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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Hebrews 1:2

in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world.

Adam Clarke Commentary

Last days - The Gospel dispensation, called the last days and the last time, because not to be followed by any other dispensation; or the conclusion of the Jewish Church and state now at their termination.

By his Son - It is very remarkable that the pronoun αὑτου, his, is not found in the text; nor is it found in any MS. or version. We should not therefore supply the pronoun as our translators have done; but simply read εν Υἱῳ, By a Son, or In a Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things. God has many sons and daughters, for he is the Father of the spirits of all flesh; and he has many heirs, for if sons, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint heirs with Jesus Christ; but he has no Son who is heir of all things, none by whom he made the worlds, none in whom he speaks, and by whom he has delivered a complete revelation to mankind, but Jesus the Christ.

The apostle begins with the lowest state in which Christ has appeared:

  1. His being a Son, born of a woman, and made under the law. He then ascends,
  • So his being an Heir, and an Heir of all things.
  • He then describes him as the Creator of all worlds.
  • As the Brightness of the Divine glory.
  • As the express Image of his person, or character of the Divine substance.
  • As sustaining the immense fabric of the universe; and this by the word of his power.
  • As having made an atonement for the sin of the world, which was the most stupendous of all his works.
  • "'Twas great to speak a world from nought;

    'Twas greater to redeem."

    1. As being on the right hand of God, infinitely exalted above all created beings; and the object of adoration to all the angelic host.
    2. As having an eternal throne, neither his person nor his dignity ever changing or decaying.
    10. As continuing to exercise dominion, when the earth and the heavens are no more! It is only in God manifested in the flesh that all these excellences can possibly appear, therefore the apostle begins this astonishing climax with the simple Sonship of Christ, or his incarnation; for, on this, all that he is to man, and all that he has done for man, is built.

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    Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https: 1832.

    Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

    Hath in these last days - In this the final dispensation; or in this dispensation under which the affairs of the world will be wound up. Phrases similar to this occur frequently in the Scriptures. They do not imply that the world was soon coming to an end, but that that was the “last” dispensation, the “last” period of the world. There had been the patriarchal period, the period under the Law, the prophets, etc., and This was the period during which God‘s “last” method of communication would be enjoyed, and under which the world would close. It might be a very long period, but it would be the “last” one; and so far as the meaning of the phrase is concerned, it might be the longest period, or longer than all the others put together, but still it would be the “last” one. See Acts 2:17 note; Isaiah 2:2 note.

    Spoken unto us - The word “us” here does not of necessity imply that the writer of the Epistle had actually heard him, or that they had heard him to whom the Epistle was written. It means that God had now communicated his will to man by his Son. It may be said with entire propriety that God has spoken to us by his Son, though we have not personally heard or seen him. We have what he spoke and caused to be recorded for our direction.

    By his Son - The title commonly given to the Lord Jesus, as denoting his unique relation to God. It was understood by the Jews to denote equality with God (notes, John 5:18; compare John 10:33, John 10:36), and is used with such a reference here. See notes on Romans 1:4, where the meaning of the phrase “Son of God” is fully considered. It is implied here that the fact that the Son of God has spoken to us imposes the highest obligations to attend to what he has said; that he has an authority superior to all those who have spoken in past times; and that there will be special guilt in refusing to attend to what he has spoken. See Hebrews 2:1-4; compare Hebrews 12:25. The reasons for the superior respect which should be shown to the revelations of the Son of God may be such as these:

    (1) His rank and dignity. He is the equal with God John 1:1, and is himself called God in this chapter; Hebrews 1:8. He has a right, therefore, to command, and when he speaks, people should obey.

    (2) The clearness of the truths which he communicated to man on a great variety of subjects that are of the highest moment to the world. Revelation has been gradual - like the breaking of the day in the east. At first there is a little light; it increases and expands until objects become more and more visible, and then the sun rises in full-orbed glory. At first we discern only the existence of some object - obscure and undefined; then we can trace its outline; then its color, its size, its proportions, its drapery - until it stands before us fully revealed. So it has been with revelation. There is a great variety of subjects which we now see clearly, which were very imperfectly understood by the teaching of the prophets, and would be now if we had only the Old Testament. Among them are the following:

    (a) The character of God. Christ came to make him known as a merciful being, and to show how he could be merciful as well as just. The views given of God by the Lord Jesus are far more clear than any given by the ancient prophets; compared with those entertained by the ancient philosophers, they are like the sun compared with the darkest midnight,

    (b) The way in which man may be reconcile to God. The New Testament - which may be considered as what God “has spoken to us by his Son” - has told us how the great work of being reconciled to God can be effected. The Lord Jesus told us that he came to “give his life a ransom for many;” that he laid down his life for his friends; that he was about to die for man; that he would draw all people to him. The prophets indeed - particularly Isaiah - threw much light on these points. But the mass of the people did not understand their revelations. They pertained to future events always difficult to be understood. But Christ has told us the way of salvation, and he has made it so plain that he who runs may read.

    (c) The moral precepts of the Redeemer are superior to those of any and all that had gone before him. They are elevated, pure, expansive, benevolent - such as became the Son of God to proclaim. Indeed this is admitted on all hands. Infidels are constrained to acknowledge that all the moral precepts of the Saviour are eminently pure and benignant. If they were obeyed, the world would be filled with justice, truth, purity, and benevolence. Error, fraud, hypocrisy, ambition, wars, licentiousness, and intemperance, would cease; and the opposite virtues would diffuse happiness over the face of the world. Prophets had indeed delivered many moral precepts of great importance, but the purest and most extensive body of just principles of good morals on earth are to be found in the teachings of the Saviour.

    (d) He has given to us the clearest view which man has had of the future state; and he has disclosed in regard to that future state a class of truths of the deepest interest to mankind, which were before wholly unknown or only partially revealed.

    1. He has revealed the certainty of a state of future existence - in opposition to the Sadducees of all ages. This was denied before he came by multitudes, and where it was not, the arguments by which it was supported were often of the feeblest kind. The “truth” was held by some - like Plato and his followers - but the “arguments” on which they relied were feeble, and such as were untitled to give rest to the soul. The “truth” they had obtained by tradition; the “arguments” were their own.

    2. He revealed the doctrine of the resurrection of the body. This before was doubted or denied by nearly all the world. It was held to be absurd and impossible. The Saviour taught its certainty; he raised up more than one to show that it was possible; he was himself raised, to put the whole matter beyond debate.

    3. He revealed the certainty of future judgment - the judgment of all mankind.

    4. It disclosed great and momentous truths respecting the future state. Before he came, all was dark. The Greeks spoke of Elysian fields, but they were dreams of the imagination; the Hebrews had some faint notion of a future state where all was dark and gloomy, with perhaps an occasional glimpse of the truth that there is a holy and blessed heaven; but to the mass of mind all was obscure. Christ revealed a heaven, and told us of a hell. He showed us that the one might be gained and the other avoided. He presented important motives for doing it; and had he done nothing more, his communications were worthy the profound attention of mankind. I may add:

    (3) That the Son of God has claims on our attention from the manner in which he spoke. He spoke as one having “authority;” Matthew 7:29. He spoke as a “witness” of what he saw and knew; John 3:11. He spoke without doubt or ambiguity of God, and heaven, and hell. His is the language of one who is familiar with all that he describes; who saw all, who knew all. There is no hesitancy or doubt in his mind of the truth of what he speaks; and he speaks as if his whole soul were impressed with its unspeakable importance. Never were so momentous communications made to people of hell as fell from the lips of the Lord Jesus (see notes on Matthew 23:33); never were announcements made so suited to awe and appall a sinful world.

    Whom he hath appointed heir of all things - see Psalm 2:8; compare notes, Romans 8:17. This is language taken from the fact that he is “the Son of God.” If a son, then he is an heir - for so it is usually among people. This is not to be taken literally, as if he inherits anything as a man does. An heir is one who inherits anything after the death of its possessor - usually his father. But this cannot be applied in this sense to the Lord Jesus. The language is used to denote his rank and dignity as the Son of God. As such all things are his, as the property of a father descends to his son at his death. The word rendered “heir” - κληρονόμος klēronomos- means properly:

    (1) one who acquires anything by lot; and,

    (2) an “heir” in the sense in which we usually understand the word. It may also denote a “possessor” of anything received as a portion, or of property of any kind; see Romans 4:13-14. It is in every instance rendered “heir” in the New Testament. Applied to Christ, it means that as the Son of God he is possessor or lord of all things, or that all things are his; compare Acts 2:36; Acts 10:36; John 17:10; John 16:15. “All things that the Father hath are mine.” The sense is, that all things belong to the Son of God. Who is so “rich” then as Christ? Who so able to endow his friends with enduring and abundant wealth?

    By whom - By whose agency; or who was the actual agent in the creation. Grotins supposes that this means, “on account of whom;” and that the meaning is, that the universe was formed with reference to the Messiah, in accordance with an ancient Jewish maxim. But the more common and Classical usage of the word rendered “by” ( διὰ dia), when it governs a genitive, as here, is to denote the instrumental cause; the agent by which anything is done; see Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:5, Matthew 2:15, Matthew 2:23; Luke 18:31; John 2:17; Acts, Acts 2:22, Acts 2:43; Acts 4:16; Acts 12:9; Romans 2:16; Romans 5:5. It may be true that the universe was formed with reference to the glory of the Son of God, and that this world was brought into being in order to show his glory; but it would not do to establish that doctrine on a passage like this. Its obvious and proper meaning is, that he was the agent of the creation - a truth that is abundantly taught elsewhere; see John 1:3, John 1:10; Colossians 1:16; Ephesians 3:9; 1 Corinthians 8:6. This sense, also, better agrees with the design of the apostle in this place. His object is to set forth the dignity of the Son of God. This is better shown by the consideration that he was the creator of all things, than that all things were made for him.

    The worlds - The universe, or creation. So the word here - αἰών aiōn- is undoubtedly used in Hebrews 11:3. The word properly means “age” - an indefinitely long period of time; then perpetuity, ever, eternity - “always” being. For an extended investigation of the meaning of the word, the reader may consult an essay by Prof. Stuart, in the Spirit of the Pilgrims, for 1829, pp. 406-452. From the sense of “age,” or “duration,” the word comes to denote the present and future age; the present world and the world to come; the present world, with all its cares, anxieties, and evils; the people of this world - a wicked generation, etc. Then it means the world - the material universe creation as it is. The only perfectly clear use of the word in this sense in the New Testament is in Hebrews 11:3, and there there can be no doubt. “Through faith we understand that the worlds were made by the Word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.” The passage before us will bear the same interpretation, and this is the most obvious and intelligible. What would be the meaning of saying that the “ages” or “dispensations” were made by the Son of God? The Hebrews used the word - צולם ‛owlaam- in the same sense. It properly means “age, duration;” and thence it came to be used by them to denote the world - made up of “ages” or generations; and then the world itself. This is the fair, and, as it seems to me, the only intelligible interpretation of this passage - an interpretation amply sustained by texts referred to above as demonstrating that the universe was made by the agency of the Son of God. Compare Hebrews 1:10 note, and John 1:3 note.

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    Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https: 1870.

    Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

    Hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds.

    The broad premise here is that the same personal God who gave the Old Testament and its derived institutions has likewise given the New Testament and its system. The same God who spoke of old through the prophets reserved a more noble means of communication for humanity in the setting up of the new covenant, seeing that he did so "in his Son." The contrast in the manner of God's speaking to the Hebrew prophets and in that "at the end of these days" is vivid indeed. Their revelation came piecemeal, here a little and there a little, line upon line, precept upon precept (Isaiah 28:10-13); the revelation for the new covenant was brought in one vast body of truth. The old system was communicated through many persons, the new through the Son alone; and a proper understanding of that epic truth will dispel forever any notion that there could be any prophet, leader, or any other type of seer in the Christian dispensation, with a valid message from God. For God to communicate to mankind through any such persons would be a reversion to the old system. As declared in Jude 1:1:1:3, the faith was "once for all delivered"!


    The superiority of Christianity over Judaism is set forth in the opening lines of Hebrews and with an emphasis that makes the superiority overwhelming. The new revelation came, not through servants, as in the prophets, but through the Son and heir of all things. The superiority of the new institution is actually the subject matter of the whole epistle; and that superiority derives totally from the Son who in this chapter is presented as none other than God himself, humbled in the incarnation, of course, but only for a little while and for a definite purpose. The credentials of the Son are not few but many; and in Hebrews 1:2 and Hebrews 1:3, no less than seven credentials of his authority are enumerated.

    1. "Whom he appointed heir of all things ..." It was in our Lord's status as a man that he was appointed heir of all things, since in his character as God, he created all things. Bruce wrote,

    These words no doubt echo the oracle of Psalms 2:8, addressed to one who is both the Lord's Anointed and acclaimed by God as his Son:

    Ask of me, and I will give thee the nations for thine inheritance, And the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.

    Our author applies the preceding words of this oracle to Christ in Hebrews 1:5; but in his mind the inheritance of the Son of God is not limited to earth; it embraces the universe, and particularly the world to come.[1]SIZE>

    These credentials, if we may so name them, establish the authority of the King of kings, Christ; and the first of these makes him king by right of inheritance, which is the classical and historical means of establishing kingly authority. In our world, even today, the great fortunes still move along lines of inheritances; and the most stable thrones move on the same trajectory. As a man, Christ is the "firstborn" of all creation, entitling him as the heir of all things, more especially in view of the additional fact that, in the most exalted sense, he is the "only begotten."

    2. "Through whom also he made the worlds ..." This second credential makes Christ King by right of creation. What one makes is his; and we are Christ's, as are the worlds also, by fact of creation by Christ. This astonishing declaration is supported by other scriptures. "For in him were all things created, in the heavens and upon the earth, things visible, and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him and unto him" (Colossians 1:16). "All things were made through him; and without him was not anything made that hath been made" (John 1:3). It is evident that Hebrews presents Christ as a member of the Godhead, present and active in creation, and therefore hailed as maker of the worlds, or ages, but not to be distinguished from "all things." Thus, here is revealed a part of the mystery why God said, "Let us make man in our own image" (Genesis 1:26). Isaiah called him "Counselor" (Isaiah 9:6), thus making our Saviour a partner and participant in the immutable counsels of the Eternal before the world was made, a fact implicit in the words of Christ himself when he prayed, "Father glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was" (John 17:5). Cargill said:

    An astronomer recently announced that the universe contains twelve quadrillions of suns, each with its own solar system. What is a quadrillion? In the United States and France, it is the figure 1, with fifteen ciphers; and in England, it is the figure 1, with twenty-four ciphers. Just think of the size of the universe! It staggers the imagination. It is foolish to say the universe centers in the sun. It centers in Christ. The entire universe holds together in him. He is pre-existent. He is Creator. He is thus fit to be the Lord and ruler of the world.[2]

    [1] F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1967), p. 4.

