of which four only, even including Abib, which we hardly regard as a proper name are mentioned, namely,
Abib, in which the Passover fell, Exodus 13:4; Exodus 23:15; Exodus 34:18; Deuteronomy 16:1, and which was established as the first month in commemoration of the Exodus, Exodus 12:2,
Zif, the second month, 1 Kings 6:1; 1 Kings 6:37,
Bul, the eighth, 1 Kings 6:38, and
Ethanim, the seventh. 1 Kings 8:2.
In the second place, we have the names which prevailed, subsequent to the Babylonish captivity; of these, the following seven appear in the Bible:
Nisan, the first, in which the Passover was held, Nehemiah 2:1; Esther 3:7,
Sivan, the third, Esther 8:9; Baruch 1:8,
Elul, the sixth, Nehemiah 6:15; 1 Maccabees 14:27;
Chisleu, the ninth, Nehemiah 1:1; Zechariah 7:1 1 Maccabees 1:54;
Tebeth, the tenth, Esther 2:16;
Sebat, the eleventh, Zechariah 1:7 1 Maccabees 16:14; and
Adar, the twelfth. Esther 3:7; Esther 8:1; 2 Maccabees 15:36.
The names of the remaining five occur in the Talmud and other works; they were,
Iyar, the second, Targum, 2 Chronicles 30:2;
Tammuz, the fourth,
Ab, the fifth,
Tisri, the seventh, and
Marcheshvan, the eighth.
The name of the intercalary month was
Ve-adar, that is, the additional Adar.
The identification of the Jewish months with our own cannot be effected with precision on account of the variations that must inevitably exist between the lunar and the solar month.
Nisan (or Abib) answers to April;
Zif (or Iyar) to May;
Sivan to June;
Tammuz to July;
Ab to August;
Elul to September;
Ethanim (or Tisri) to October;
Bul (or Marcheshvan) to November;
Chisleu to December;
Tebeth to January;
Sebat to February; and
Adar to March.
These files are public domain.
Smith, William, Dr. Entry for 'Month'. Smith's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/sbd/m/month.html. 1901.