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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Hebrews 1:6

And when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says, "AND LET ALL THE ANGELS OF GOD WORSHIP HIM."

Adam Clarke Commentary

And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten - This is not a correct translation of the Greek, Ὁταν δε παλιν εισαγαγῃ τον πρωτοτοκον εις την οικουμενην· But when he bringeth again, or the second time, the first-born into the habitable world. This most manifestly refers to his resurrection, which might be properly considered a second incarnation; for as the human soul, as well as the fullness of the Godhead bodily, dwelt in the man, Christ Jesus on and during his incarnation, so when he expired upon the cross, both the Godhead and the human spirit left his dead body; and as on his resurrection these were reunited to his revivified manhood, therefore, with the strictest propriety, does the apostle say that the resurrection was a second bringing of him into the world.

I have translated οικουμενη the habitable world, and this is its proper meaning; and thus it is distinguished from κοσμος, which signifies the terraqueous globe, independently of its inhabitants; though it often expresses both the inhabited and uninhabited parts. Our Lord's first coming into the world is expressed by this latter word, Hebrews 10:5; : Wherefore when he cometh into the world, διο εισερχομενος εις τον κοσμον, and this simply refers to his being incarnated, that he might be capable of suffering and dying for man. But the word is changed on this second coming, I mean his resurrection, and then οικουμενη is used; and why? (fancy apart) because he was now to dwell with man; to send his gospel everywhere to all the inhabitants of the earth, and to accompany that Gospel wherever he sent it, and to be wherever two or three should be gathered together in his name. Wherever the messengers of Jesus Christ go, preaching the kingdom of God, even to the farthest and most desolate parts of the earth where human beings exist, there they ever find Christ; he is not only in them, and with them, but he is in and among all who believe on him through their word.

Let all the angels of God worship him - The apostle recurs here to his former assertion, that Jesus is higher than the angels, Hebrews 1:4, that he is none of those who can be called ordinary angels or messengers, but one of the most extraordinary kind, and the object of worship to all the angels of God. To worship any creature is idolatry, and God resents idolatry more than any other evil. Jesus Christ can be no creature, else the angels who worship him must be guilty of idolatry, and God the author of that idolatry, who commanded those angels to worship Christ.

There has been some difficulty in ascertaining the place from which the apostle quotes these words; some suppose Psalm 97:7; : Worship him, all ye gods; which the Septuagint translate thus: Προσκυνησατε αυτῳ, παντες αγγελοι αυτου· Worship him, all ye his angels; but it is not clear that the Messiah is intended in this psalm, nor are the words precisely those used here by the apostle. Our marginal references send us with great propriety to the Septuagint version of Deuteronomy 32:43, where the passage is found verbatim et literatim; but there is nothing answering to the words in the present Hebrew text. The apostle undoubtedly quoted the Septuagint, which had then been for more than 300 years a version of the highest repute among the Jews; and it is very probable that the copy from which the Seventy translated had the corresponding words. However this may be, they are now sanctioned by Divine authority; and as the verse contains some singular additions, I will set it down in a parallel column with that of our own version, which was taken immediately from the Hebrew text, premising simply this, that it is the last verse of the famous prophetic song of Moses, which seems to point out the advent of the Messiah to discomfit his enemies, purify the land, and redeem Israel from all his iniquities.

Deuteronomy 32:43, from the Hebrew Deuteronomy 32:43, from the Septuagint - Rejoice, ye heaven, together with him; and let all the ... Rejoice, O ye nations, with angels of God worship him. Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people ... his people; and let the children of God be strengthened ... for he will avenge in him; for he will avenge the blood of his children; the blood of his servants; - and will render he will avenge, and will repay judgment to his adver- vengeance to his adversaries: - and ... saries; and those who hate him will he recompense: ... will be merciful to his land and to his people and the Lord will purge the land of his people

This is a very important verse; and to it, as it stands in the Septuagint, St. Paul has referred once before; see Romans 15:10. This very verse, as it stands now in the Septuagint, thus referred to by an inspired writer, shows the great importance of this ancient version; and proves the necessity of its being studied and well understood by every minister of Christ. In Romans 3 there is a large quotation - from Psalm 14:1-7; :, where there are six whole verses in the apostle's quotation which are not found in the present Hebrew text, but are preserved in the Septuagint! How strange it is that this venerable and important version, so often quoted by our Lord and all his apostles, should be so generally neglected, and so little known! That the common people should be ignorant of it, is not to be wondered at, as it has never been put in an English dress; but that the ministers of the Gospel should be unacquainted with it may be spoken to their shame.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https: 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And again - Margin, “When he bringeth in again.” The proper construction of this sentence probably is, “But when, moreover, he brings in,” etc. The word “again” refers not to the fact that the Son of God is brought “again” into the world, implying that he had been introduced before; but it refers to the course of the apostle‘s argument, or to the declaration which is made about the Messiah in another place. “The name Son is not only given to him as above, but also in another place, or on another occasion when he brings in the first-begotten into the world.” “When he bringeth in.” When he introduces. So far as the “language” here is concerned this might refer to the birth of the Messiah, but it is evident from the whole connection that the writer means to refer to something that is said in the Old Testament. This is plain because the passage occurs among quotations designed to prove a specific point - that the Son of God, the Author of the Christian system, was superior to the angels.