    [2] Robert L. Cargill, Understanding the Book of Hebrews (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1967), p. 5.

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    James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

    Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https: Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

    John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

    Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son,.... This is the Gospel revelation, or the revelation in the Gospel dispensation; which though it comes from the same author the other does, yet in many things differs from it, and is preferable to it; and indeed the general design of this epistle is to show the superior excellency of the one to the other; the former was delivered out in time past, but this "in these last days"; the Alexandrian copy, the Complutensian edition, and several other copies, read, "in the last of these days": perfectly agreeable to the phrase באחרית הימים, used in Genesis 49:1 to which the apostle refers, and in which places the days of the Messiah are intended; and it is a rule with the JewsF13Kimchi & Aben Ezra in Isa. ii. 2. , that wherever the phrase, "the last days", is mentioned, the days of the Messiah are designed: and they are to be understood not of the last days of the natural world, but of, the Jewish world and state; indeed the times of the Messiah, or Gospel dispensation, may be called the last days of the natural world, according to the tradition of the house of Elias; which teaches, that the duration of the world will be six thousand years, and divides it into three parts, the last of which is assigned to the Messiah, thus; two thousand years void, (or without the law,) two thousand years the law, and two thousand years the days of the MessiahF14T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 97. 1. : but it is best to understand this of the last days of the Mosaic economy, or Jewish dispensation; for the Messiah was to come before the Jewish civil and church states were dissolved; before the sceptre departed from Judah, and before the second temple was destroyed; and he was to come at the end, or toward the close of both these states; and which is called the end, or ends of the world, Habakkuk 2:3 and quickly after Jesus, the true Messiah was come, an end was put to both these: from whence it may be observed, that the Messiah must be come; that the Mosaic economy, and Jewish worship, will never be restored again; that the Gospel revelation being made in the last days, ought to be regarded the more, it being the last revelation God will ever make. Moreover, this differs from the former in this respect, that was made to the fathers, this "to us"; meaning either the apostles in particular, or the Jews in general, to whom the apostle is writing: this shows that the Gospel revelation was first made to the Jews; and it being made to them personally, they were under great obligation to regard it; and that God had not cast off his people; and that though he had greatly indulged their fathers, he had showed greater favour to them, having provided some better thing for them: and there is a difference between these two revelations in the manner in which they were made; the former was at sundry times, and in divers manners, the latter was made at once, and in one way; that was delivered out in parts, and by piece meal, this the whole together; the whole mind and will of God, all his counsel, all that Christ heard of the Father; it is the faith that was once, and at once, delivered to the saints; and it has been given out in one way, by the preaching of the word: to which may be added, that formerly God spoke by many persons, by the prophets, but now by one only, "by his Son"; who is so not by creation, nor by adoption, nor by office, but by nature; being his own Son, his proper Son, begotten of him, of the same nature with him, and equal to him; and so infinitely preferable to the prophets: he is a Son, and not a servant, in whom the Father is, and he in the Father, and in whom the Spirit is without measure; and God is said to speak by him, or in him, because he was now incarnate; and what he says from God should be attended to, both on account of the dignity of his person, as the Son of God, and because of the authority he came with as Mediator: whom he hath appointed heir of all things; which must be understood of him not as God, and Creator; for as such he has a right to all things; all that the Father has are his; the kingdom of nature and providence belongs to him, he being the Former and Maker of all things; but as Mediator, who has all things committed to him, to subserve the ends of his office; and has a kingdom appointed him, and which he will deliver up again the word all may refer either to persons or things; to persons, not angels, good or bad, though both are subject to him, yet neither are called his inheritance; but elect men, who are his portion, and the lot of his inheritance; and to things relating to these persons, and for their use and service, in time, and to all eternity; as all temporal things, and all spiritual ones, the blessings and promises of the covenant of grace, the gifts and graces of the Spirit, and eternal glory and happiness, the saints' inheritance, who are joint heirs with Christ.

    By whom also he made the worlds; this is said in agreement with the notions of the Jews, and their way of speaking, who make mention of three worlds, which they call, the upper world (the habitation of God), the middle world (the air), and the lower worldF15Tzeror Hammor, fol. 1. 4. & 3. 2, 3. Caphtor, fol. 79. 1. (the earth); and sometimes they call them the world of angels (where they dwell), the world of orbs (where the sun, moon, and stars are), and the world belowF16Tzeror Hammor, fol. 83. 2. Caphtor, fol. 90. 1. (on which we live); and it is frequent in their writings, and prayer booksF17Seder Tephillot, fol. 5. 2. & 40. 2. Ed. Amstelod. , to call God רבון כל העולמים, "Lord of all worlds"; See Gill on Hebrews 11:3, these God made by his Son, not as an instrument, but as an efficient cause with him; for by him were all things made, whether visible or invisible; and the preposition "by" does not always denote instrumentality, but sometimes efficiency; and is used of God the Father himself, and in this epistle, Hebrews 2:10.

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    Gill, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https: 1999.

    Geneva Study Bible

    Hath in these a last days spoken unto us by [his] b Son, 2 whom he hath appointed c heir of all things, by whom also he made the d worlds;

    (a) So that the former declaration made by the prophets was not complete, and nothing must be added to this latter.

    (b) That one Son is God and man. {(2)} The second part of the same statement: The same Son is appointed by the Father to be our king and Lord, by whom also he made all things: and in whom only he sets forth his glory, yea and himself also to be under obligation to us, who upholds and supports all things by his will and pleasure.

    (c) Possessor and equal partner of all things with the Father.

    (d) That is, whatever has been at any time, is, or shall be.

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    Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https: 1599-1645.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

    in these last days — In the oldest manuscripts the Greek is. “At the last part of these days.” The Rabbins divided the whole of time into “this age,” or “world,” and “the age to come” (Hebrews 2:5; Hebrews 6:5). The days of Messiah were the transition period or “last part of these days” (in contrast to “in times past”), the close of the existing dispensation, and beginning of the final dispensation of which Christ‘s second coming shall be the crowning consummation.

    by his SonGreek, “IN (His) Son” (John 14:10). The true “Prophet” of God. “His majesty is set forth: (1) Absolutely by the very name “Son,” and by three glorious predicates, “whom He hath appointed,” “by whom He made the worlds,” “who sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;” thus His course is described from the beginning of all things till he reached the goal (Hebrews 1:2, Hebrews 1:3). (2) Relatively, in comparison with the angels, Hebrews 1:4; the confirmation of this follows, and the very name “Son” is proved at Hebrews 1:5; the “heirship,” Hebrews 1:6-9; the “making the worlds,” Hebrews 1:10-12; the “sitting at the right hand” of God, Hebrews 1:13, Hebrews 1:14.” His being made heir follows His sonship, and preceded His making the worlds (Proverbs 8:22, Proverbs 8:23; Ephesians 3:11). As the first begotten, He is heir of the universe (Hebrews 1:6), which He made instrumentally, Hebrews 11:3, where “by the Word of God” answers to “by whom”‘ (the Son of God) here (John 1:3). Christ was “appointed” (in God‘s eternal counsel) to creation as an office; and the universe so created was assigned to Him as a kingdom. He is “heir of all things” by right of creation, and especially by right of redemption. The promise to Abraham that he should be heir of the world had its fulfillment, and will have it still more fully, in Christ (Romans 4:13; Galatians 3:16; Galatians 4:7).

    worlds — the inferior and the superior worlds (Colossians 1:16). Literally, “ages” with all things and persons belonging to them; the universe, including all space and ages of time, and all material and spiritual existences. The Greek implies, He not only appointed His Son heir of all things before creation, but He also (better than “also He”) made by Him the worlds.

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    This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https: 1871-8.

    William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

    2. “Whom he set forth the heir of all things, through whom also he ordained the ages.” Satan conquered this world in Eden when he captured Adam and Eve, its king and queen. God recognized his conquest. 2 Corinthians 4:4. If Satan had carried out his scheme he would have added this world to hell. Christ volunteered, bled and died, gloriously redeeming this world from Satan’s conquest. When he flew up to heaven God received him as a conqueror and said: “Well done.” Hence Christ is the rightful heir of all things, i.e., the whole earth and all the people. Hence he saves all the people who will let him and will completely save the whole earth and firmament, not only from sin, but all the effects of sin, completely sanctifying and restoring it back to the heavenly state in which Satan found it. This world was a part of heaven before the devil broke it loose in order to add it to hell. Christ is going to purify it by the fiery baptism (2 Peter 3:10-13), and add it back to heaven. Revelation 21:1. Where the old English says, “made the world,” the Greek has aioonas, i.e., the ages. Hence we translate it, “ordained the ages.” The popular opinion, proclaimed from a hundred thousand pulpits, that the world is to have an end, originated from a wrong translation of this word aioon. It does not mean “world,” as the old English has it, but “age,” while cosmos means world. The Bible positively reveals the eternal perpetuity of this world. Time, which is simply the measure of the mediatorial kingdom, will have an end. After the glorious millennial ages shall have come and gone, during the final judgment the earth will be cremated and thoroughly sanctified by fire, made over and transformed into a heaven, and given to the occupancy of the redeemed saints and glorified angels forever. The last two chapters in the Bible present a vivid and glorious description of this earth and firmament after their glorious transformation into the heavenly state. In this verse we see the ages were instituted in the divine restitutionary economy in the progressive development of this miserable, fallen world, preparatory for the coming kingdom. The antediluvian, patriarchal, Mosaic, Judaic ages have come and gone, each verifying its office in the grand preparatory drama. The Gentile age winds up the grand panorama and ushers in the glorious kingdom.

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    Godbey, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". https:

    Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

    At the end of these days (επ εσχατου των ημερων τουτωνep' eschatou tōn hēmerōn toutōn). In contrast with παλαιpalai above.

    Hath spoken (ελαλησενelalēsen). First aorist indicative of λαλεωlaleō the same verb as above, “did speak” in a final and full revelation.

    In his Son
    (εν υιωιen huiōi). In sharp contrast to εν τοις προπηταιςen tois prophētais “The Old Testament slopes upward to Christ” (J. R. Sampey). No article or pronoun here with the preposition ενen giving the absolute sense of “Son.” Here the idea is not merely what Jesus said, but what he is (Dods), God‘s Son who reveals the Father (John 1:18). “The revelation was a son-revelation ” (Vincent).

    Hath appointed
    (ετηκενethēken). First aorist (kappa aorist) active of τιτημιtithēmi a timeless aorist.

    Heir of all things
    (κληρονομον παντωνklēronomon pantōn). See Mark 12:6 for ο κληρονομοςho klēronomos in Christ‘s parable, perhaps an allusion here to this parable (Moffatt). The idea of sonship easily passes into that of heirship (Galatians 4:7; Romans 8:17). See the claim of Christ in Matthew 11:27; Matthew 28:18 even before the Ascension.

    Through whom
    (δι ουdi' hou). The Son as Heir is also the Intermediate Agent (διαdia) in the work of creation as we have it in Colossians 1:16.; John 1:3.

    The worlds
    (τους αιωναςtous aiōnas). “The ages” (secula, Vulgate). See Hebrews 11:3 also where τους αιωναστον κοσμονtous aiōnas = τα πανταton kosmon (the world) or the universe like αιωνta panta (the all things) in Hebrews 1:3; Romans 11:36; Colossians 1:16. The original sense of αειaiōn (from aei always) occurs in Hebrews 6:20, but here “by metonomy of the container for the contained” (Thayer) for “the worlds” (the universe) as in lxx, Philo, Josephus.

    Copyright Statement
    The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

    Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https: Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

    Vincent's Word Studies

    In these last times ( ἐπ ' ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων )

    Lit. at the last of these days. The exact phrase only here; but comp 1 Peter 1:20and Judges 1:18. lxx, ἐπ ' ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν atthe last of the days, Numbers 24:14; Deuteronomy 4:30; Jeremiah 23:20; Jeremiah 25:18; Daniel 10:14. The writer conceives the history of the world in its relation to divine revelation as falling into two great periods. The first he calls αἱ ἡμέραι αὗται thesedays (Hebrews 1:2), and ὀ καιρὸς ὁ ἐνεστηκώς thepresent season (Hebrews 9:9). The second he describes as καιρὸς διορθώσεως theseason of reformation (Hebrews 9:10), which is ὀ καιρὸς ὁ μέλλων theseason to come: comp. ἡ οἰκουμένη ἡ μέλλουσα theworld to come (Hebrews 2:5); μέλλων αἰών theage to come (Hebrews 6:5); πόλις ἡ μέλλουσα thecity to come (Hebrews 12:14). The first period is the period of the old covenant; the second that of the new covenant. The second period does not begin with Christ's first appearing. His appearing and public ministry are at the end of the first period but still within it. The dividing-point between the two periods is the συντέλεια τοῦ αἰῶνος theconsummation of the age, mentioned in Hebrews 9:26. This does not mean the same thing as at the last of these days (Hebrews 1:2), which is the end of the first period denoted by these days, but the conclusion of the first and the beginning of the second period, at which Christ appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. This is the end of the καιρὸς ἐνεστηκώς thepresent season: this is the limit of the validity of the old sacrificial offerings: this is the inauguration of the time of reformation. The phrase ἐπ ' ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων therefore signifies, in the last days of the first period, when Christ was speaking on earth, and before his crucifixion, which marked the beginning of the second period, the better age of the new covenant.

    Hath spoken unto us ( ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν )

    Rend. spake, referring to the time of Christ's teaching in the flesh. To us God spake as to the fathers of old.

    By his son ( ἐν υἱῷ )

    Lit. in a son. Note the absence of the article. Attention is directed, not to Christ's divine personality, but to his filial relation. While the former revelation was given through a definite class, the prophets, the new revelation is given through one who is a son as distinguished from a prophet. He belongs to another category. The revelation was a son-revelation. See Hebrews 2:10-18. Christ's high priesthood is the central fact of the epistle, and his sonship is bound up with his priesthood. See Hebrews 5:5. For a similar use of υἱός sonwithout the article, applied to Christ, see Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 7:28.

    Whom he hath appointed heir of all things ( ὃν ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων )

    For ἔθηκεν appointedsee on John 15:16. For κληρονόμος heirsee on inheritance, 1 Peter 1:4; and comp. on Christ as heir, Mark 12:1-12. God eternally predestined the Son to be the possessor and sovereign of all things. Comp. Psalm 89:28. Heirship goes with sonship. See Romans 8:17; Galatians 4:7. Christ attained the messianic lordship through incarnation. Something was acquired as the result of his incarnation which he did not possess before it, and could not have possessed without it. Equality with God was his birthright, but out of his human life, death, and resurrection came a type of sovereignty which could pertain to him only through his triumph over human sin in the flesh (see Hebrews 1:3), through his identification with men as their brother. Messianic lordship could not pertain to his preincarnate state: it is a matter of function, not of inherent power and majesty. He was essentially Son of God; he must become Son of man.

