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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Ezekiel 28:16

"By the abundance of your trade You were internally filled with violence, And you sinned; Therefore I have cast you as profane From the mountain of God. And I have destroyed you, O covering cherub, From the midst of the stones of fire.

Adam Clarke Commentary

I will cast thee as profane - Thou shalt be cast down from thine eminence.

From the midst of the stones of fire - Some, supposing that stones of fire means the stars, have thought that the whole refers to the fall of Satan.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/ezekiel-28.html. 1832.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

By the multitude of thy merchandise,.... With the several nations of the earth, who came to the markets and fairs of Tyre, and to whom she sent her goods:

they have filled the midst of thee with violence; or, as the Targum,

"thy treasures are filled with rapine;'

with ill gotten goods, as the pope's coffers are through his merchandise of the souls of men, and the great trade that is driven in pardons and indulgences:

and thou hast sinned; by this unjust and ungodly way of dealing:

therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; Mount Zion, the church of the living God, where he dwells, and is worshipped, and on which the Lamb stands with his hundred and forty and four thousand, having his name and his Father's on their foreheads, Revelation 14:1, these will have no communion with the church and pope of Rome; will not receive his mark, nor worship his image; from this mountain, and the inhabitants of it, he stands excluded as a profane person, with whom they will have nothing to do; and hence he persecutes them to the utmost of his power:

and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire; from among the people of God, who have the clear light of the Gospel, and a sincere love for Christ; these withdrew themselves from his jurisdiction and government; and with whom his name, power, and authority perish, especially when they shall have got the victory over him, Revelation 15:1. Kimchi paraphrases it,

"from the midst of the saints who are the Israelites, comparable to stones of fire;'

and Jarchi's note is,

"that thou mayest not take a portion with the righteous;'

have no part, lot, or fellowship with them. The Targum is,

"I will destroy thee, O king that art anointed, because thou thoughtest to rule over the holy people.'


Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/ezekiel-28.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the i mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.

(i) You will have no part among my people.

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/ezekiel-28.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

filled the midst of thee — that is, they have filled the midst of the city; he as the head of the state being involved in the guilt of the state, which he did not check, but fostered.

cast thee as profane — no longer treated as sacred, but driven out of the place of sanctity (see Ezekiel 28:14) which thou hast occupied (compare Psalm 89:39).


Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/ezekiel-28.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.

I will cast — Out thy kingly dignity.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/ezekiel-28.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Ezekiel 28:16 By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.

Ver. 16. By the multitude of thy merchandise.] Many merchants think they may do anything for their own advantage; cheating and overreaching pass for virtues with them. (a)

And thou hast sinned.] By suffering it so to be; for there is a passive injustice as well as an active.

I will cast thee.] I will bring thee down with a vengeance, and make thee an example of that rule, Great sins have great punishments. (b)


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/ezekiel-28.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

By the multitude; by, or in, or according to (as the Gallic version) the multitude or greatness of thy trading: in Tyre were merchants that traded in very great adventures, with vast stocks, and in mighty cargoes.

With violence; thy merchants have by craft, where that would, and by violence where craft would not, compassed their unjust designs, as noted, Ezekiel 27:36. This injustice and violence grew as their trade did, and filled the city with guilt as fast as that did with wealth.

Thou hast sinned: either as one trading among them, thou hast violated justice to promote thine own and their gain, or hast connived at thy merchants when they oppressed all they could; or hast, contrary to justice and equity, supported them in their violence, and judged for them against oppressed strangers. Thou who weft a king, and wouldst be thought a god, is this like to God, who hates violence, loves justice, relieveth the stranger, and righteth the oppressed?

I will cast thee out: these abominable things hast thou done, and now, as an abominable thing, I will throw thee out, either of thy throne and kingly dignity, see Ezekiel 28:14, or thy fancied and imagined heaven, where thou wouldst be a god, for such gods of violence and injustice deserve to be cast out with the aspiring angels.

Destroy thee; utterly destroy.

O covering cherub: see Ezekiel 28:14.