A declaration of the writer here, however true and solemn, would not have answered the purpose. A “proof-text” was missing; a text which would be admitted by those to whom he wrote to bear on the point under consideration. The meaning then is, “that on another occasion different from those to which he had referred, God, when speaking of the Messiah, or when introducing him to mankind, had used language showing that he was superior to the angels.” The meaning of the phrase, “when he bringeth in,” therefore, I take to be, when he introduces him to people; when he makes him known to the world - to wit, by the declaration which he proceeds immediately to quote. “The first-begotten.” Christ is called the “first-begotten,” with reference to his resurrection from the dead, in Revelation 1:5, and Colossians 1:18. It is probable here, however, that the word is used, like the word “first-born,” or “first-begotten” among the Hebrews, by way of eminence.

As the first-born was the principal heir, and had special privileges, so the Lord Jesus Christ sustains a similar rank in the universe of which God is the Head and Father; see notes on John 1:14, where the word “only-begotten” is used to denote the dignity and honor of the Lord Jesus. “Into the world.” When he introduces him to mankind, or declares what he is to be. “He saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.” Much difficulty has been experienced in regard to this quotation, for it cannot be denied that it is intended to be a quotation. In the Septuagint these very words occur in Deuteronomy 32:43, where they are inserted in the Song of Moses. But they are not in the Hebrew, nor are they in all the copies of the Septuagint. The Hebrew is, “Rejoice, O ye nations with his people; for he will avenge the blood of his servants, and will render vengeance to his adversaries.” The Septuagint is, “Rejoice ye heavens with him; and let all the angels of God worship him. Let the nations rejoice with his people, and let all the sons of God be strong in him, for he has avenged the blood of his sons.” But there are objections to our supposing that the apostle had this place in his view, which seem to me to settle the matter.

(1) one is, that the passage is not in the Hebrew; and it seems hardly credible that in writing to Hebrews, and to those residing in the very country where the Hebrew Scriptures were constantly used, he should adduce as a proof-text on an important doctrine what was not in their Scriptures.

(2) asecond is, that it is omitted in all the ancient versions except the Septuagint.

(3) athird is, that it is impossible to believe that the passage in question in Deuteronomy had any reference to the Messiah. It does not relate to his “introduction” to the world. It would not occur to any reader that it had any such reference. The context celebrates the victory over the enemies of Israel which God will achieve. After saying that “his arrows would be drunk with blood, and that his sword would devour flesh with the blood of the slain and of captives, from the time when he began to take vengeance on an enemy,” the Septuagint (not the Hebrew) immediately asserts, “let the heavens rejoice at the same time with him, and let all the angels of God worship him.” That is, “Let the inhabitants of the heavenly world rejoice in the victory of God over the enemies of his people, and let them pay their adoration to him.” But the Messiah does not appear to be alluded to anywhere in the context; much less described as “introduced into the world.”

There is, moreover, not the slightest evidence that it was ever supposed by the Jews to have any such reference; and though it might be said that the apostle merely quoted “language” that expressed his meaning - as we often do when we are familiar with any well-known phrase that will exactly suit our purpose and convey an idea - yet it should be remarked that this is not the way in which this passage is quoted. It is a “proof-text,” and Paul evidently meant to be understood as saying that that passage had a “fair” reference to the Messiah. It is evident, moreover, that it would be admitted to have such a reference by those to whom he wrote. It is morally certain, therefore, that this was not the passage which the writer intended to quote. The probability is, that the writer here referred to Psalm 97:7, (in the Septuagint Psalm 96:7). In that place, the Hebrew is, “worship him, all ye gods” כל אלהים kaal 'elohiym- “all ye ‹elohiym.”

