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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Ezekiel 28

Verse 1

the LORD . ' Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .

Verse 2

Son of man . See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

the prince of Tyrus . The prince (Hebrew. nagid) is to be distinguished as the type (verses: Ezekiel 28:1-10 ) from the king ( melek ) of Tyre, the antitype (verses: Ezekiel 28:11-19 ). See the Structure above. He is a mere man, as shown in Ezekiel 28:9 , where note the emphasis marked by the Figure of speech Pleonasm ( App-6 ). He was Ithobalus II, Ileb. ' Ethbaal . See Josephus (cont. Apion . 21).

Tyrus = Tyre (the city), as in Ezekiel 26:2 .

the Lord GOD. Hebrew Adonai Jehovah. See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

thine heart. Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ), by which the word heart is repeated in different inflections for emphasis. "Thine heart., in the heart (midst). thine heart. the heart. "

GOD. Hebrew ' El (singular) App-4 .

of God. Hebrew. Elohim (plural) App-4 .

midst = heart (as in Ezekiel 2:0 7 throughout),

a man. Hebrew. 'adam . App-14 .

a man, and not. GOD ( 'El ). Note the Figure of speech Pleonasm ( App-6 ), by which the same thing is put in two ways (first positive and then negative) to emphasize the fact that the "prince" here spoken to (verses: Ezekiel 28:2-10 ) is purely human ( 'adam ), and therefore not "the king" spoken to in verses: Ezekiel 28:11-19 .

not GOD = not ' El . App-4 .

God. Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 .

Verse 3

Behold. Figure of speech Asteismos ( App-6 ), to attract our attention.

wiser. In thine own eyes.

Daniel. Here an example of wisdom; as of righteousness in Ezekiel 14:14 , Ezekiel 14:20 . Compare Daniel 1:17 .

Verse 7

strangers = aliens, or foreigners: the Babylonians were noted for their barbarity. Compare Ezekiel 30:11 ; Ezekiel 31:12 .Isaiah 1:7 ; Isaiah 25:2 ).

defile = profane.

brightness = splendour: occurs only here, and Ezekiel 28:17 . See note on Genesis 3:1 and App-19 .

Verse 8

pit = corruption. Hebrew. shahath.

slain = wounded.

Verse 9

God . Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 .

thou shalt be = thou [art].

GOD . Hebrew. 'El . App-4 .

Verse 10

die. uncircumcised : i.e. come to the miserable end of the ungodly. Compare Ezekiel 31:18 ; Ezekiel 32:19 , Ezekiel 32:21 , Ezekiel 32:25 , Ezekiel 32:32 . The word being used in its moral, not physical sense

deaths. Plural = the great, or awful death.

saith the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.

Verse 12

the king of Tyrus. Here we have a supernatural being addressed: He of whom the "prince of Tyre" was only a type; He who was using that "prince" as one of his agents to secure the world = power. He is not a mere "man "as the prince of Tyre" (see Ezekiel 28:9 ). His description, (see the Structure; 12-17, below) is superterrestrial, and superhuman, and can refer to no other than Satan himself.

Thou sealest up the sum = Thou art the finished pattern. Hebrew toknith = pattern. Occurs only here. and Ezekiel 43:10 .

Verse 13

hast been = wast.

in Eden . Here is no evidence of a "legend", but a reality. Satan, the Nachash or shining one, was there. See notes on Genesis 3:1 , and App-19 . Eve was smitten with his beauty as "an angel of light" (2 Corinthians 11:14 ); and deferred to him as one possessing this "wisdom", and believed his power to make good his promise. Reference to Pentateuch. No mention of Eden since Genesis 4:16 . Isaiah 51:3 , till here; and none after till Ezekiel 31:9 , Ezekiel 31:16 , Ezekiel 31:18 ; Ezekiel 36:35 .Isaiah 51:3 .Joel 2:3 . App-92 .

the garden of and . This is added to leave us in no doubt as to what is meant by Eden, and to show that it was no mere "summer residence 'of the "prince" of Tyre, but, the "garden" of Genesis 2:8-15 .

precious stone. Referring to Genesis 2:11 , Genesis 2:12 .

tabrets = drums. See note on "timbrel" (Exodus 15:20 ), and compare note on 1 Samuel 10:5 .

in the day . See App-18 .

thou wart created. Not begotten by man, or born of woman. This can refer only to Satan.

Verse 14

art = west, as in the other verses here.

the anointed cherub that covereth . Cherub can be used only of a supernatural being, overshadowing and protecting "the world that then was" (2 Peter 3:6 ), or the "garden" of Ezekiel 28:13 .

and I have set thee so , &c.: or, when I appointed thee. thou west.

the holy mountain, &c. See note on Ezekiel 28:13 , below; and compare Isaiah 14:12-14 .

hast walked up and down = didst walk to and fro, &c.; referring to facts concerning which nothing further is revealed.