    By whom also he made the worlds ( δι ' οὗ καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας )

    Διὰ commonly expresses secondary agency, but, in some instances, it is used of God's direct agency. See 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 4:7. Christ is here represented as a mediate agency in creation. The phrase is, clearly, colored by the Alexandrian conception, but differs from it in that Christ is not represented as a mere instrument, a passive tool, but rather as a cooperating agent. “Every being, to reach existence, must have passed through the thought and will of the Logos” (Godet); yet “the Son can do nothing of himself but what he seeth the Father doing” (John 5:19). With this passage Colossians 1:16should be studied. There it is said that all things, collectively ( τὰ πάντα ), were created in him ( ἐν αὐτῷ ) and through him ( δι ' αὐτοῦ as here). The former expression enlarges and completes the latter. Δι ' αὐτοῦ represents Christ as the mediate instrument. Ἐν αὐτῷ indicates that “all the laws and purposes which guide the creation and government of the universe reside in him, the Eternal Word, as their meeting-point.” Comp. John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6. For τοῦς αἰῶνας theworlds, see additional note on 2 Thessalonians 1:9. Rend. for by whom also he made, by whom he also made. The emphasis is on made, not on worlds: on the fact of creation, not on what was created. In the writer's thought heirship goes with creation. Christ is heir of what he made, and because he made it. As πάντων, in the preceding clause, regards all things taken singly, αἰῶνας regards them in cycles. Ἀιῶνας does not mean times, as if representing the Son as the creator of all time and times, but creation unfolded in time through successive aeons. All that, in successive periods of time, has come to pass, has come to pass through him. Comp. 1 Corinthians 10:11; Ephesians 3:21; Hebrews 9:26; 1 Timothy 1:17; lxx, Ecclesiastes href="/desk/?q=ec+3:11&sr=1">Ecclesiastes 3:11. See also Clement of Rome, Ad Corinth. xxxv, ὁ δημιουργὸς καὶ πατὴρ τῶν αἰώνων theCreator and Father of the ages. Besides this expression, the writer speaks of the world as κόσμος (Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 10:5); ἡ οἰκουμένη (Hebrews 1:6), and τὰ πάντα (Hebrews 1:3).

    Copyright Statement
    The text of this work is public domain.

    Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https: Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

    Wesley's Explanatory Notes

    Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

    Whom he hath appointed heir of all things — After the name of Son, his inheritance is mentioned. God appointed him the heir long before he made the worlds, Ephesians 3:11; Proverbs 8:22, etc. The Son is the firstborn, born before all things: the heir is a term relating to the creation which followed, Hebrews 1:6.

    By whom he also made the worlds — Therefore the Son was before all worlds. His glory reaches from everlasting to everlasting, though God spake by him to us only "in these last days."

    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

    Wesley, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https: 1765.

    Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

    In these last days; in these days of the last dispensation.--Appointed; constituted.--The worlds; the visible universe.

    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain.

    Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https: 1878.

    Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

    2.Whom he has appointed, heir, etc. He honors Christ with high commendations, in order to lead us to show him reverence; for since the Father has subjected all things to him, we are all under his authority. He also intimates that no good can be found apart from him, as he is the heir of all things. It hence follows that we must be very miserable and destitute of all good things except he supplies us with his treasures. He further adds that this honor of possessing all things belongs by right to the Son, because by him have all things been created. At the same time, these two things (10) are ascribed to Christ for different reasons.

    The world was created by him, as he is the eternal wisdom of God, which is said to have been the director of all his works from the beginning; and hence is proved the eternity of Christ, for he must have existed before the world was created by him. If, then, the duration of his time be inquired of, it will be found that it has no beginning. Nor is it any derogation to his power that he is said to have created the world, as though he did not by himself create it. According to the most usual mode of speaking in Scripture, the Father is called the Creator; and it is added in some places that the world was created by wisdom, by the word, by the Son, as though wisdom itself had been the creator, [or the word, or the Son.] But still we must observe that there is a difference of persons between the Father and the Son, not only with regard to men, but with regard to God himself. But the unity of essence requires that whatever is peculiar to Deity should belong to the Son as well as to the Father, and also that whatever is applied to God only should belong to both; and yet there is nothing in this to prevent each from his own peculiar properties.

    But the word heir is ascribed to Christ as manifested in the flesh; for being made man, he put on our nature, and as such received this heirship, and that for this purpose, that he might restore to us what we had lost in Adam. For God had at the beginning constituted man, as his Son, the heir of all good things; but through sin the first man became alienated from God, and deprived himself and his posterity of all good things, as well as of the favor of God. We hence only then begin to enjoy by right the good things of God, when Christ, the universal heir, admits to a union with himself; for he is an heir that he may endow us with his riches. But the Apostle now adorns him with this title, that we may know that without him we are destitute of all good things.

    If you take all in the masculine gender, the meaning is, that we ought all to be subject to Christ, because we have been given to him by the Father. But I prefer reading it in the neuter gender; then it means that we are driven from the legitimate possession of all things, both in heaven and on earth, except we be united to Christ.

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    Calvin, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https: 1840-57.

    William Newell's Commentary on Romans and Revelation

    At the end of these days God did speak unto us in (the person of His) Son, Whom He appointed Heir of all things, through Whom also He made the ages

    Astonishing it was, indeed, even in that "old time," that the infinite, eternal, glorious God should speak unto dust and ashes such as man is! But this wondrous fact of God's having spoken in past days is to prepare us (vs. 2) for a more stupendous statement: (God) did at the end of these days speak unto us in (the person of His) Son!*

    It should be noted that the words, did speak unto us in Son, (which great fact carries throughout the epistle) refer to the Son at His incarnation and onward. John, indeed, defends His absolute, eternal Sonship in his opening verse: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God ... All things were made through Him; and without Him was not anything made that hath been made." God spoke indeed through the Old Testament writers. But this was before God spake unto us IN (His) Son. ("In Son", there is no article, there is no possessive pronoun, in the Greek. Again we feel the poverty of English idiom, and must translate, "His Son," or "a Son". But if we say over and over to ourselves the very words, God did speak unto us in Son, our hearts will feel the meaning, though our words cannot translate it.)

    It is, in these first two verses of Hebrews, not the fact that God hath "spoken": but that, having spoken to the fathers by divers portions and in divers manners, He has gone beyond these former "Portions" and "manners" of speaking and did speak in (the person of His) SON!

    Nor is it to have this Son Himself here speak to us. God speaks: and lo, the Son is there! "This is My Beloved Son!" Nay, infinitely beyond this: for God does not in Hebrews say, "Hear Him." Nay: the Son does not speak to us in Hebrews. But God speaks concerning Him. And it is after the Cross, after the resurrection, after the post-resurrection salutation to Christ--"Thou art a Priest forever after the order of Melchizedek."

    It is in view of the Divine glory of the Person of Christ, the SON, Heir of all things, addressed as God, Lord, Creator and Upholder of all things; also, indeed, as Son of Man--for as man He is to be set over all things! And we even now behold Him, "because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor." Thus is He, the Son, set before us at the very first in Hebrews!

    How utterly different is this from Old Testament "words" and "portions." Truly this is another "manner of speaking" than those messages of old time unto the fathers in the prophets. Here is the only begotten Son Who declares the Father! (John 1:18).

    I repeat, Christ does not speak in the book of Hebrews. He, Himself, is God's message to us here!

    And now we behold the snare into which so many have been drawn. They go back to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John and study "the teachings of Jesus," as they call them. They dream to honor Him in terming Him "the Great Teacher."

    But the fundamental truth set forth in Hebrews is that Christ Himself, the Son of God, is God's message, His voice to us. Herein the message of Hebrews resembles John 3:16, "God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son"; and again, "He that hath the Son hath the life; he that hath not the Son of God hath not the life" (1 John 5:12).

    There comes for everyone who has believed on the Lord Jesus Christ a moment when he HEARS--when God the Father speaks by the blessed Spirit to his heart. Christ, therefore, is no mere Teacher, but the personal Voice and eternal Gift of God to him! Such an one knows what the words before us mean, God hath spoken to us in (the person of His) Son.

    The presence of the Son comes steadily before us in the Bible. First the prophecy of "the Seed of the woman" (Gen. 3:15); then, "Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel" (God with us)--Isaiah 7:14; next, the manner of fulfillment: Gabriel announces to Mary: "The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee: wherefore also the holy thing which is begotten shall be called the Son of God" (Lk 1:35). Then, the angelic rapture, and the song the shepherds heard: "Glory to God in the highest!" The star, and company of worshiping wise men from the East; the voice from Heaven, "This is My beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him"; the years of His ministry of mercy; Gethsemane--and the accepting of the cup from the Father's hand; the laying down of His life at Calvary; the final word, "Father, into Thy hands I commend My spirit"; the resurrection, and the message to Mary Magdalene, "Go unto My brethren, and say to them, I ascend unto My Father and your Father, and My God and your God" (John 20:17).

    Now all these things are familiar to us; but look again at the language: God hath spoken unto us in Son. We naturally expect to hear that Son speaking to us in this book of Hebrews. From the beginning to the end He is before us, there at God's right hand. The Holy Ghost inspires the writer of Hebrews to portray His eternal deity and glory; His real humanity; and His session at the right hand of the Majesty on high, where He "ever liveth to make intercession." Over the house of God as Son, not servant; greater infinitely than the host of angels, or the servants of God on earth; appearing "before the face of God for us," a seated Priest!--His one offering for redemption forever over! And, in the infinite power and worth of that sacrifice as known by God alone, a "Great High Priest": One able to be "touched with the feeling of our infirmities," having been "in all points tempted like as we are--sin apart."

    Thus God hath spoken to us in Son. In the silent depths of our hearts we either hearken to God speaking in this Son, and respond to God's invitation to enter in boldly, by the blood of Jesus, to the throne of grace, in a life of faith and praise and worship; or, we "neglect", "drift away", and finally "refuse"--what? The voice of God Himself, speaking to us in His Son! so, it is not the "voice of words," as at Sinai, that comes to us. God speaks to us in a Person, His dear, only-begotten One: Jesus Christ, "the same yesterday, and today, and unto the ages."

    Now let us consider the seven marvelous utterances (Heb 1:2-3) concerning this Son in Whom God hath spoken unto US.

    1. Whom He appointed Heir of all things.
    2. Through Whom also He made the ages (aionas).
    3. Being the effulgence of (God's) glory.
    4. (Being) the exact-expression of His substance.
    5. Upholding all things by the word of His power.
    6. He ... made purification of sins.
    7. He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high.

    First, Whom He appointed Heir of all things--This great revelation naturally evokes a threefold inquiry: First, as to the place of God in appointing Christ Heir. Second, Why Heir, and appointed when? Third, What do "all things" embrace?

    The Son shared the Divine glory before the world was. He emptied Himself" when He came into the world. (Philippians 2:7, Revised Version. That is, He laid aside His glory, His power, and His wisdom, leaving them with the Father, and taking the "form of a servant" down here. He spoke of the glory He had with the Father before the world was. He said, "The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth the Father doing"; and "I by the Spirit of God cast out demons." This Self-Emptying as to the fact of it, affords no difficulty to simple faith; although the process of it is Divinely inscrutable. Christ when on earth continued just as certainly Deity as from all eternity: "Before Abraham was born, I AM." This voluntarily self-emptied state continued. He said to Peter in Gethsemane, "Thinkest thou that I cannot beseech My Father, and He shall even now send Me more than twelve legions of angels?" He did not make the request. And at another time, He saw a fig tree afar off, and came "if haply" He might find fruit thereon, refraining from using His power.)

    Throughout Hebrews (and the whole Word of God, indeed!) we find God the Father and God the Son equal in fact of Deity, yet the Son constantly doing willingly, yea, gladly, the will of the Father; and the Father, just as gladly, constantly exalting the Son.

    Now heirship follows sonship: among men, naturally; between God the Son and God the Father, eternally. It is therefore as Son--He having come into the world at the end of the Old Testament revelations; and God "having spoken" to us in that Son--that His appointment as Heir of all things is announced. Indeed, He thus regarded Himself: Mark 12:1-12: They said, "This is the Heir."

    Now that "all things" are spoken of, let us reflect that "all things have been created through Him and unto Him." (Col 1:16, Heb. 1:2; cf. Prov. 8, John 1). We find God's plan for the future also in Ephesians 1:9, 10: "According to His good pleasure which He purposed in Him (Christ)" looking forward "unto a
    dispensation of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things upon the earth" (not the things of the world below, the lost, though they will bow the knee to Him as Lord--Philippians 2:10).

    Christ--Heir of all things, through Whom God created the ages; "all things were made through Him;--"all things were created through Him and unto Him ... and in Him all things hold together"! (Col 1:16, 17). We opened our eyes from sleep and lo, the created light! But it was Christ's voice that spoke, "Let there be light," when darkness had thralled a ruined world. We arose to dress, and lo, for all our clothing He had prepared the materials. We sat down to eat, and lo, all our food had been made by Him. We passed through the garden, and lo! every plant beautiful to the eye or good for food, Christ had created for us. We saw afar the mountains, and lo, it was His strength that had set them fast! We looked beyond the mountains, and the sea was there; but again, "The sea is His and He made it." We looked above the mountains and the sea, and there was the sky, blue and wonderful; but lo! His voice had spoken: "Let there be a firmament!" And as for the clouds, they are "His chariot," and "Behold, He cometh with the clouds," just as a cloud received Him out of the sight of the gazing apostles on Olivet. And He has ascended "far above all the heavens"! He has "passed through the heavens," as the appointed Heir of all things. For as the Son, He inherits all things, which as we have seen, He made, created and also the very ages (aionas), each with its order of things and its Divine purpose.

    But someone is weary of all this recital. Someone objects, "I believe man has his place, and his powers, and his planning and thinking." Well, O puppet, what hast thou created? Ye "brought nothing into the world; and can carry nothing out." O dust, living a little while, to dust returning: can you get on without breathing, a day, an hour? Nay, you must depend for every breath, nay every heart beat, on the God "in Whose hand thy breath is"; and He has spoken in His Son--even Christ!

    Let us meditate deeply and frequently upon this stupendous statement: God's Heir is Christ!