In the Septuagint it is, “Let all his angels worship him;” where the translation is literal, except that the word “God” - “angels of God” - is used by the apostle instead of “his” - “all his angels” - as it is in the Septuagint. The word “gods” - אלהים 'elohiym- is rendered by the word “angels” - but the word may have that sense. Thus, it is rendered by the Septuagint; in Job 20:15; and in Psalm 8:6; Psalm 137:1. It is well known that the word אלהים 'elohiymmay denote “kings” and “magistrates,” because of their rank and dignity; and is there anything improbable in the supposition that, for a similar reason, the word may be given also to “angels”? The fair interpretation of the passage then would be, to refer it to “angelic beings” - and the command in Psalm 97:1-12 is for them to do homage to the Being there referred to. The only question then is, whether the Psalm can be regarded properly as having any reference to the Messiah? Did the apostle fairly and properly use this language as referring to him? On this we may remark:

(1) That the fact that he uses it thus may be regarded as proof that it would be admitted to be proper by the Jews in his time, and renders it probable that it was in fact so used.

(2) two Jewish Rabbis of distinction - Rashi and Kimchi - affirm that all the Psalms Hebrews 1:1, the earth is called on to rejoice that the Lord reigns. In Hebrews 1:2-5, he is introduced or described as coming in the most magnificent manner - clouds and darkness attend him; a fire goes before him; the lightnings play; and the hills melt like wax - a sublime description of his coming, with appropriate symbols, to reign, or to judge the world. In Hebrews 1:6, it is said that all people shall see his glory; in Hebrews 1:7, that all who worship graven images shall be confounded, and “all the angels are required to do him homage;” and in Hebrews 1:8-12, the effect of his advent is described as filling Zion with rejoicing, and the hearts of the people of God with gladness. It cannot be proveD, therefore, that this Psalm had no reference to the Messiah; but the presumption is that it had, and that the apostle has quoted it not only as it was usually regarded in his time, but as it was designed by the Holy Ghost. If so, then it proves, what the writer intended, that the Son of God should be adored by the angels; and of course that he was superior to them. It proves also more. Whom would God require the angels to adore? A creature? A man? A fellow-angel? To ask these questions is to answer them. He could require them to worship none but God, and the passage proves that the Son of God is divine.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https: 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

And when he again bringeth in the firstborn into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

Scholars say that the author here quoted from the Septuagint translation of Psalms 97:7, the common versions reading, "Worship him all ye gods." Christ is here called the "firstborn," a favorite expression of Paul who referred to Christ as "the firstborn from the dead" (Colossians 1:18); and as "the firstborn of all creation" (Colossians 1:15). This expression emphasizes the honor and dignity and primacy of Christ.

Of special interest is the word "again," in which it appears that God's commanding of all the angels to worship Christ has special reference to a second time that Christ is brought into the world; and thus this has been applied to the second coming. For example, Hewitt, in Tyndale's Commentary, said, "The reference would seem to be to the second coming of Christ."[14] However, there is one vast consideration that requires that it be construed as a reference to the resurrection of Christ from the dead; because it is certain that angels now worship Christ and that their doing so does not wait upon some future event like the second coming. Besides, Christ's being raised from the dead was genuinely a coming "again" into the world, his descent into Hades separating between the two times he was in the world. If it should be insisted that this view would relegate the ultimate coming of Christ in judgment to the status of a third coming, this is not logical; because the two comings of Christ, if they be so viewed, were so intimately connected that they stand as one. The big point of this quotation, however, should not be lost sight of; and that is the fact that God has commanded the angels to worship Christ. Great and glorious as angels assuredly are, Christ is infinitely above them.


[14] Thomas Hewitt, op. cit., p. 56.

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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https: Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And again, when he bringeth the first begotten into the world;.... By "the first begotten" is meant Christ. This is a name given him in the Old Testament, and is what the Hebrews were acquainted with, and therefore the apostle uses it; it is in Psalm 89:27 from whence it seems to be taken here, and which the ancient JewsF21Shemot Rabba, sect. 19. fol. 104. 4. acknowledge is to be understood of the Messiah; who, as the Son of God, is the only begotten of the Father, and was begotten from eternity, as before declared, and before any creature had a being, and therefore called the firstborn of every creature, Colossians 1:15 and is sometimes styled the first begotten from the dead; he rose the first in time, and is the first in causality and dignity: and he may be called the firstborn, with respect to the saints, who are of the same nature with him, and are partakers of the divine nature, and are adopted into the family of God, though they are not in the same class of sonship with him; and the bringing of him into the world may refer to his second coming, for this seems agreeable from the natural order of the words, which may be rendered, "when he shall bring again", &c. that is, a second time, and from Psalm 97:1 from whence the following words are cited; and from the glory he shall then have from the angels, who will come with him, and minister to him; and not to his resurrection from the dead, when he was exalted above angels, principalities, and powers; though, as we read the words, they seem to regard his first coming in to this habitable world, at his incarnation and birth, when he was attended with angels, and worshipped by them, according to the order of God the Father, as follows:

he saith, and let all the angels of God worship him; these words are cited from Psalm 97:7 where the angels are called Elohim, gods. So Aben Ezra on the place observes, that there are some (meaning their doctors) who say, that "all the gods are the angels"; and Kimchi says, that the words are not imperative, but are in the past tense, instead of the future,

all the angels have worshipped him; that is, they shall worship him; as they have done, so they will do. According to our version, they are called upon to worship God's firstborn, his only begotten Son, with a religious worship and adoration, even all of them, not one excepted; which shows, that Christ, as the first begotten, is the Lord God, for he only is to be served and worshipped; and that if angels are to worship him, men ought; and that angels are not to be worshipped, and that Christ is preferable to them; and the whole sets forth the excellency and dignity of his person. Philo the JewF23De Agricultura, p. 195. De Confus. Ling. p. 329, 341. Somniis, p. 597. often calls the Logos, or Word of God, his first begotten.

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Gill, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https: 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

7 And l again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

(7) He proves and confirms the dignity of Christ revealed in the flesh, by these six evident testimonies by which it appears that he far surpasses all angels, so much so that he is called both Son, and God in (Hebrews 1:5-8) , (Hebrews 1:10) , (Hebrews 1:13).

(l) The Lord was not content to have spoken it once, but he repeats it in another place.

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https: 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

AndGreek, “But.” Not only this proves His superiority, BUT a more decisive proof is Psalm 97:7, which shows that not only at His resurrection, but also in prospect of His being brought into the world (compare Hebrews 9:11; Hebrews 10:5) as man, in His incarnation, nativity (Luke 2:9-14), temptation (Matthew 4:10, Matthew 4:11), resurrection (Matthew 28:2), and future second advent in glory, angels were designed by God to be subject to Him. Compare 1 Timothy 3:16, “seen of angels”; God manifesting Messiah as one to be gazed at with adoring love by heavenly intelligences (Ephesians 3:10; 2 Thessalonians 1:9, 2 Thessalonians 1:10; 1 Peter 3:22). The fullest realization of His Lordship shall be at His second coming (Psalm 97:7; 1 Corinthians 15:24, 1 Corinthians 15:25; Philemon 2:9). “Worship Him all ye gods” (“gods,” that is, exalted beings, as angels), refers to God; but it was universally admitted among the Hebrews that God would dwell, in a peculiar sense, in Messiah (so as to be in the Talmud phrase, “capable of being pointed to with the finger”); and so what was said of God was true of, and to be fulfilled in, Messiah. Kimchi says that the ninety-third through the hundred first Psalms contain in them the mystery of Messiah. God ruled the theocracy in and through Him.

the world — subject to Christ (Hebrews 2:5). As “the first-begotten” He has the rights of primogeniture (Romans 8:29); Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:16, Colossians 1:18). In Deuteronomy 32:43, the Septuagint has, “Let all the angels of God worship Him,” words not now found in the Hebrew. This passage of the Septuagint may have been in Paul‘s mind as to the form, but the substance is taken from Psalm 97:7. The type David, in the Psalm 89:27 (quoted in Hebrews 1:5), is called “God‘s first-born, higher than the kings of the earth”; so the antitypical first-begotten, the son of David, is to be worshipped by all inferior lords, such as angels (“gods,” Psalm 97:7); for He is “King of kings and Lord of lords” (Revelation 19:16). In the Greek, “again” is transposed; but this does not oblige us, as Alford thinks, to translate, “when He again shall have introduced,” etc., namely, at Christ‘s second coming; for there is no previous mention of a first bringing in; and “again” is often used in quotations, not to be joined with the verb, but parenthetically (“that I may again quote Scripture”). English Version is correct (compare Matthew 5:33; Greek, John 12:39).

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https: 1871-8.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

6. “First begotten” means the first to be giorified from the dead, i.e., the first one raised from the dead in the transfigured glory. Elijah, Elisha and Christ had raised people from the dead before the resurrection of Jesus. But we have no evidence that any of them received the transfigured body, but simply their mortal body subject to dissolution, as formerly. Hence, Jesus was the first one to rise from the dead in His transfigured glory. “Into the world” literally means into the inhabited universe, and here means heaven instead of earth, as we see from the subsequent portion of the verse, because God says, “Let all the angels of God worship Him.” So this verse describes our Savior’s glorious congratulation and reception into heaven when He ascended up from Mt. Olivet in His transfigured body.

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Godbey, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". https:

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

And when he again bringeth in (οταν δε παλιν εισαγαγηιhotan de palin eisagagēi). Indefinite temporal clause with οτανhotan and second aorist active subjunctive of εισαγωeisagō If παλινpalin is taken with εισαγαγηιeisagagēi the reference is to the Second Coming as in Hebrews 9:28. If παλινpalin merely introduces another quotation (Psalm 97:7) parallel to και παλινkai palin in Hebrews 1:5, the reference is to the incarnation when the angels did worship the Child Jesus (Luke 2:13.). There is no way to decide certainly about it.