Verse 15

perfect . . . created. Referring to the period before Satan's fall. See App-19 .

iniquity = perversity. Hebrew ' aval, App-44 .

Verse 16

merchandise = traffic, or going about, as in Ezekiel 28:18 . Hence it meant calumniator (slanderer), in a moral sense.

hast sinned = didst sin. sinned. Hebrew. chata '. App-44 .

I will cast, he. = I cast thee as profane. Literally I profaned thee.

the mountain of God. This Hebrew expression ( har ha'elohim) occurs seven times (28, 13.Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 4:2 ;; Ezekiel 18:5 ; Ezekiel 24:13 . 1 Kings 19:8 . Psalms 68:15 ). The Massorah gives these to distinguish it from has Jehovah, which also occurs seven times (Genesis 22:14 .Numbers 10:33 .Psalms 24:3 .Isaiah 2:3 ; Isaiah 30:29 . Micah 4:2 .Zechariah 8:3; Zechariah 8:3 ).

covering cherub. See note on Ezekiel 28:14 .

from. Contrast this "from" with "in" in Ezekiel 28:14 ; and see the Structure on p. 1145.

Verse 17

hast corrupted = didst corrupt. When this took place we are not told. It was before Genesis 3:11 , Matthew 13:35 .

I will cast thee = I did cast thee.

ground = earth, Hebrew ' eretz, (with Art.)

Verse 18

hast defiled = didst defile.

sanctuaries . Some codices, with six early printed editions, Aram, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "sanctuary" (singular)

multitude = abounding.

iniquities . Some codices, with three early printed editions, with Aramaean and Syriac, read "iniquity" (singular) Hebrew 'avah. App-44 .

it shall devour thee . See Revelation 20:10 . Rev 20:18

people = peoples.

be = become.

any more = for ever.

Verse 21

Son of man. See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .

Zidon . Was not threatened with extinction, as Tyre was. See note on Ezekiel 26:2 .

Verse 22

I will be glorified , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 14:4 , Exodus 14:17 ). App-92 .

they shall know , &c. See note on Ezekiel 6:10 .

Verse 23

gathered. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 30:3 , Deuteronomy 30:4 ). See also Ezekiel 11:17 ; Ezekiel 20:41 ; Ezekiel 34:13 ; Ezekiel 36:24 ; Ezekiel 37:21 ; Ezekiel 39:27 . Leviticus 26:44 , Leviticus 26:45 .Psalms 106:47 . Isaiah 11:11 , Isaiah 11:12 , Isaiah 11:13 ; Isa 11:27 , Isaiah 11:12 , Isaiah 11:13 .Jeremiah 30:18 ; Jer 30:31 , Jeremiah 30:8-10 ; Jeremiah 32:37 . Hosea 1:11 .Joel 3:7 . Amos 9:14 , Amos 9:15 .Obadiah 1:17-21 .Zephaniah 3:19 , Zephaniah 3:20 . App-92 .

sanctified. Compare Ezekiel 28:22 , Ezekiel 36:23 ; Ezekiel 38:23 .Isaiah 5:16 .

heathen = nations.

then shall, &c. Compare Ezekiel 36:28 ; Ezekiel 37:23 .Jeremiah 23:8 ; Jeremiah 27:11 .

in their land = on their soil.

given, &c. See Genesis 28:13 ; and ep. note on Genesis 50:24 .

Verse 24

a pricking brier. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 33:55 ).

the house of Israel . See note on Exodus 16:1 .

Verse 26

they shall dwell . Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 25:18 , Leviticus 25:19 . Deuteronomy 12:10 ; Deuteronomy 33:25 ). App-92 . See also Ezekiel 34:25-28 ; Ezekiel 38:8 . Joe 23:6-8 ; Joe 33:16 . Hosea 2:15 .Zechariah 2:4 , Zechariah 2:5 .

safely = with confidence. Compare Ezekiel 38:11 . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 33:28 ). App-92 .

build, &c. Compare Isaiah 65:21 , Isaiah 65:22 .Jeremiah 29:5 , Jeremiah 29:6 , Jeremiah 29:28 ; Jeremiah 31:4 , Jeremiah 31:5 ; Jeremiah 32:15 .Amos 9:13 , Amos 9:14 .

when I, &c. Compare Ezekiel 28:24 ; chs. 25-32; 35. Isa 13-21. Jer 46-51.Zechariah 1:17 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Ezekiel 28". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/ezekiel-28.html. 1909-1922.