    1. This is for eternity: there will be no change in God's mind and the blessed Spirit's delight in this matter.
    2. Men agree that the surest title known on earth is that by inheritance. By the Divine pleasure and decree, the Son of God comes into possession, forever and ever, of all things. They are His. He is Heir!
    3. Note the peculiar fitness and safety of Christ's being Heir Of all things. With men, inheriting a fortune is the occasion, often, of the development of inherent selfishness. But Christ, while possessing (even in Gethsemane) the power of self-deliverance, absolutely rejected, even unto death, the path of selfishness. Language utterly fails us to express the boundless, unselfish devotion which said to the very end, "The cup which the Father hath given Me, shall I not drink it?" The Son of God proved what He claimed: "I am come down from Heaven, not to do Mine own will, but the will of Him that sent Me." Mark the sweat falling down as blood in Gethsemane where the Father gave Him to taste the cup of wrath for our sins, ere sin was laid upon Him! And even when forsaken of God, He held fast His claim, "My God!" Oh, for language here, but we have none for the unselfishness and devotion! For all eternity, His death, toward which He "steadfastly set His face to go to Jerusalem," has proven Him the fit and safe Heir of all things!
    4. He shares with those He calls "His brethren" with the same infinite readiness, (as we shall find in Hebrews 2), so that we read, "joint-heirs with Christ" (Rom. 8:17). It is as Man that all things will be subjected to Him. And we find (Heb. 2:13-14) that in order for this, God is manifest in the flesh—Christ steps in among men, His creatures, in a body "prepared" by God (Heb 10:5).

    Yes, the Son of God has fellow-heirs! And God speaks to us redeemed sinners, delivered from "the hole of the pit," thus: "The Spirit Himself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are children of God: and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with Him, that we may be also glorified with Him" (Rom. 8:16-17). And again, "Thou art no longer a bondservant, but a son (adult son huios); and if a son, then an heir through God" (Gal. 4:7).

    Alas, this poor, poor world! In the words, "We brought nothing into the world ... neither can we carry anything out," Paul wrote the biography of every man! Men have struck gold, heaped it up, and left it--to be paupers eternally! Men have labored, and with genius, to "accumulate," as they say, and have left it forever--paupers. Xerxes of Persia had no limit to his earthly possessions, but dying without Christ, to what was he heir? An eternity with nothing! For Christ has been appointed Heir Of all things! The proud millionaire, yea, they say the billionaire, is with us today. For a few years he is rich and then leaves it all and is poor forever! While some humble servant of his, who had Christ, dying, steps out into an unspeakably glorious eternity, rich beyond all imagination. Why? He is an "heir of God, and joint-heir with Christ," who was appointed Heir of all things. Yea, indeed, let us meditate much on these words. I am writing these words in sight of the most elegant private mansion in all of the United States; but was the builder, who is gone from it now, an heir with Christ? There is no other eternal good!

    2. Through Whom also He made the ages--We have this action illustrated in the opening verse of the Bible: "In the beginning God created the heavens and earth." Then after the judgment period of verse 2, we have, "And God said, Let there be light: and there was light." Here spoke the eternal Word Who gives creative utterance to the counsels of the Deity: "For all things were made through Him" (John 1:3).

    Made the ages (aions)--An aion, (English aeon) as we know, is a space of time during which God is developing some special phase of His purpose.

    For example, in Genesis 1 there is brought before our eyes an earth surrounded by the "deep," with "darkness" upon its face. That this was not the original condition of the world when created is shown in Isaiah 45:18:--"For thus saith Jehovah that created the heavens, the God that formed the earth and made it, that established it and created it not a waste, (Heb. tohu) that formed it to be inhabited" (or, habitable). That the "darkness" and "deep" were a judgment upon a former condition is also brought out in the words of Genesis 1:2: "And the earth was (Heb., "became") tohu and bohu--waste and empty," whereas God says He created it not tohu, a waste, but habitable, as we just saw.

    Note also, when man is created, he is told to replenish the earth, just as Noah was commanded at the end of the Flood: Genesis 9:1: "And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth"—which had been emptied of population.

    Therefore, the words of Hebrews 1:2, He made the aionas, refer to those processes in each age by which God is bringing to pass His great purpose. It is a solemn word indeed, that "now once at the end (literally, consummation) of the ages (aions) hath He been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself" (Heb 9:26). The "evil age" that crucified Him is still on, to be ended by His return to earth when the aion to come, the Millennium, will begin. How unutterably wonderful are the words of Revelation 22:4, 5, concerning the saints: "They shall see His face; and His name shall be on their foreheads. And there shall be night no more; and they need no light of lamp, neither light of sun; for the Lord God shall give them light: and they shall reign unto the ages of the ages."

    Be it noted now that while in Hebrews 1:2 we are told that the "ages" were "made" (Poieo) through Christ, when we come to the original of calling creation into being, a different Greek word is used-- ktidzo, create: but the same Person, Son of God, is declared to have "created all things." Indeed, it is further
    asserted that: "In Him were all things created, in the heavens and upon the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created ... in Him ... through Him, and unto Him." (Let all note these three words, in the Greek, en, dia, is, of Colossians 1:16. They mean, in view of Him, through His direct action, with respect to His honor and glory!) (will, we may say, ties with God; creative command, with Christ, the Word; and the execution of The command, with the Spirit: "Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit, they are created" (Ps 104:30). We see the Spirit present in Gen. 1:2, also.)

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    Newell, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". William Newell's Commentary on Romans, Hebrews and Revelation. https: 1938.

    John Trapp Complete Commentary

    2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

    Ver. 2. Hath in these last days] God doth his best works last (our last also should be our best, as Thyatira’s, Revelation 2:19); the sweetest of honey lies in the bottom. Contrarily, Satan (Laban-like) shows himself at parting; and (as the panther doth the wild beasts) inveigleth silly souls (into sin), and then devoureth them, James 1:14-15, 1 Peter 5:8.

    Heir of all things] Be married to this heir, and have all. Ubi tu Caius, ego Caia, may the Shulamite say to her husband, as the Roman ladies said to theirs.

    By whom also he made the worlds] Visible and invisible, Colossians 1:16; or the ages under the Old and New Testament; which last {Hebrews 2:5} he calleth the world to come.

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    Trapp, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https: 1865-1868.

    Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

    Hebrews 1:2. Hath in these last days, &c.— This latter age of the world, or the days of the Messiah. By his Son, must here mean emphatically, "By his Son, as incarnate, and appearing in the human nature;" nor can any argument be gathered from hence, that God spoke not by the ministration of the Logos, or second Person, before; but only, that he spoke not in so clear and express a manner. The word heir signifies properly "one who hath a right to succeed to what another has in possession, after his death;" but this cannot be the meaning of the word in this place, as it is impossible for the God and Father of all to die; and therefore it is used in the sense of possessor or lord, as the ancient classics and lawyers use it: and thus it implies the same with what our Saviour says, Matthew 28:18. All power is given to me in heaven and in earth. See Galatians 4:1. Acts 2:36. The apostle here lays down the assertion which he undertakes to prove, namely, that God had constituted his Son Jesus heir or Lord of all things. Having mentioned this, he just gives a hint or two of the greatness of his character, and then returns to his main assertion, pursuing it closely in the latter part of the chapter, and shewing that the angels themselves, the higher order of beings, are not only infinitely inferior to him, but subject to his jurisdiction.

    By whom also he made the worlds All the Greek fathers unanimously say, this shews the divinity of Christ. The Socinians by the worlds here understand the new creation, or the church begun by Christ's ministry upon earth, begotten and renewed by the evangelical dispensation. But this exposition cannot possibly stand; for, 1. Though Christ be stiled in some of the Greek versions, Isaiah 9:6. The Father of the age to come, yet the phrase οι αιωνες, absolutely put, does never signify the church or evangelical state; nor does the scripture ever speak of the world to come in the plural, but in the singular number only, preserving the phrase Holam Habba, as they received it from the Jews. 2. Were this the import of the words, the worlds might as well have been said to have been created or made by Christ's apostles, they being the great converters of the world; or at least, this being done by them assisted by the power of Christ, after he had been thus made heir of all things, it must have properly been said that Christ made the worlds by his apostles, which yet the Holy Ghost never thinks fit to intimate. Moreover, whereas this making of the world by Jesus Christ, is done by his prophetic office, that is to say, his speaking to us in the last days, the apostle had mentioned this already, and makes a plain gradation from it to his kingly office, in saying that he was constituted Lord of all things, not speaking of making the world by way of consequence, thus, and by whom; but by way of farther gradation, by whom also he made the worlds; as if he had said, Nor is it to be wondered that he should be constituted Lord of the whole world, seeing he made the whole. And that the apostle here speaks, not of the reforming of the new, but of the forming of the old world, he himself sufficiently instructs us, by saying in this same epistle, by faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, Chap. Hebrews 11:3. For that by the phrase τους αιωνας, we are to understand the material world, the Socinian commentators grant. This was the doctrine of all the primitive fathers from the beginning, as well as of all the early commentators on this text. St. Barnabas declares, that he is the Lord of the world, the maker of the sun, the Person by whom, and to whom are all things. He is, says Justin Martyr, the word by which the heaven, the earth, and every creature was made, by whom God at the beginning made and ordained all things, viz. the heavens and the earth; and by whom he will renew them. This Irenaeus delivers as the rule of faith contained in the scripture, which they who hold to, may easily prove that the heretics had deviated from the truth. He adds, that the barbarians who held the ancient tradition, did believe in one God, the maker of heaven and earth, and of all things therein, by Jesus Christ the Son of God; and this doctrine he repeats almost a hundred times elsewhere. Our doctrine, says Athenagoras, celebrates one God the Creator of all things, who made all things by Jesus Christ, from whom, and by whom all things were made. God, says Theophilus, made all things by him, and he is called the beginning, because he is the principle, and ruler of all things made by him. He adds, that by this principle God made the heavens: that God said to him, Let us make man; he being his word, by which he made all things. We rational creatures, says Clemens of Alexandria; are the work of God the word; for he was and is the divine principle of all things, by whom all things were made, and who, as the Framer of all things, in the beginning, gave also life to us; by whom are all things; who made man, our God and Maker, the cause of the creation. In the third century we learn the same from Origen, Tertullian, Novatian, St. Cyprian, and others, cited by the learned Dr. Bull. So that in these two verses there are visibly these gradations; one from Christ's prophetic office, to his kingly office conferred on him as heir of all things; the other, from his kingly office to the foundation of it, laid in his divine nature, and in the work of the creation; it being, say Irenaeus and the ancient fathers, fit that he should reform and govern the world, by whom it was formed: that he should give new life to man, who gave him his being, and first breath.

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    Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https: 1801-1803.

    Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

    2.] whom He constituted (aor., not perfect, referring, as also ἐποίησεν, to the ἐν ἀρχῇ—the date of the eternal counsel of God.