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/ezekiel-28.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

“Therefore have I cast you as profane from the mountain of God,

And I have destroyed you (by means of the) covering cherub from the midst of the stones of fire.”

Note that he is not said to be cast out of the Garden but out of ‘the mountain of God’. That is because his proud boast was to dwell among the gods. Thus his punishment fits his claim. And he loses not only his supposed divinity, but also his glorious apparel. He is to be totally humiliated. (This would be particularly apposite if ‘the garden of the gods’ was seen as Lebanon).

The reading in of ‘by means of the’ is required by the parallelism, both poetically and in comparison with the story of Eden. Having demonstrated that in spite of all his pretensions the King of Tyre was created by Yahweh and was a fallen sinner, he will now be called on to follow the fallen sinner’s fate. He will be driven out by the very guardian cherub whose protection he had boasted about.

Thus the downfall he was about to experience is likened to being cast out and stripped of his bejewelled clothing (the stones of fire). He will be left ‘naked’, revealed as what he really was.

(This problem as to exactly what the king represented himself to be arises because of the requirements of metre in poetry. Words had to be omitted to maintain the metre. Possibly at the time conventions made clear what was meant).


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/ezekiel-28.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

16. Will cast… will destroy — Rather, have cast… have destroyed. So in Ezekiel 28:17-18 the verbs are in the past tense. These words were spoken from the standpoint of prophecy fulfilled. Some scholars amend so as to read, “and the cherub hath destroyed thee.”


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/ezekiel-28.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Abundant trade had made this king increasingly violent to the point that he sinned against God. The reference to trade supports the view that the earthly king is in view.

Because of this sin, the Lord had cast the king from His mountain as profane or common. The king could no longer rule under God"s permissive authority. The Lord had destroyed His servant in that He had removed him from his privileged place of service and allowed his enemies to defeat him.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/ezekiel-28.html. 2012.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

merchandise = traffic, or going about, as in Ezekiel 28:18. Hence it meant calumniator (slanderer), in a moral sense.

hast sinned = didst sin. sinned. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

I will cast, he. = I cast thee as profane. Literally I profaned thee.

the mountain of God. This Hebrew expression (har ha"elohim) occurs seven times (28, 13. Exodus 3:1; Exodus 4:2;; Ezekiel 18:5; Ezekiel 24:13. 1 Kings 19:8. Psalms 68:15). The Massorah gives these to distinguish it from has Jehovah, which also occurs seven times (Genesis 22:14. Numbers 10:33. Psalms 24:3. Isaiah 2:3; Isaiah 30:29. Micah 4:2. Zechariah 8:3).

covering cherub. See note on Ezekiel 28:14.

from. Contrast this "from" with "in" in Ezekiel 28:14; and see the Structure on p. 1145.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/ezekiel-28.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.

By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence - i:e., they have filled the midst of the city with violence; the king, as the head of the state, being involved in the guilt of the state, which he did not check, but fostered.

I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God - no longer treated as sacred, but driven out of the place of sanctity (see Ezekiel 28:14) which thou hast occupied (cf. Psalms 89:39).


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/ezekiel-28.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(16) Filled the midst of thee.—The language passes very naturally here from the king himself to the state over which be presided, and with which he was identified, immediately recurring, however, to the king personally. He, as polluted, should be cast out of his imagined mountain of God: he, the cherub covering the mercy-seat, forsooth, shall be destroyed: his fancied God-like walking amid the stones of fire shall for ever cease.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/ezekiel-28.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.
the multitude
27:12-36; Isaiah 23:17,18; Hosea 12:7; Luke 19:45,46; John 2:16; 1 Timothy 6:9,10
filled
8:17; Genesis 6:11; Amos 3:9; Micah 2:2; 6:12; Habakkuk 2:8,17; Zephaniah 1:9
therefore
Genesis 3:24; Leviticus 18:24-28; Isaiah 22:19; 23:9; Micah 2:10; 2 Peter 2:4-6; Revelation 12:9
O covering

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28:16". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/ezekiel-28.html.

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