The first-born (τον πρωτοτοκονton prōtotokon). See Psalm 89:28. For this compound adjective applied to Christ in relation to the universe see Colossians 1:15, to other men, Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:18, to the other children of Mary, Luke 2:7; here it is used absolutely.

The world
(την οικουμενηνtēn oikoumenēn). “The inhabited earth.” See Acts 17:6.

Let worship
(προσκυνησατωσανproskunēsatōsan). Imperative first aorist active third plural of προσκυνεωproskuneō here in the full sense of worship, not mere reverence or courtesy. This quotation is from the lxx of Deut 32:43, but is not in the Hebrew, though most of the lxx MSS. (except F) have υιοι τεουhuioi theou but the substance does occur also in Psalm 97:7 with οι αγγελοι αυτουhoi aggeloi autou f0).

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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https: Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

d Third quotation, marking the relation of angels to the Son.

And again, when he bringeth in, etc. ( ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ )

Const. again with bringeth in. “When he a second time bringeth the first-begotten into the world.” Referring to the second coming of Christ. Others explain again as introducing a new citation as in Hebrews 1:5; but this would require the reading πάλιν δὲ ὅταν andagain, when. In Hebrews, πάλιν , when joined to a verb, always means a second time. See Hebrews 5:12; Hebrews 6:1, Hebrews 6:2. It will be observed that in this verse, and in Hebrews 5:7, Hebrews 5:8, God is conceived as spoken of rather than as speaking; the subject of λέγει saithbeing indefinite. This mode of introducing citations differs from that of Paul. The author's conception of the inspiration of Scripture leads him to regard all utterances of Scripture, without regard to their connection, as distinct utterances of God, or the Holy Spirit, or the Son of God; whereas, by Paul, they are designated either as utterances of Scripture in general, or of individual writers. Very common in this Epistle are the expressions, “God saith, said, spake, testifieth,” or the like. See Hebrews 2:11, Hebrews 2:13; Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 4:4, Hebrews 4:7; Hebrews 7:21; Hebrews 10:5, Hebrews 10:8, Hebrews 10:15, Hebrews 10:30. Comp. with these Romans 1:17; Romans 2:24; Romans 4:17; Romans 7:7; Romans 9:13; Romans 10:5, Romans 10:16, Romans 10:20, Romans 10:21; Romans 11:2. Ὅταν εἰσαγάγῃ wheneverhe shall have brought. The event is conceived as occurring at an indefinite time in the future, but is viewed as complete. Comp. John 16:4; Acts 24:22. This use of ὅταν with the aorist subjunctive never describes an event or series of events as completed in the past.

The first-begotten ( τὸν πρωτότοκον )

Mostly in Paul and Hebrews. Comp. Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18; Revelation 1:5. Μονογενής only-begotten(John 1:14, John 1:18; John 3:16, John 3:18; 1 John 4:9, never by Paul) describes the unique relation of the Son to the Father in his divine nature: πρωτότοκος first-begottendescribes the relation of the risen Christ in his glorified humanity to man. The comparison implied in the word is not limited to angels. He is the first-born in relation to the creation, the dead, the new manhood, etc. See Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18. The rabbinical writers applied the title first-born even to God. Philo (De Confus. Ling. § 14) speaks of the Logos as πρωτόγονος or πρεσβύτατος thefirst-born or eldest son.

And let all the angels of God worship him ( καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ )

Προσκυνεῖν toworship mostly in the Gospels, Acts, and Apocrypha. In Paul only 1 Corinthians 14:25. Very often in lxx. Originally, to kiss the hand to: thence, to do homage to. Not necessarily of an act of religious reverence (see Matthew 9:18; Matthew 20:20), but often in N.T. in that sense. Usually translated worship, whether a religious sense is intended or not: see on Acts 10:25. The quotation is not found in the Hebrew of the O.T., but is cited literally from lxx, Deuteronomy 32:43. It appears substantially in Psalm 96:7. For the writer of Hebrews the lxx was Scripture, and is quoted throughout without regard to its correspondence with the Hebrew.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https: Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

And again — That is, in another scripture.

He — God.

Saith, when he bringeth in his first-begotten — This appellation includes that of Son, together with the rights of primogeniture, which the first-begotten Son of God enjoys, in a manner not communicable to any creature.

Into the world — Namely, at his incarnation.