    τίθημι with this double accusative is commonly reputed a Hebraism. But as Bleek remarks, our Epistle is singularly free from Hebraistic constructions, and there is in fact no reason whatever for deducing our present expression from such a source. Elsner gives from Xen. de Rep. Lac. p. 684, θεὶς τοὺς γέροντας κυρίους τοῦ περὶ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀγῶνος: Arrian. Epict. p. 264, τοιοῦτόν σε θῶμεν πολίτην κορωθίων: Eur. Hec. 722: and Bleek from Xen. Cyr. iv. 6. 2, ὥσπερ ἂν εὐδαίμονα πατέρα παῖς τιμῶν τιθείη) heir ( ἔθηκε κληρονόμον, τουτέστι τοῦτον κύριον ἁπάντων ἐποίησεντῷ δὲ τοῦ κληρονόμου ὀνόματι κέχρηται δύο δηλῶν, καὶ τὸ τῆς υἱότητος γνήσιον, καὶ τὸ τῆς κυριότητος ἀναπόσπαστον. Chrys.: and so Thl. “Convenienter statim sub Filii nomen memoratur hæreditas.” Bengel. That κληρ. is not equivalent to κύριον simply, is plain: the same expression could not, as Bleek well remarks, have been used of the Father. It is in virtue of the Sonship of our Lord that the Father constituted Him heir of all things, before the worlds began. “In Him also,” says Delitzsch, “culminates the fulfilment of the promise given to the seed of Abraham, τὸ κληρονόμον εἶναι τοῦ κόσμου.” See below. See for St. Paul’s use of the word and image, reff.: and Galatians 4:7) of all things (neuter: τουτέστι, τοῦ κόσμου παντός, Chr. And we cannot give this a more limited sense, nor restrict it to this world; especially as the subsequent portion of the chapter distinctly includes the angels in it. It is much disputed whether this heirship of Christ is to be conceived as belonging to Him essentially in his divine nature, or as accruing to Him from his work of redemption in the human nature. The Fathers, and the majority of the moderns, decide for the latter alternative. So Chrys., and even more emphatically Thdrt.: ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ὁ θεῖος ἀπόστολος ἤρξατο, καὶ τὰ ταπεινότερα πρῶτον λέγων οὕτως ἅπτεται μειζόνων. κληρονόμος γὰρ πάντων ὁ δεσπότης χριστὸς οὐχ ὡς θεός, ἀλλʼ ὡς ἄνθρωπος. ὡς γὰρ θεός, ποιητής ἐστι πάντων· ὁ δὲ πάντων δημιουργὸς φύσει πάντων δεσπότης. And so the Socinian and quasi-Socinian interpreters, arriving at the same view by another way, not believing the præ-existence of Christ. But it is plain that such an interpretation will not suit the requirements of the passage. For this humiliation of his, with its effects, first comes in at the end of Hebrews 1:3. All this, now adduced, is referable to his essential Being as Son of God; not merely in the Godhead before his Incarnation, but also in the Manhood after it, which no less formed a part of His ‘constitution’ by the Father, than his Godhead itself. So that the ἔθηκεν, as observed above, must be taken not as an appointment in prospect of the Incarnation, but as an absolute appointment, coincident with the σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε, belonging to the eternal Sonship of the Lord, though wrought out in full by his mediatorial work. Delitzsch contends for its exclusive application to the exaltation of Christ in his historical manifestation, beginning with the creation of the world: but I cannot see that he has proved his point), by whom (see ref. John: as His acting Power and personal instrument: so Thl., aft. Chrys.: ἐπειδὴ δὲ αἴτιος ὁ πατὴρ τοῦ υἱοῦ, εἰκότως καὶ τῶν ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ γενομένων· διὰ τοῦτό φησι, διʼ οὗ. ὁ πατὴρ γὰρ δοκεῖ ποιεῖν, ὁ τὸν ποιήσαντα υἱὸν γεννήσας. The idea of Grotius, fortified by a misrendering of Beza’s, Romans 6:4,—that “ διʼ οὗ, per quem, videtur hic recte accipi posse pro διʼ ὅν, propter quem,” is only worth recording, to make us thankful that the labours of the great scholars of Germany have brought in a day when it no longer needs refutation) He also made (created. According to the ancient arrangement of the words, adopted in the text, the word brought into emphasis by καί is not τοὺς αἰῶνας, but ἐποίησεν. And so Bengel, “Emphasis particulæ καί, et, cadit super verbum fecit, hoc sensu: Filium non solum definiit hæredem rerum omnium, ante creationem: sed etiam fecit per eum sæcula”) the ages (the meaning of τοὺς αἰῶνας has been much disputed. The main classes of interpreters are two. 1. Those who see in the word its ordinary meaning of “an age of time;” 2. those who do not recognize such meaning, but suppose it to have been merged in that of “the world,” or “the worlds.” To (1) belong the Greek Fathers: Chrys. (see however note on ch. Hebrews 11:3), Thdrt. ( τοῦτο δηλωτικὸν τῆς θεότητος. οὐ μόνον γὰρ αὐτὸν δημιουργόν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀΐδιον ἔδειξεν· ὁ γὰρ αἰὼν οὐκ οὐσία τίς ἐστιν, ἀλλʼ ἀνυπόστατον χρῆμα, συμπαρομάρτουν τοῖς γεννητὴν ἔχουσι φύσιν. καλεῖται γὰραἰὼνκαὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου συστάσεως μέχρι τῆς συντελείας διάστημα. This he then supports by Matthew 28:20; Psalms 89:8, LXX: Ephesians 1:21; Ephesians 2:7; and concludes, αἰὼν τοίνυν ἐστὶ τὸ τῇ κτιστῇ φύσει παρεζευγμένον διάστημα. τῶν αἰώνων δὲ ποιητὴν εἴρηκε τὸν υἱόν, ἀΐδιον αὐτὸν εἶναι διδάσκων, καὶ παιδεύων ἡμᾶς ὡς ἀεὶ ἦν παντὸς οὑτινοσοῦν ὑπερκείμενος χρονικοῦ διαστήματος), Thl. ( ποῦ δέ εἰσιν οἱ λέγαντες, ἦν ὅτε οὐκ ἦν; αὐτὸς τοὺς αἰῶνας ἐποίησε, καὶ πῶς ἦν αἰὼν ὅτε οὐκ ἦν αὐτός;), Œc. &c., and Thom. Aquin., and Heinsius. On the other hand, (2) is the view of the majority of Commentators. It is explained and defended at length by Bleek, none of whose examples however seem to me to be void of the same ambiguity which characterizes the expression here. The Jews, it appears, came at length to designate by their phrase הָעוֹלָם הַוֶּה (see above on ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου κ. τ. λ.), not only the present age, but all things in and belonging to it—and so of the “future age” likewise. He produces a remarkable instance of this from Wisdom of Solomon 13:9, εἰ γὰρ τοσοῦτον ἴσχυσαν εἰδέναι, ἵνα δύνωνται στοχάσασθαι τὸν αἰῶνα, τὸν τούτων (of the things in the world) δεσπότην πῶς τάχιον οὐχ εὗρον; He therefore would regard τοὺς αἰῶνας as strictly parallel with πάντα above, and would interpret, “Whom He has constituted lord, possessor and ruler over all, over the whole world, even as by Him He has made all, the universe.” And nearly so Delitzsch, Ebrard, and Lünemann: these two latter adding however somewhat, inasmuch as they take it of all this state of things constituted in time and space. Ebrard says: Die ewige Selbst-offenbarung Gottes in sich, durch das emige Aussprechen seiner Fulle im ewigen personlichen Wort, das Gott zu sich (John 1:1) redet, und im Wehen des Ewigen Geistes, bildet den Grund und somit das Ewige (nicht zeitliche) Prius der vom Willen des Dreieinigen ausgehenden Offenbarung seiner in einer Sphare, die nicht ewig, sondern zeitlich raumlich, nicht Gott, sondern Creatur ist. And this last view I should be disposed to adopt, going however somewhat further still: for whereas Ebrard includes in τοὺς αἰῶνας God’s revelation of Himself in a sphere whose conditions are Time and Space, and so would understand by it all things existing under these conditions, I would include in it also these conditions themselves,—which exist not independently of the Creator, but are His work—His appointed conditions of all created existence. So that the universe, as well in its great primæval conditions,—the reaches of Space, and the ages of Time, as in all material objects and all successive events, which furnish out and people Space and Time, God made by Christ. It will be plain that what has been here said will apply equally to ch. Hebrews 11:3, which is commonly quoted as decisive for the material sense here. Some (Schlichting, al.) have endeavoured to refer τοὺς αἰῶνας, 3. to the new or spiritual world, or the ages of the Messiah, or of the Christian Church: principally in the interests of Socinianism: or, 4. as Sykes and Pyle, to the various dispensations of God’s revelation of Himself: or even, 5. as Fabricius (Cod. Apocr. i. p. 710, Bl.), to the Gnostic æons, or emanations from the Divine Essence, and so to the higher spiritual order of beings, the angels. Against all these, besides other considerations, ch. Hebrews 11:3 is a decisive testimony). It will be seen by consulting the note on John 1:1, how very near the teaching of Philo approached to this creation of the universe by the Son. See, among the quotations in my Vol. I. Edn. 6, p. 679, especially those from Philo, vol. i. p. 106: and that in p. 681 from ib. p. 162. See Isaiah 9:6 Heb. and LXX-A(1) (2).

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    Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https: 1863-1878.

    Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

    Hebrews 1:2. As far as τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ, Hebrews 1:3. The dignity of the Son as the premundane Logos.

    τιθέναι with double accusative, in the sense of ποιεῖν τινά τι, is no Hebraism ( שׂוּם, שִׁית ), but is very frequent with the classics. Comp. e.g. Herodian, Hist. v. 7. 10 : ἐφʼ οἷς ἀντωνῖνος πάνυ ἤσχαλλε καὶ μετεγίγνωσκε, θέμενος αὐτὸν υἱὸν καὶ κοινωνὸν τῆς ἀρχῆς; Xenophon, Cyrop. iv. 6. 3 : ὥσπερ ἄν εὐδαίμονα πατέρα παῖς τιμῶν τιθείη; Aelian, Var. Hist. xiii. 6; Homer, Odyss. ix. 404, al. Comp. also Elsner ad loc.; Kühner, II. p. 226.

    ἔθηκεν, however, has reference not so much to the time when Christ, having completed the work of redemption, has returned to the Father in heaven (so the Greek expositors; and in like manner Primasius, Erasmus (Paraphr.), Calvin, Cameron, Corn. a Lapide, Grotius, Schlichting, Calov, Hammond, Braun, Limborch, Storr, Ebrard, Delitzsch, Riehm, Lehrbegr. des Hebräerbr. p. 295 ff.;(30) Maier, Moll, and others), but relates to the appointment made in the eternal decree of God before all time; thus has reference to Christ as the premundane Logos. This application is required in order to a due proportion with the declarations immediately following, and to the logical development of the well thought-out periods, in which the discourse reaches the exaltation of the incarnate Redeemer only with ἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷ τῆς μεγαλωσύνης ἐν ὑψηλοῖς, Hebrews 1:3. The idea of the pre-existence of Christ or the Son of God as the eternal Logos with its nearer definitions, as this comes forth here and in that which immediately follows, is the same as is met with also in Paul’s writings. Comp. Colossians 1:15 ff.; Philippians 2:6; 1 Corinthians 8:6; 1 Corinthians 10:4; 1 Corinthians 15:47; 2 Corinthians 4:4; 2 Corinthians 8:9. Yet, in the shaping of this idea on the part of the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, not only the teaching of Paul, but likewise the Logos-speculations of Philo, with whose writings the Epistle to the Hebrews has manifold points in common, have not been without influence.

    κληρονόμον πάντων] heir, i.e. (future) Possessor and Lord of all things, namely, of the world. Chrysostom: τῷ δὲ τοῦ κληρονόμου ὀνόματι κέχρηται, δύο δηλῶν, καὶ τὸ τῆς υἱότητος γνήσιον, καὶ τὸ τῆς κυριότητος ἀναπόσπαστον. Comp. Galatians 4:7; Romans 8:17.

    διʼ οὗ] by whom. Grammatically unwarranted, Grotius: propter quern ( διʼ ὅυ). Comp. also Hebrews 2:10.

    καὶ ἐποίησεν] The emphasis falls upon the word ἐποίησεν, on that account preposed, while τοὺς αἰῶνας only takes up again under a varying form a notion already expressed in that which precedes, and καί indicates no heightening of the expression (even, or more than this; Wolf and others), but is intended to bring out the accordance between the statement in the second relative clause and that in the first; so that the fact that by the Son the αἰῶνες were created is made to follow as something quite natural, from the fact that He was by God constituted κληρονόμος πάντων (by whom He also created, etc.). Wrongly does Riehm (Lehrbegr. des Hebräerbr. p. 298 f.) invert the relation of the two members indicated by καί, in finding out the sense: “the installation of the Son in the office of the world’s dominion is in entire accordance with the fact that by the Son the world was created; in other words, from the relation of the Son to God and the world, revealed in the latter fact, His installation in the office of the world’s dominion presents nothing extraordinary, but rather appears something which we could not at all expect to be otherwise.” [So in substance Owen, who seeks to combine the two meanings of τιθέναι.] Had this been meant, then δι ̓ οὗ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας, ὃν καὶ ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων must have been written. For the καί of the second clause accentuates the fact that what follows is in accord with that which precedes, not that what precedes is in accord with that which follows. Comp. Philippians 3:20, where by means of καί the fact that we expect the Lord Jesus Christ from heaven as a deliverer is represented as something quite natural, since our πολίτευμα is in heaven; but not conversely is the fact that our πολίτευμα is in heaven deduced from the presupposition of our expecting Christ from thence.

    τοὺς αἰῶνας] does not here denote the ages; either in such wise that the totality of the periods of time from the creation of the world to its close is meant (Chrysostom, Theodoret, Oecumenius, Theophylact, Thomas Aquinas, Daniel Heinsius), for this thought would be too abstract; or in such wise that the two main periods in the world’s history—the pre-Messianic and the Messianic—are to be understood thereby (Paulus, Stein), for in connection with the absolute τοὺς αἰῶνας no one could have thought of this special division into two parts. Nor must we either apprehend τοὺς αἰῶνας of the Aeons in the sense of the Gnostics (Amelius in Wolf, Fabricius, Cod. Apocryph. N. T. I. p. 710); for at the time when our author wrote this notion of the word did not yet exist. τοὺς αἰῶνας is to be understood of the worlds, of the totality of all things existing in time (and space), so that it is identical with the preceding πάντων and the following τὰ πάντα of Hebrews 1:3. αἰών, it is true, has always with the classics the strict notion of duration of time; but, as in the case of the Hebrew עו ̇ לָם, this notion might easily pass over into the wider notion of that which forms the visible contents of time, thus into that of the complex of all created things. This interpretation is confirmed by the reading of Hebrews 11:3, where αἰῶνες cannot possibly be used in any other sense.

    As parallel passages to this second relative clause of Hebrews 1:2, expressing the thought of a creation of the universe by the premundane Son of God, comp. in Paul’s writings, Colossians 1:16; 1 Corinthians 8:6; in those of John, John 1:3; John 1:10. Philo, too, supposes the world was created by the Logos, as the earliest or first-born Son of God. Comp. de Cherubim, p. 129 (ed. Mangey, I. p. 162): ἴδε τὴν ΄εγίστην οἰκίαν πόλιν, τόνδε τὸν κόσ΄ον· εὑρήσεις γὰρ αἴτιον ΄ὲν αὐτοῦ τὸν θεόν, ὑφ ̓ οὔ γέγονεν, ὓλην δὲ τὰ τέσσαρα στοιχεῖα, ἐξ ὧν συνεκράθη, ὄργανον δὲ λόγον θεοῦ, δι ̓ οὔ κατεσκευάσθη, τῆς δὲ κατασκευῆς [ αἰτίαν τὴν ἀγαθότητα τοῦ δη΄ιουργοῦ.

    De Monarch. lib. ii. p. 823 B (ed. Mangey, II. p. 225): λόγος δέ ἐστιν εἰκὼν θεοῦ, δι ̓ οὗ σύμπας κόσμος ἐδημιουργεῖτο.

    Legg. allegor. lib. iii. p. 79 A (ed. Mangey, I. p. 106): σκιὰ θεοῦ δὲ λόγος αὐτοῦ ἐστιν, καθάπερ ὀργάνῳ προσχρησά΄ενος ἐκοσ΄οποίει.

    ὢνφέρων τε κ. τ. λ., ver. 3 (see on the verse)—there resounds throughout, in addition to the main reference to an earlier condition of the life of Christ, at the same time the subordinate reference to a later condition of His life. That which Riehm urges in support of his own view, and in refutation of the opposite one, is easily disposed of. When he thinks, in the first place, that only by his apprehension the whole structure of the period becomes thoroughly clear, this is already shown to be inaccurate by the fact that the simple is always more clear than the complex. For even if it be admitted in some respects that a new division of thought begins with the ὅς, ver. 3, which specially brings into relief the subject, whereas before θεός was the subject, yet nothing is to be inferred from this, because the character of the relative statements, ver. 2, is not changed thereby, inasmuch as the reference to God assuredly appears in the third relative clause, namely, in κεκληρονόμηκεν, ver. 4. When Riehm further contends that in his explanation ver. 2 agrees much better with that which precedes,—inasmuch as by the υἱός, ver. 1, the historic Christ is confessedly to be understood, but now an inexplicable leap in the thought would arise, if the author had first ascribed to the historic Christ a number of predicates, which were appropriate to Him only as the premundane Logos, and should only afterwards speak of His present glory,—this contention is already sufficiently refuted by the wholly parallel procedure of the Apostle Paul, Philippians 2:5 ff., who likewise takes his departure from the historic Christ, and then, in the same order which Riehm calls an “inexplicable leap in the thought,” attaches thereto further statements with regard to the person of the Redeemer. Moreover, in our passage the order of succession censured as an “inexplicable leap in the thought” is perfectly justified, because υἱός, ver. 1, is the total expression, which, as such, includes in itself all the stadia in the life of Christ; and thus from it one might proceed with equal justice immediately to the premundane Christ as to the exalted Christ. If Riehm further supposes that in connection with the appointment as heir, ver. 2, we cannot think of a destination made in the eternal decree of God, then the analogous declaration of Scripture: πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν τέθεικά σε, Romans 4:17, already proves the opposite; and if he finds the expression κληρονόμος appropriate only to the incarnate Son, inasmuch as the name could hardly otherwise occur in connection with τιθέναι than in reference to a possession which the κληρονόμος once had not, there underlies this objection only this amount of truth, namely, that the expression κληρονόμος no doubt includes in itself a reference pointing to the future; but that which it is designed to express by the first relative clause is assuredly also only the thought that Christ was in the ideal sense before all time appointed or made something, which in the real sense He could only be in the full extent at the end of all time. When, finally, Riehm believes that ὃν ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων, ver. 2, must be understood of the dominion of the exalted Christ, for the reason that the passage Hebrews 1:8-9, bearing upon the dominion of the exalted Christ, is supposed to refer back to those words, this is altogether erroneous, since a special referring back on the part of Hebrews 1:8-9 to the opening proposition of ver. 2 is not by any means to be admitted. See below, the analysis of contents of vv. 5–14.

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    Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https: 1832.

    Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

    Hebrews 1:2. ὃν ἔθηκε κληρονόμον πάντων, whom He appointed heir of all things) Immediately following the name of Son, mention is appropriately made of the inheritance or heirship; and God really appointed Him heir, before that He made the worlds, Ephesians 3:11; Proverbs 8:22-23; hence in the text the making of the worlds follows after the heirship. As the Son, He is the first-begotten: as the Heir, He is the heir of the whole universe, Hebrews 1:6.— διʼ οὗ καὶ ἐποίησε τοὺς αἰῶνας) This is the ancient order of the words: by whom also He made the worlds. The emphasis of the particle καὶ, also, falls on the verb made in this sense: He not only appointed the Son heir of all things before creation, but also made the worlds by Him.(4) The particle διὰ, by, takes away nothing from the majesty of the Son. On the fact, see Hebrews 1:10; and on the particle, comp. ch. Hebrews 2:10. By the Son He made the worlds, and all things that are therein; ch. Hebrews 11:3. Therefore the Son was before all worlds; and His glory is evident, looking backwards to anterior times, although it is not until these last days that God has spoken to us in Him. Indeed in this way He has conferred on these last days complete salvation.

    ABD( δ) corrected, f Vulg. Memph. Syr. read the order as Bengel does. But Rec. Text, without any very old authority, save Orig. 4, 60c, and later Syr., read τοὺς αἰῶνας ἐποίησεν.—ED.

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    Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https: 1897.

    Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

    Hath in these last days; the gospel day, last, as after the days of the old world, and after the law given to Israel by Moses: the days of the fourth kingdom of the Roman empire, in the height of which Christ came into the world, and at the end of it shall accomplish his kingdom, Daniel 2:40,44. The last, because the perfection of those types which went before, when Christ settled in the church that religion which must remain unalterable, to the end of the world, Hebrews 12:25-28: the best days for clearest light and greatest mercies.

    Spoken; revealed his will to us once and entirely, John 1:17,18 Jude 1:3,4; discovering the excellent things of God more clearly than they were before, Ephesians 3:3-11 1 Peter 1:10-12.

    To us: the believing Hebrews were so favoured beyond their fathers, to have the best revelation of God in Christ made to them, Matthew 13:16,17 Lu 10:23,24.

    By his Son; our Lord Jesus Christ, who cometh out of the Father as a Son, John 1:14 16:28. He is his bosom Son, nearest his heart, John 1:18; the complete Word of him, creating the new world as well as the old, John 1:1; his wisdom, who teacheth without any mistake, declaring all of God, being truth itself, and exhibiting of it, what he hath seen as well as heard, John 3:11.

    Whom; this Son, who naturally issueth from his Father by a Divine and anutterable generation, Proverbs 8:22-31 30:4. On him all the Father’s love doth terminate, Colossians 1:13. He is to be the Founder and Builder of God’s family, propagating being to a holy seed for him, Hebrews 3:3-6.

    He hath appointed; the Father hath chosen and ordained him as God-man to heirship by an inviolable ordinance of his decree, as 1 Peter 1:20; compare Ephesians 1:10; giving him thereby right and title to all things; appointing to him his nature, Hebrews 2:16, compare Hebrews 10:5; his offices in this nature, his kingly, Psalms 2:6,7, his priestly, Hebrews 3:1,2, his prophetical, Acts 3:22; being heir by nature, as God the Son, and heir by an irresistible ordinance, as God-man Mediator: so as he had a super-added right from the Father, which right he was able to make over to us, but his natural right he could not, Romans 8:17. And he was by solemn investiture put in possession of it at his ascension, when he sat down on the Father’s right hand, Hebrews 12:2 Matthew 28:18 Ephesians 1:20-22 Philippians 2:9-11.

    Heir; Lord Proprietor, who hath sovereign and universal power over all, being the firstborn, and receiving the right of it in the whole inheritance, Psalms 89:27 Romans 8:29 Colossians 1:15,18. The lot and portion is fallen to him by God’s law, the heir being Lord of all, Galatians 4:1; being heir of his brethren, Psalms 2:8, and the builder and purchaser of his inheritance, Revelation 5:9-14; compare 1 Peter 1:3,4,18,19; possessing the inheritance during his Father’s life, and making all his brethren heirs of it with him.

    Of all things; of all things within the compass of God, all that God is, all that God hath, all that God can or will do. All dominions of God, heaven, earth, and hell, are his. He is Lord of angels, Ephesians 1:21 Colossians 1:18, and hath made them fellow servants with us, to himself, and ministering guards to us, Hebrews 1:14 Revelation 5:11 19:10: of devils, to overrule them, who cannot go or come but as he permits them, Matthew 8:31 Colossians 2:15: of saints, John 17:13 Romans 8:29: of wicked men, his enemies, 2 Thessalonians 1:8,9: of all creatures, Colossians 1:15-17: of all God’s works, spiritual, temporal, past, present, or to come; pardon, peace, righteousness, life, glory; all blessings of all sorts, for time and for eternity. This Son-prophet hath right to, actual possession of, and free and full disposal of them. All, both in law and gospel, his, Moses himself, and all his work, to order, change, and do his pleasure with.

    By whom; his Son God-man, a joint cause, a primary and principal agent with the Father, and not a mere instrument, second in working as in relation; by this Word and Wisdom of God, who was the rule and idea of all things, all things were modelled, received their shapes, forms, and distinct beings, John 1:1-3 5:19,20 Col 1:16. In the works of the Trinity, what one relation is said to do the other do, but in their order, answerable to the three principles in every action, wisdom, will, and power.

    He made; created and framed, giving being where there was none, causing to subsist; suggesting herein his ability for redemption work. He who made the world can remove it, Hebrews 11:3.

    The worlds; touv aiwnav, scarce to be met with in any part of Scripture but this Epistle; strictly it signifieth ages, and things measured by time; answer it doth to the Hebrew Mlwe which imports both an age and the world: so ages are here well translated worlds, all creatures and things measured by them. The Scriptures acquaint us with an upper world, and the inhabitants thereof, angels and glorified saints; the heavenly world, Hebrews 1:10, where the morning stars sang together, Job 38:7; compare Genesis 1:1. There is a lower earthly world, with its inhabitants, men, who live on the things in it, Psalms 24:1. And there is a regenerate world, the new heavens and new earth made by Christ, and a new sabbath for them, Hebrews 12:26-28; compare 2 Peter 3:13. There is Adam’s world that now is, this present world, Ephesians 1:21; and the world to come, which as it is made by, so for, the Second Adam, the Lord from heaven, in which he eminently is to reign, Psalms 8:5-8; of which see Hebrews 2:5.

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    Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https: 1685.

    Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

    Heir of all things; Christ is the only begotten Son of God, in the high and incommunicable sense of possessing equality with the Father in nature. By virtue of this his sonship, God has made him heir of all that he possesses, that is, of the universe, and constituted him the sovereign Lord and Ruler of all things. Matthew 28:18; John 16:15; John 17:10; Acts 2:36; Acts 10:36; Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:16.

    The worlds; the created universe, verse Hebrews 1:10; John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Ephesians 3:9; Colossians 1:16-17. As the Scriptures are communications from God, we should receive them as such, diligently study, heartily believe, and faithfully obey them.

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    Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Family Bible New Testament". https: American Tract Society. 1851.

    Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

    2. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων, “at the end of these days.” This is the better reading of א ABDE, &c. for the ἐπʼ ἐσχάτων of the Textus receptus. The phrase represents the technical Hebrew expression be-acharîth ha-yâmîm (Numbers 24:14). The Jews divided the religious history of the world into “this age” (Olam hazzeh) and “the future age” (Olam habba). The “future age” was the one which was to begin at the coming of the Messiah, whose days were spoken of by the Rabbis as “the last days.” But, as Christians believed that the Messiah had now come, to them the Olam hazzeh had ended. They were practically living in the age to which their Jewish contemporaries alluded as the “age to come” (Hebrews 2:5, Hebrews 6:5). They spoke of this epoch as “the fulness of the times” (Galatians 4:4); “the last days” (James 5:3); “the last hour” (1 John 2:18); “the crisis of rectification” (Hebrews 9:10); “the close of the ages” (Hebrews 9:26). And yet, even to Christians, there was one aspect in which the new Messianic dispensation was still to be followed by “a future age,” because the kingdom of God had not yet come either completely or in its final development, which depended on the Second Advent. Hence “the last crisis,” “the later crises” (1 Peter 1:5; 1 Timothy 4:1) are still in the future, though Christians thought that it would be a near future; after which would follow the “rest,” the “Sabbatism” (Hebrews 4:4; Hebrews 4:10-11; Hebrews 11:40; Hebrews 12:28) which still awaits the people of God. The indistinctness of separation between “this age” and “the future age” arises from different views as to the period in which the actual “days of the Messiah” are to be reckoned. The Rabbis also sometimes include the Messianic reign in the former, sometimes in the latter. But the writer regarded the end as being at hand (Hebrews 10:13; Hebrews 10:25; Hebrews 10:37). He felt that the former dispensation was annulled and outworn, and anticipated rightly that it could not have many years to run.

    ἐλάλησεν, “spake.” The whole revelation is ideally summed up in the one supreme moment of the Incarnation. The aoristic mode of speaking of God’s dealings, and of the Christian life, as single acts, is common throughout the New Testament, and especially in St Paul. It conveys the thought that

    “Are, and were, and will be are but is,

    And all creation is one act at once.”

    The word “spake” is here used in its fullest and deepest meaning of Him whose very name is “the Word of God.” It is true that this author, unlike St John, does not actually apply the Alexandrian term “Logos” (“Word”) to Christ, but it always seems to be in his thoughts, and, so to speak, to be trembling on his lips. The essential and ideal Unity which dominated over the “many parts” and “many modes” of the older revelation is implied in the most striking way by the fact that it was the same God who spake to the Fathers in the Prophets and to us in a Son.

    ἐν υἱῷ, “in a Son,” rather than (as in A. V.) “in His Son.” The article is purposely omitted to shew that the contrast is in the Relation rather than the Person of Christ, “in Him who was a Son.” The preposition “in” is here most applicable in its strict meaning, because “in Him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.” “The Father, that dwelleth in me, He doeth the works” (John 14:10). The contrast of the New and Old is expressed by St John (John 1:17), “The Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.” In Christ all the fragments of previous revelation were completed; all the methods of it concentrated; and all its apparent perplexities and contradictions solved and rendered intelligible.

    ἔθηκεν, “He appointed.” This usage of the word is classic. The question as to the special act of God thus alluded to is hardly applicable. Our temporal expressions may involve an inherent absurdity when applied to Him whose life is the timeless Now of Eternity and in Whom there is neither before nor after, nor variableness, nor shadow cast by turning, but Who is always in the Meridian of an unconditioned Plenitude (Pleroma). See James 1:17. The fatal and fundamental blunder of the Arian heresy consisted in the failure of Arius and his followers to see that expressions of time cannot possibly be a measure of eternal relationship.

    κληρονόμον πάντων. Sonship naturally suggests heirship (Galatians 4:7), and in Christ was fulfilled the immense promise to Abraham that his seed should be heir of the world. The allusion, so far as we can enter into these high mysteries of Godhead, is to Christ’s mediatorial kingdom. We only darken counsel by the multitude of words without knowledge when we attempt to define and explain the relations of the Persons of the Trinity towards each other. The doctrine of the περιχώρησις, circuminsessio or communicatio idiomatum as it was technically called—that is the relation of Divinity and Humanity as effected within the Divine Nature itself by the Incarnation—is wholly beyond the limit of our comprehension. We may in part see this from the fact that the Son Himself is (in Hebrews 1:3) represented as doing what in this verse the Father does. But that the Mediatorial Kingdom is given to the Son by the Father is distinctly stated in John 3:35; Matthew 28:18 (comp. Hebrews 2:6-8 and Psalms 2:8).

    διʼ οὗ, i.e. “by whose means”; “by whom, as His agent.” Comp. “All things were made by Him” (i.e. by the Word) (John 1:3). “By Him were all things created” (Colossians 1:16). “By Whom are all things” (1 Corinthians 8:6). What the Alexandrian theosophy attributed to the Logos, had been attributed to “Wisdom” (see Proverbs 8:22-31) in what was called the Chokhmah or the Sapiential literature of the Jews. Christians were therefore familiar with the doctrine that Creation was the work of the Prae-existent Christ; which helps to explain Hebrews 1:10-12. We find in Philo, “You will discover that the cause of it (the world) is God … and the Instrument the Word of God, by whom it was equipped (κατασκευάσθη),” De Cherub. (Opp. I. 162); and again “But the shadow of God is His Word, whom he used as an Instrument in making the World,” De Leg. Alleg. III. (Opp. I. 106). The prepositions are carefully distinguished in the N.T. Thus we find in 1 Corinthians 8:6 εἶς θεὸς ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντακαὶ εἶς κύριος διʼ οὗ τὰ πάντα, i.e. all things derive their origin (ἐξ) from God, and are made by Christ’s agency (διʼ οὗ). The other reading διʼ ὃν in that verse would mean that all things exist for His sake (propter Illum).

    καί. He who was the heir of all things was also the agent in their creation.

    τοὺς αἰῶνας, עוֹלָמִים . One of the comprehensive plurals common in Hebrew Hellenistic Greek (Winer, ed. Moulton, p. 220). Literally, “the aeons” or “ages.” This word “aeon” was used by the later Gnostics to describe the various “emanations” by which they tried at once to widen and to bridge over the chasm between the Human and the Divine. Over that imaginary chasm St John had thrown the one wide arch of the Incarnation when he wrote “the Word became flesh.” In the N.T. the word “aeons” never has this Gnostic meaning. In the singular the word means “an age”; in the plural it sometimes means “ages” like the Hebrew olamim. Here it is used in its Rabbinic and post-biblical sense of “the world” as in Hebrews 11:3, Wisdom of Solomon 13:9, and as in 1 Timothy 1:17 where God is called “the king of the world” (comp. Tobit 13:6). The word κόσμος (Hebrews 10:5) means “the material world” in its order and beauty; the word αἰῶνες means the world as reflected in the mind of man and in the stream of his spiritual history; ἡ οἰκουμένη (Hebrews 1:6) means “the inhabited world.”