He saith, Let all the angels of God worship him — So much higher was he, when in his lowest estate, than the highest angel. Psalm 97:7.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https: 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

The language here quoted is supposed to be taken from Hebrews 1:6; Psalms 97:7.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https: 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

6.And again, when he bringeth or introduceth (21) , etc. He now proves by another argument that Christ is above the angels, and that is because the angels are bidden to worship him. (Psalms 97:7.) It hence follows that he is their head and Prince. But it may seem unreasonable to apply that to Christ which is spoken of God only. Were we to answer that Christ is the eternal God, and therefore what belongs to God may justly be applied to him, it would not perhaps be satisfactory to all; for it would avail but little in proving a doubtful point, to argue in this case from the common attributes of God.

The subject is Christ manifested in the flesh, and the Apostle expressly says, that the Spirit thus spoke when Christ was introduced into the world; but this would not have been said consistently with truth except the manifestation of Christ be really spoken of in the Psalm. And so the case indeed is; for the Psalm commences with an exhortation to rejoice; nor did David address the Jews, but the whole earth, including the islands, that is, countries beyond the sea. The reason for this joy is given, because the Lord would reign. Further, if you read the whole Psalm, you will find nothing else but the kingdom of Christ, which began when the Gospel was published; nor is the whole Psalm anything else but a solemn decree, as it were, by which Christ was sent to take possession of His kingdom. Besides, what joy could arise from His kingdom, except it brought salvation to the whole world, to the Gentiles as well as to the Jews? Aptly then does the Apostle say here, that he was introduced into the world, because in that Psalm what is described is his coming to men.

The Hebrew word, rendered angels, is Elohim — gods; but there is no doubt but that the Prophet speaks of angels; for the meaning is, that there is no power so high but must be in subjection to the authority of this king, whose advent was to cause joy to the whole world.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https: 1840-57.

William Newell's Commentary on Romans and Revelation

And when He again bringeth in THE FIRSTBORN into the world, He saith, And let all the angels of God worship Him:

In this, the third of these great Old Testament words concerning Christ, the Spirit goes back to Psalm 97:7: "Worship Him, all ye gods." (Perhaps also there is a reference to Deut. 32:43, Sept.) The 97th is one of the psalms of the second coming and millennial reign of Christ. Note first the beautiful name of Christ here (Heb. 1:6): THE FIRSTBORN. It is in itself an absolute title, a name. He is The Firstborn--the immediate expression of the rights and the glory of God. He has universal pre-eminence. Instead of looking at this wonderful Name from the creature's viewpoint, as do the Unitarians, modernists, and all infidels, let us view this Name from its only proper viewpoint, that of God Himself. Then indeed does it begin to teach us marvelous things of blessing!

When we quote Col. 1:15, "Who is the image of the invisible God, The Firstborn of all creation," Unitarian hosts rush to cry, "Yes, the Firstborn, the highest--but a creature, evidently." But let them read the next verse, "For in Him were all things created in the heavens and upon the earth." We press upon the reader that there is no faintest hint of Christ's being a creature, but the exact opposite: "God was manifest in the flesh." The movement is from God toward us, in infinite condescension. The Creator is coming among His creatures. The Second Person of the Deity has stepped into the creature place: not at all becoming a creature, for He Himself created all things! But the Father prepared Him a body (Heb. 10:5) and from the womb of the virgin, according to the word of prophecy, it could now be said, "Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given ... and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Father of eternity, Prince of peace." O sinner! O saint! Read this and adore. In proceeding out into His creation should He not have the title, "The Firstborn"? He is not of creation in His origin, but He is one with us in grace.

This name, Firstborn (_Prolotokos) is applied seven times to our Lord (although in Matt. 1:25 and Lk. 2:7 it concerns His birth: "She brought forth her firstborn son"). In Rom. 8:29, "The Firstborn among many brethren"; Col. 1:15, "The Firstborn of all creation," because "by Him were all things created"; Col. 1:18, "The Firstborn from among the dead" (in resurrection, of course); Heb. 1:6, When He again bringeth in The Firstborn into the World; Rev. 1:5. "The Firstborn of the dead" (for Christ did not go back, as did Lazarus, into the life of earth, but was raised in "newness, of life": Rom. 6:4).

It is, we repeat, a title--not the eldest son of a family. See Ps. 89:27, where God, in speaking of David's tenth son (1 Chron. 3:1-5) Solomon, declares, "I will make (or, appoint) him firstborn the highest of the kings of the earth" (2 Chron. 9:22,24).

You remember that in our Lord's prayer in the 17th of John, He asks that the Father will glorify Him "with the glory which I had with Thee," He said, "before the world was." He was there in all eternity past, one Person in the ineffable Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. To that eternal past the title, The Firstborn, cannot belong. Where, then, do we begin to find it? In God's motion toward creatures--even ourselves--not angels but men! Why this coming forth into creation and toward creatures? Was not the triune God sufficient in Himself? Were not His attributes all glorious? Was not the fellowship of Father, Son and Spirit enough--infinitely enough?