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    "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https: 1896.

    Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

    2. These last days—The English gives accurately the general sense of the peculiar phrase, επεσχατου των ημερων τουτων, the ultimatum or finality of these days. We take it that επεσχατου, at the finality, is the true antithesis to time past, or of old; and that of these… days defines the finality as consisting of these Messianic, in contrast to the old prophetic, days. So Delitzsch defines the phrase as signifying “for our author here, as for Peter, (1 Peter 1:20,) that ‘last time’ which he viewed as already begun, and as in process of unfolding itself before his eyes.”

    His Son— Greek, a son. The old seers were but prophets; this last is no less than a son. But inferentially, as the prophets were his prophets, so the son is no less than his Son. And how lofty a being, how infinitely superior to the prophets of old is this Son, Paul proceeds to unfold. Render the whole sentence thus: In many parts and by many methods God, having spoken to the fathers in the olden time by the prophets, has in the finality, consisting of these days, spoken unto us by a Son. There is in the sentence an elegant antithesis, consisting of a series of neatly adjusted contrastive terms. Compare remarks on Paul’s rhythmical passages in our vol. iii, p. 287, and our note on Romans 1:1. Perhaps there is not another as finely rounded a period in this epistle as this introductory one.

    In the sublime three descriptive clauses that follow, the writer goes deeper and deeper at each step, if we may so express it, back into eternity. He traces his predicates regressively. First, the Son’s heirship of all things; preceded by his creation of all things; and that preceded by his inmost emanative identity with the divine Essence. The predicate phrase, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, is based upon, by whom also he made the worlds; and that upon the being and upholding of Hebrews 1:3, all furnishing a description of the infinite superiority of the eternal Son.

    And, undoubtedly, we must here avail ourselves of the important distinction between “the order of nature” and “the order of time.” One eternal may, in the order of nature, precede another eternal. An eternal cause eternally precedes an eternal effect, as an eternal Father precedes an eternal Son. God’s eternal nature and person precede in order his foreknowledge, as his foreknowledge precedes his predeterminations. So the heirship of Christ, if eternal, is preceded by his creation of the worlds, which means not merely the production of planets and earths, but the eternal self-revelation of God in production of creature existence. And this creation is preceded by God’s self-expression in the eternal Word; or, as it is otherwise mentally conceived, the generation by the Father of the Son.

    We are now prepared to answer the questions here aroused before the commentators, When did the Son become heir of all things? And what are the all things of which he became heir? To the first question the answer has been made by many annotators that his heirship took place at the resurrection and ascension. And undoubtedly it did take place, for the divine-human Son, at that time; but that was only an objectivizing of the eternal heirship of the Logos of John and the Son of our present writer. More erroneous is the answer of some commentators, that it was an heirship in God’s eternal purpose, as if the Logos by whom (John 1:3) every thing became existent which has become, were not eternal Son, and, if Son, then heir. The back-ground of the divine Essence becomes manifest through the Word resulting in creation; which is existence different from the divine Being.

    Heir—Not simply lord, possessor, (which would be true of the Father,) but derived possessor, as Son of a Father, though a Father that never dies.

    All things—Not only earth, planets, suns, fixed stars, and nebulae, but all the real universe of which these are but external glimpses perceptible to our little optics. Were we endowed with an additional number of senses, vast additional volumes of God’s created universe would open before our perceptions and our knowledge.

    Worlds—All the mundane systems of which the universe ever consisted. As between the two terms, cosmos, frame-world, and aeon, time-world, the latter is here used. So that the term worlds, here, first suggests systems successive in time, and then by secondary implication, takes in their space-filling or frame-work character, if such they have. So, also, is the same word used at Hebrews 11:3. That this is the meaning is absolutely proved by ver.

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    Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https: 1874-1909.

    Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

    ‘Whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds (ages).’

    And Who is this One Who has come? He is not only ‘Son’, but both Son and Heir. Before time began He was ‘appointed heir of all things.’ Everything has been promised to Him, whether in heaven or earth. He is destined to receive ‘all things’, everything that exists, an assurance which will come to its climax at His final coming. Nothing will be excluded, except the One Who will subject all things to Him (1 Corinthians 15:27), the One Who is the Ultimate Being.

    We note that this appointment seemingly comes before the creation of the world, otherwise we would expect the clauses to be the other way round. It was in the eternal reaches of heaven, before creation ever was, that in the counsel of God this appointment was made. For nothing that was to come would take God by surprise. It was all known and purposed beforehand. Just as Jesus was ‘delivered up by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God’ (Acts 2:23; 1 Peter 1:20), so did He first come in that counsel and foreknowledge in order to be delivered up, and so was His appointment as heir one that was from eternity (Ephesians 1:4; 2 Timothy 1:9).

    We note here the use of the term ‘heir’. It must be interpreted correctly. It is a reminder that, when we are describing eternal things, earthly terminology has to be considered carefully. For God would not either die or retire. Just as with the term ‘son’, where we must not ask ‘when was he born’, for He ‘was’ in the beginning from all eternity (John 1:1-3), so when He is called ‘heir’ we must recognise what it is saying, that all will be His, but not that the Godhead as a whole will cease to be over all. (Whoever heard of an heir handing everything back? - 1 Corinthians 15:24).

    ‘Through whom also He made the worlds.’ The word for ‘worlds’ actually originally first meant ‘ages’. But it came to mean ‘that which contained the ages’, that is the physical world (compare Hebrews 11:3 where this is specific and crystal clear). Only the context in each can therefore tell us what is being indicated in that particular context.

    So the One Who was appointed ‘heir of all things’ (of the whole universe in totality) was also the One through Whom God made the worlds. They were destined for Him and He then made them. It is telling us that it was through Jesus Christ, for Whom they were destined, that He created all things and all ages. He was the Word Who spoke and it was done, and He did so in the course of His appointment as heir of all things, to give Him the more of which He would be heir. He was to be heir of both Heaven and earth. We note then that His creative act was subsidiary to His Appointment over all things, for that included all heavenly worlds as well as creation.

    But why should He be heir? Was not all His from the beginning? Yes, indeed it was, as Lord and as Creator. But by the rebellion of angels and of men it had in a sense been wrested from Him. His gift of freewill had resulted in the sin of angels and of men. The establishment of morality, the ‘making and willing with determination’ of the ‘right’ choice in all freewill decisions, necessary if beings were to be truly themselves, had resulted in immorality and rebellion, in ‘knowing (by experience) good and evil’, because angels and men deliberately chose wrongly. And therefore the position had now to be restored, by the deliverance wrought by Him, through sacrifice, of those whom God chose and effectually called from among those who sinned, of His ‘elect’ (1 Peter 1:1-2), and the destruction of those who had rebelled and who refused to yield.

    He could, of course, have destroyed all who failed instantly. But then His purposes to establish a freewill ‘Universe’ would have failed, and there would be none to enjoy it. Thus it was necessary for the process to carry through so that that end might be achieved for the good of all who responded.

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    Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https: 2013.

    Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

    Hebrews 1:2. Hath in these last days — Namely, the last of the Jewish Church and state, which were then drawing to their final abolition. Or the times of the Messiah may be intended, as 2 Timothy 3:1. Here we have the second fact of which the apostle proposed to discourse, namely, that the person by whom God hath revealed the gospel is his Son, appearing in the human nature; a person far superior to the highest creatures, even a person properly divine; from which it is reasonable to infer, that the revelation made by him to mankind is more perfect than that made to the Jews by angels, and that the dispensation founded thereon is a better and more permanent dispensation than the law. In saying, God hath spoken to us, the apostle chiefly intends the members of the Jewish Church. The Jews of those times were very apt to think if they had lived in the days of the former prophets, and had heard them deliver their message from God, they would have received it with cheerful obedience. Their only unhappiness, as they thought, was, that they were born out of due time, as to prophetical revelations, Matthew 23:30. Now the apostle, aware of this prejudice, informs them that God, in the revelation of the gospel, had spoken to themselves what they so much desired; and that if they did not attend to this word, they must needs be self-condemned. Besides that, the care and love which God had manifested toward them, in speaking to them in this immediate manner, requiring the most indisputable obedience, especially considering how far this mode excelled what he had before used toward their fathers. For this revelation, by the Son of God, is more perfect than any preceding one, because, 1st, It is more clear, even respecting things formerly revealed; as, for instance, God’s spiritual nature, (John 4:24,) and some of his attributes, particularly his love; the fall and depravity of man; his redemption; the person, offices, and work of the Redeemer; the salvation that is through him, particularly as it is future and eternal; that it is attained by faith, the fruits of which, and the spirituality of God’s law, are set in a clearer point of view in the gospel than formerly. 2d, More full, giving us explicit information of things hardly intimated before, as the abolition of the Jewish dispensation, the temporary rejection of their nation because of their unbelief, a general and solemn judgment; that the consequences of it will be eternal; that the heavens and the earth shall be destroyed, and a new heaven and new earth shall be prepared for the habitation of the righteous. So that whereas the former dispensations might be compared to starlight, or moonshine, this last revelation is called the day-spring from on high visiting us, (Luke 1:78-79,) and the Sun of righteousness arising upon us: and no wonder, considering that the messenger of this new covenant is the Son of God, to whom God’s will was known not by dreams, visions, voices, &c., or in any of the ways before mentioned, but, as St. John speaks, he was in the bosom of the Father; that is, was intimately and perfectly acquainted with his eternal mind and counsels, being his wisdom, word, and truth, and therefore fully qualified to give mankind a revelation every way perfect and complete.

    Whom he hath appointed heir of all things — That is, of the whole creation; of all creatures, visible and invisible, which were all made for him, as well as by him, Colossians 1:16. The apostle’s grand design throughout this epistle being to engage the Hebrews to constancy and perseverance in their attachment to the gospel, with its fundamental doctrines, he takes his main argument for that purpose from its immediate author, the promised Messiah, the Son of God. Him, therefore, in this chapter he describes at large, declaring what he is absolutely, in his person and offices; and comparatively, with respect to other ministerial revealers of the mind and will of God, principally insisting on his excellence and pre- eminence above angels. After the name of Son, his inheritance is mentioned. God appointed him the heir long before he made the worlds, Ephesians 3:11; Proverbs 8:22. Crellius, a noted Socinian, with whom some other Socinians have agreed, allowed that Christ hath the highest dominion and empire over men and angels. But still they would persuade us that all this was spoken of him as a mere man, as the son of Mary. But how a mere man, or mere creature, should have this empire over all men and angels, and all creatures in the universe, or even should know them all, and have power over death, is as impossible to understand as the mystery of the incarnation, or that of the Trinity. But to guard us against this error, the inspired writers have taken care to inform us that he existed before he was born of Mary; before Abraham, John 8:58; before all things, Colossians 1:17; that he was loved by the Father, and had glory with him before the foundation of the world, John 17:5; John 17:24. Nay, and, as the apostle here asserts, that the worlds were made by him. It is true, the word αιωνας, here used by the apostle, may be rendered ages, or dispensations; yet in Hebrews 11:3, it must mean, as it is rendered, worlds. And we know, from John 1:2-3; John 1:10; Colossians 1:16; Ephesians 3:9; 1 Corinthians 8:6, and Hebrews 1:10 of this chapter, that the Son of God did in fact make the worlds; and agreeably to the apostle’s words here, (God hath spoken unto us by his Son, by whom he made the worlds,) in their plain and literal meaning, he was the Son of God when the worlds were made by him. Accordingly, He, without whom was not any thing made that was made, is called the only-begotten of the Father, John 1:1-14, where see the notes. Therefore, the Son, as the Son, was before all worlds: and his glory reaches from everlasting to everlasting, though God spake by him to us only in these last days. This is the third fact of which the apostle proposes to discourse, namely, that the Author of the gospel, in consequence of his having made the worlds, is Heir, or Lord, and Governor of all. And although, after becoming man, he died, yet, being raised from the dead, he had the government of the world restored to him in the human nature. To the faithful, this is a source of the greatest consolation; because if the world is governed by their Master, he certainly hath power to protect and bless them; and every thing befalling them will issue in good to them. Besides, being the Judge as well as the Ruler of the world, he hath authority to acquit them at the judgment, and power to reward them for all the evils they have suffered on his account. This, that the author of the gospel is the Son of God, is the main hinge on which all the apostle’s subsequent arguments throughout the epistle turn, and this bears the stress of all his inferences; and, therefore, having mentioned it, he proceeds immediately to that description of him which gives evidence to all he deduces from this consideration.

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    Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https: 1857.

    George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

    Whom he hath appointed heir of all things. Heir is here not taken for one that succeeds another at his death, but for the same as Master or Lord. And though Christ be inseparably God and man, yet this applies to him, as man, because, as God, he was not constituted in time, but was always from eternity, Lord of all things, with the Father and the Holy Ghost: by whom also he made the world. That is, all created beings, and in such a manner, that all creatures were equally produced by the three divine persons. See John i. 3. and the annotations on that place. (Witham)

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    Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https: 1859.

    Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

    God Has Spoken in These Last Days

    God changed His spokesman in these last days, that is, the days of the gospel dispensation. As James D. Bales points out, the contrast is between the time when God delivered His authoritative word through the prophets and the time when He spoke through His Son to us. During His personal ministry, Jesus made it clear that Moses" law was still in force (Matthew 8:4; Matthew 23:1-4). He insisted it would not pass away until all of it passed (Matthew 5:17-19). Since part of the law was in force during Christ"s ministry, all of it was in force.

    Christ did not assume authority until after His resurrection (Acts 2:34-36; Romans 1:4; Ephesians 1:19-23). Thus, Jesus brought about the end of one age and the beginning of another (Ephesians 2:15; Colossians 3:1-6). Peter announced the beginning of the last days on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:16-21). Jesus now speaks to all who will receive His message. In fact, He instructed His disciples to teach all nations (Matthew 28:18-20).

    God Has Spoken by His Son

    The messenger during the gospel dispensation is the only begotten Son of God. Obviously the message is important if God sent His Son to deliver it to man. Psalms 2:7-8 shows Jesus was appointed by God to be the Son. God planned for Him to receive the nations as an inheritance. Psalms 22:22-27 shows He will rule over them. They will show their subjection to Him and honor Him by worship.

    So we do not misunderstand, the writer tells us God made the worlds by the Son who is His spokesman. Such is in complete agreement with John 1:1-5. It should also be noted that Jesus said it was His purpose to do the work God sent Him to do. He prayed God"s will would be done (John 9:4; Matthew 26:36-44). It might appear Jesus was just another part of creation, yet Paul told the Colossian brethren Christ created the worlds. Everything now stands by His power (Hebrews 1:17). All things are upheld by His word in that they were put in motion by and remain because of it.