Nay. God is Love! And He would bestow that love upon creatures, who, by that bestowal, would be forever blessed. And He would reveal the absoluteness of that love in sending the Son of His love to redeem those who were otherwise guilty, lost, and forever undone. So God "brought in" His Son "into the world" first at Bethlehem. Again and again our Lord testified that He had not come of Himself, but that the Father had sent Him: "I came forth and am come from God; for neither have I come of Myself, but He sent Me" (John 7:28, 29; 8:42; 10:36). Now this was His first coming. And, according to hundreds of passages in the New Testament, as well as those in the old prophets, He is to be sent again into this world. God will again bring in THE FIRSTBORN into the habitable world, where He was once rejected: mark that! God will bring Him back to earth _again, and in revealed glory. Paul says in 1 Thessalonians 4:14, "If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also that are fallen asleep in (Gr., through) Jesus will God bring with Him." Not only will God bring Christ back but the Saints with Him! See 1 Thessalonians 3:13: "The coming of our Lord Jesus with all His Saints"!

(Note: Of the adverb translated "again" (_palin), Thayer says, "Joined to verbs of all sorts it denotes renewal or repetition of the action ... In Heb. 1:6. _palin is tacitly opposed to the time when God first brought His Son into the world." And Alford: "In this epistle, when _palin is joined to a verb, it always has the sense of 'a second time'. The A.V. reading, 'And again, when He bringeth in,' makes 'again' a simple particle, not an adverb, and so obscures this reference to Christ's second coming.")

Second, "the angels" are to be taken into a higher place than they have ever had, even that of worshipers, a new and understanding place, where they will know God's love, and His electing Grace, seen in the redeemed, the members of Christ's Body! The words, Let all the angels of God worship Him, we find marvelously carried out in Revelation 5:7-12. There is deep instruction for us in this passage. After the Lamb has taken the governmental seven-sealed book, the four Living Ones and the twenty-four Elders fall down before Him, having each one a harp, for it is the day of Heaven's joy, celebrating His death and His purchasing (men) unto God with His blood out of "every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation," to "reign upon the earth." Then come the angels. Their time of serving the saints is over, and their time of worship of the Lamb continues. "And I saw, and I heard a voice of many angels round about the throne," John tells us, "and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands; saying with a great voice, Worthy is the Lamb that hath been slain" (Rev. 5:11, 12).

Someone may ask, Have not the angelic beings always worshiped Christ the Son, through Whose word they were created? Doubtless they have always worshiped the Triune God. But when in the eternity past did God reveal Himself as at the incarnation when the only begotten Son, Who was in the bosom of the Father, "declared Him"? (John 1:18). It was not that God dwelt in Heaven in thick darkness as He appeared on Sinai. On the contrary, it is written of Him, "Who only hath immortality, dwelling in light unapproachable" (1 Tim. 6:16). Read again the note regarding "again" on Hebrews 1:6.

In the various "theophanies" of the Old Testament, the Son was the Speaker--as He was the Speaker of the creative word of Genesis 1:3. And we know Isaiah saw Christ's glory, as God (Isa. 6; John 12:41). Yet not to the Old Testament fathers did God speak "in a Son," as now. Nor do we read in Scripture of any other being than man created in God's imaged and likeness. For God's counsels were connected with Christ as man.*

God will "sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things upon the earth"--which is the "secret of His will" made known in Eph. 1:9, 10. Vss. 11-14 and following show our direct connection with Christ as God's "inheritance" (vs. 18); while Eph. 3:10, 11 tells us that it was God's intent that now "unto the principalities and powers in the heavenlies might be made known through the Church (the Assembly, the Bride of Christ) the manifold wisdom of God, according to the purpose of the ages (margin) which He purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord."

These "ages" run back to the beginning of God's creation, including, we believe, all things God has created. So this "purpose of the ages"--God's great ultimate object in them all, was to reveal Christ, in Whom dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead, and the Assembly, as Christ's fullness (Eph. 1:22, 23).

Just how much the angels knew of our Lord as the Eternal Word, we may not know. What a celebration there was on the night He was born in Bethlehem as God manifest in the flesh! But here in Hebrews 1:6 the angels will be called, we believe, into a ministry of intelligent worship such as they never knew before. Read carefully here 1 Peter 1:11, 12: "Which things angels desire to look into"! What things? Those things concerning "the sufferings of (appointed unto) Christ, and the glories that should follow them." Those matters which concern God's redemptive plan reveal His nature as Love: which things are shown directly to the objects of redemption, lost men; but which must be learned by observation by sinless heavenly beings. Christ "took hold of" (or "gave help to") the seed of Abraham, "not of angels" (Heb. 2:16). So that the pardoned sinner knows the heart of God as no angel, cherub or seraph can!