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    Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https: 2014.

    E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

    Hath . . . spoken = Spake.

    in . . . days = at the end of these days. i.e. at the period closed by the ministry of John.

    in. Greek. epi. App-104.

    Son. Greek. huios. App-108. No article, but its absence only "more emphatically and definitely expresses the exclusive character of His Sonship". See Hebrews 5:8.

    hath. Omit.

    by. Greek. dia. App-104.

    also. Read after "worlds".

    made. Greek. prepared.

    worlds. Greek. aion. App-129 and App-151. Compare Hebrews 11:3.

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    Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https: 1909-1922.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

    Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

    In these last days. In 'Aleph (') A B Delta [ ep' (Greek #1909) eschatou (Greek #2078)], 'at the last part of these days.' The rabbis divided time into 'this age' and the 'age to come' (Hebrews 2:5; Hebrews 6:5). The days of Messiah were the transition period, or 'last part of these days' (in contrast to "in time past," Hebrews 1:1); the close of the existing, and beginning of the final, dispensation; of which Christ's second coming shall be the consummation.

    By his Son - Greek, 'IN (His) Son' (John 14:10): the true 'prophet' of God. 'His majesty is set forth:

    (1) Absolutely, by "Son," and by three glorious predicates, "whom He hath appointed," "by whom also He made the worlds," "who ... sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high." Thus His course is described from the beginning of all things down to the goal (Hebrews 1:2-3).

    (2) Relatively, in comparison with the angels, Hebrews 1:4 : the confirmation follows; the name "Son" is proved at Hebrews 1:5; the "heirship," Hebrews 1:6-9; the "making the worlds," Hebrews 1:10-12; the "sitting at the right hand" of God, Hebrews 1:13-14.'

    His heirship follows His sonship, and preceded His making the worlds (Proverbs 8:22-23; Ephesians 3:11). As the first begotten, He is heir of the universe (Hebrews 1:6), which He made instrumentally, Hebrews 11:3, where "by the word of God" answers to "by whom" (the Son of God) here (John 1:3). Christ was "appointed" (in God's eternal counsel) to creation as an office; the universe so created was assigned to Him as a kingdom. He is "heir of all things" by right of creation, and especially by redemption. The promise to Abraham, that he should be heir of the world, had its fulfillment, and will have it more fully, in Christ (Romans 4:13; Galatians 3:16; Galatians 4:7).

    Worlds - the inferior and the superior (Colossians 1:16): [ aioonas (Greek #165)] ages, with all things and persons belonging to them: the universe, including all space and ages, and all material and spiritual existences. He not only appointed His Son heir of all things before creation, but He also (better than "also He") made by Him the worlds.

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    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https: 1871-8.

    Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

    (2) Hath in these last days . . .—Better, at the end of these days spake unto us in a Son. The thought common to the two verses is “God hath spoken to man”; in all other respects the past and the present stand contrasted. The manifold successive partial disclosures of God’s will have given place to one revelation, complete and final; for He who spake in the prophets hath now spoken “in a Son.” The whole stress lies on these last words. The rendering “a Son” may at first cause surprise, but it is absolutely needed; not, “Who is the Revealer?” but, “What is He?” is the question answered in these words. The writer does not speak of a Son in the sense of one out of many; the very contrast with the prophets (who in the lower sense were amongst God’s sons) would be sufficient to prove this, but the words which follow, and the whole contents of this chapter, are designed to show the supreme dignity of Him who is God’s latest Representative on earth. The prophet’s commission extended no farther than the special message of his words and life; “a Son” spoke with His Father’s authority, with complete knowledge of His will and purpose. It is impossible to read these first lines (in which the whole argument of the Epistle is enfolded) without recalling the prologue of the fourth Gospel. The name “Word” is not mentioned here, and the highest level of St. John’s teaching is not reached; but the idea which “the Word” expresses, and the thought of the Only Begotten as declaring and interpreting the Father (John 1:18; also John 14:10; John 14:24) are present throughout. There is something unusual in the words, “at the end of these days.” St. Peter speaks of the manifestation of Christ “at the end of the times” (1 Peter 1:20); and both in the Old Testament and in the New we not unfrequently read “at the end (or, in the last) of the days.” (See 2 Peter 3:3; Jude 1:18; Numbers 24:14; Daniel 10:14, &c.) The peculiarity of the expression here lies in “these days.” The ages preceding and following the appearance of Messiah are in Jewish writers known as “this world” (or, age) and the “coming world” (or, age); the “days of Messiah” seem to have been classed sometimes with the former, sometimes with the latter period; but “the end of these days” would be understood by every Jewish reader to denote the time of His appearing.

    Whom he hath appointed.—Better, whom He appointed: in the divine counsels He was constituted “Heir of all things.” The clauses which follow describe the successive steps in the accomplishment of this purpose. The words have often been understood as referring to the Son’s essential Lordship: as Eternal Son He is and must be Heir of all. But this explanation is less consistent with the word “appointed,” with the strict significance of “Heir,” and with the development of the thought in the following verses; and it is on all grounds more probable that in these words is expressed the great theme of the Epistle, the consummation of all things in the Christ.

    By whom.—Rather, through whom. So in John 1:3 we read that all things came into being through the Word; and in Colossians 1:16, “All things have been created through Him.” In this manner Philo repeatedly describes the creative work of the Logos. Here, however, “this mediatorial function has entirely changed its character. To the Alexandrian Jew it was the work of a passive tool or instrument; but to the Christian Apostle it represented a co-operating agent” (Lightfoot on Colossians 1:16).

    The worlds.—A word of very common occurrence in the New Testament as a designation of time occurs in two passages of this Epistle (here and in Hebrews 11:3) where the context shows more than “age” to be intended. Under time is included the work that is done in time, so that “the ages” here must be (to quote Delitzsch’s words) “the immeasurable content of immeasurable time.” “Also” may seem an unnecessary addition, but (almost in the sense accordingly) it points to creation as the first step towards the fulfilment of the design expressed in the preceding clause.

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    Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https: 1905.

    Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

    Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;
    Genesis 49:1; Numbers 24:14; Deuteronomy 4:30; 18:15; 31:29; Isaiah 2:2; Jeremiah 30:24; 48:47; Ezekiel 38:16; Daniel 2:28; 10:14; Hosea 3:5; Micah 4:1; Acts 2:17; Galatians 4:4; Ephesians 1:10; 2 Peter 3:3; Jude 1:18
    5,8; 2:3; 5:8; 7:3; Matthew 3:17; 17:5; 26:63; Mark 1:1; 12:6; John 1:14,17,18; John 3:16; 15:15; Romans 1:4
    2:8,9; Psalms 2:6-9; Isaiah 9:6,7; 53:10-12; Matthew 21:38; 28:18; John 3:25; 13:3; John 16:15; 17:2; Acts 10:36; Romans 8:17; 1 Corinthians 8:6; 15:25-27; Ephesians 1:20-23; Philippians 2:9-11; Colossians 1:17,18
    by whom
    Proverbs 8:22-31; Isaiah 44:24; 45:12,18; John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Ephesians 3:9; Colossians 1:16,17

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    Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:

    The Bible Study New Testament

    But in these last days. Peter identifies the last days as beginning on Pentecost (Acts 2:16-17). He has spoken. The importance of the message is shown by the Messenger! Not a prophet, but the Son of God! Paul says this to show us that the Good News, spoken all at once through Christ (and his apostles, John 14:26), was complete and no additions would ever be made to it. Compare what Paul says in Galatians 1:6-9. [The New Testament records in permanent form the Good News which came through Christ.] Through whom God created. Compare John 1:3; Colossians 1:15-20. The universe. See Hebrews 1:10; Hebrews 11:3. Whom God has chosen. This must be understood in view of 1 Corinthians 15:24-28.

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    Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "The Bible Study New Testament". https: College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

    E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

    Last days means the closing days of the Jewish Dispensation, since that was when Jesus lived in his personal ministry. The Son gave the words of the Father to the apostles ( John 17:8) and they to us, and that is the way in which we of this age have been spoken to of God. Appointed heir of all things. Heir is used in the sense of possessor ( John 17:10) because God turned all things pertaining to the new dispensation overto Him ( Matthew 28:18). By whom also he made the worlds. This refers to the cooperation which Jesus showed in all of God's works. See the plural "us" in Genesis 1:26; Genesis 3:22; also read John 1:3.

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    Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https: 1952.

    Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

    Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Song of Solomon , whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds.

    These last days.—This expression may, no doubt, refer to the present time contrasted with "time past," ver1; but it appears especially to apply to the last dispensation under the reign of Messiah. The expression is parallel to chap , "now in the end of the world." [The Apostle designates the kingdom of Israel as the world. "Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances?" Colossians 2:20.] The same expression is used Isaiah 2:2; Acts 2:17, &c.

    All the prophets declared that the days should come when the Lord would communicate His will in a clearer and more glorious manner than He had hitherto done, so that "the last days" appear to indicate the period of the new dispensation, to which those who feared God in Israel looked forward. Matthew 13:17.

    Spoken unto us by his Son.—For four thousand years preparation was being made for the manifestation of the Son of God. Jesus is termed God's own Song of Solomon , His only begotten, and when the fulness of the time had come He was sent forth, "born of a woman, made under the law, that he might redeem sinners from the curse of the law, that they might receive the adoption of sons." Galatians 4:5. When He appeared, the darkness of the old dispensation fled before the beams of the Sun of Righteousness which arose with healing on His wings. The wages of sin is death, therefore as the head, the substitute, and representative of His people He was delivered for their offences; He was made sin for them, although He knew no sin, that they might be made the righteousness of God in Him; and in token of the efficacy of His sacrifice He was raised from the dead, and became the first fruits of them that slept. No man took His life from Him, He laid it down of Himself; He had power to lay it down and power to take it again. Having offered Himself a sacrifice of a sweet-smelling savour acceptable to God, He rose to die no more, and because He lives His people shall live also. Adam was the source of natural life to all his children, but he forfeited it and they all died in him, but in Christ all His people are made alive; and when He who is their life shall appear, they also shall appear with Him in glory.

    The name of the Savior is Immanuel, which being interpreted Isaiah , God with us. In His wonderful person the Divine and human natures are united, and thus we have a manifestation of the closeness of that union which subsists between the head and the members of Christ's mystical body.

    The Word was in the beginning with God, and was God. [Thus the Apostle intimates the personal distinction in the unity of the Godhead, which is to us an unfathomable mystery, of which we can know nothing beyond the simple fact. Yet it is the basis of the Gospel. Each of the adorable persons takes an important part in the work of redemption. The Father chose his people in Christ, and sent forth His Son to redeem them from death; the Son willingly undertook their cause; and the Holy Spirit, which Christ received without measure, is through Him communicated to each of them. Thus they are led into the truth as it is in Jesus. Hence they are baptized into the name, or faith, of the Father, Song of Solomon , and Holy Ghost.] He was the Creator of all things visible and invisible, the fountain of life, and the only medium of communication of light to fallen man. John 1:2-4. He was made flesh and dwelt among us. When the angels sinned they were cast down to hell and reserved in everlasting chains of darkness unto the judgment of the great day. Sin had interposed an impenetrable vail between them and the only source of light and joy; but by the incarnation and sufferings of Christ God was pleased to cause the light to shine out of darkness upon an innumerable multitude of our fallen race which had also come under condemnation. And, inasmuch as the children given to Christ were partakers of flesh and blood, He Himself also took part of the same, that by death He might destroy him that had the power of death, that is the devil, and by showing to His people the path of life, and becoming the firstborn of many brethren, might deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. Thus He magnified the law which they had broken, and made it honorable. He spoiled principalities and powers, and made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in His cross. Hence it is written, "As by man came death, by man came also the resurrection from the dead; for as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive; Christ the first fruits, afterwards they that are Christ's at his coming."

    Whom he hath appointed heir of all things.— As God, the Lord Jesus had an independent right to the sovereignty of the universe; but as God manifest in the flesh, at once the Son of God and the Son of Prayer of Manasseh , the great Mediator, He is appointed heir of all things, He is termed the firstborn or heir of the whole creation. Colossians 1:18. This was the joy set before him,— "Arise, O God, judge the earth, for thou shalt inherit all nations." Psalm 82:8. [Abraham is termed the heir of the world, Romans 4:13, as being the father of Christ; just as it is written in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed, because this was to be fulfilled in his seed, which is Christ.] "Jesus, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a Prayer of Manasseh , he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." Philippians 2:6-11.

    Thus, we are taught that as the reward of His obedience unto death all power in heaven and earth is committed to Him, and He employs this power in gathering in His blood-bought sheep. The exaltation of the Son of God at His Father's right hand, surrounded by a countless multitude delivered from the power of Satan and translated into His everlasting kingdom, was the grand end of the creation of the world, which was not only made by Christ, but for Christ as a theatre on which His glory should be displayed. Colossians 1:16. It was God's eternal purpose to make known to the principalities and powers in heavenly places His manifold wisdom by the Church redeemed with the Savior's blood. Ephesians 3:10.

    Christ is the head of the Church, and all of its members are members of His body, of His flesh, and of His bones. They are brought into a state of union so close and intimate that their sins are His, and His righteousness theirs. Hence, although He did no sin, nor was guile found in His lips, He says, "Mine iniquities have taken hold upon me, so that I am not able to look up; they are more than the hairs of my head, therefore my heart faileth me," Psalm 40:12; while they who drank up iniquity as the ox drinketh up water are enabled with confidence to demand, "Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect?" arrayed in His unspotted righteousness, they shall all sit down on His glorious high throne and reign with Him for ever. He is their elder brother, their surety, their life. They were given to Him by His Father in the everlasting council; He undertook for them, has cancelled all their debt, and has entered into His glory to prepare for them mansions in which they shall for ever dwell. The Church of Christ, ransomed with His precious blood, shall abide an imperishable monument of the manifold wisdom of God, showing that with Him nothing shall be impossible.

    By whom also he made the worlds.—That Isaiah , the universe; all things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. John 1:3. Such is the glorious Personage by whom God hath spoken to us in these last days. The prophets were employed to unfold the revelations which God thought fit to communicate, but the Son has completed the discoveries which are necessary for our instruction, and to Him alone we are directed to look.

    This was strikingly exhibited on the holy mount. Moses and Elias, the two most illustrious prophets of the old dispensation, conversed with Jesus on His decease which He was to accomplish at Jerusalem. The Apostles were desirous of detaining the heavenly visitors, but a bright cloud overshadowed them, and behold a voice out of the cloud which said, This is my beloved Son: hear ye him. They lifted up their eyes, and Jesus alone remained, the great Prophet of His Church. The darkness was past and the true light now shone.

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    Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:2". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". https: 1835.

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