Having, therefore, beheld God's love in sending His dear Son to the Cross, the angels enter with delight unimaginable upon the worship of that Son, when He takes over the kingdom things, as we said above.

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Newell, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". William Newell's Commentary on Romans, Hebrews and Revelation. https: 1938.

Scofield's Reference Notes


"oikoumene" = inhabited earth. (See Scofield "Luke 2:1").

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Hebrews 1:6". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https: 1917.

James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary


‘Let all the angels of God worship Him.’

Hebrews 1:6

Worship, true worship, in the sense of bowing down before a present Saviour, in the sense of adoring a new-born King, this is a tribute which Christ claims from His servants above all others on the day of His birth. They are the Birthday gifts we are bound to offer Him.

I. The idea of worship as the special tribute of Christmas Day seems strikingly brought out in this Epistle. How full of strange contrasts is our holy religion. How amazing are the apparent contradictions! Surely it is easy, not difficult, as many seem to find it, to understand how the mysteries of religion do not commend themselves to men who have not faith; for, verily, great is the faith that is requisite to remove the mountains of difficulties which present themselves during the Christian pilgrim’s progress from darkness to light, from doubt to certitude, from a timid, hesitating acceptance of the truth to a perfect and implicit faith! Oh faith, strain thy vision; oh imagination, expand thy powers; oh weak human intellect, agonise; mortal brain, torture thyself in striving in vain to realise that this babe, wrapped by its own mother’s hands in the carefully provided swaddling clothes, this babe, born in this wretched shed, lying sweet and peaceful in this bed of straw, is the Mighty God, the Prince of Peace, of Whom it has long years ago been forespoken in sacred prophecy, ‘Let all the angels of God worship Him!’

II. Worship Him?—‘Never!’ said the proudly robed and austere-looking Pharisee. ‘Never,’ said the highly cultured and gifted philosopher, Saul of Tarsus. ‘Never,’ says the Man of Society of to-day, our modern Pharisee, who performs punctiliously all the duties which respectability requires of him, even to the hearing an occasional sermon by a select preacher in some great abbey or cathedral, but who will never worship One in Whom he sees no more than the ‘Babe of Bethlehem,’ or a titular ‘King of the Jews.’ ‘Never,’ says the profound Freethinker of an enlightened century, whose lofty mind revolts from a form of worship which he regards as the childish pageantry of an effete and attenuated superstition.

—Rev. J. H. Buchanan.



Worship is what we owe to God and what we give so little of. We are ready to hear about God, to read about Christ, to pray, maybe, for blessings and graces and forgiveness. But to hear about God is not to worship Him. To read His Word is not to worship Him. Even to pray to Him is not really worship in its proper sense.

I. Worship is the homage of the whole man; the bowing down of body, soul, and spirit in an act of adoration to Him as King and Lord and God. We come to church to hear about God and to pray to God—but how little does the thought come into our heads of giving anything to God. I do not mean the giving of alms. I mean the giving of worship. The idea does not cross our minds that we owe God a duty—once a week and on certain great festivals to attend His Court and there pay Him what He demands of us. He is there indeed to instruct us, and to redress our wrongs, and to hear our petitions. But He is there principally to receive from us that worship which He demands of all his rational creatures as a right, and which He will exact.

II. See how it was when Christ was born into this world.—Men did not flock around Him and adore Him. Therefore God the Father summoned the Angel Host to prostrate themselves in adoration before the little Child that rested on its Mother s knee. ‘When He bringeth in His firstbegotten into the world, he saith. Let all the angels of God worship Him.’

III. The Church calls on her children to come and adore God, and give Him the homage which is His due. ‘Oh come let us worship, and fall down, and kneel before the Lord our Maker.’ She does not bid you come and sit down and lounge about and listen; she calls to an act of homage. ‘Let us fall down, and kneel.’ To kneel is to do homage with the body.

IV. But that is not sufficient. The mind must do homage also.—It must be drawn in from worldly and frivolous thoughts, and must be fixed on God, and think of Him with reverence. The soul also must be directed to God in adoration, kindled with love, burning with desire; it must turn towards God in an attitude of mingled fear and fervour.

So only will true worship be given. Worship must be made up of the devotion of body, soul, and mind to God.

Rev. S. Baring-Gould.

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Nisbet, James. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". Church Pulpit Commentary. https: 1876.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

6 And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

Ver. 6. When he bringeth in the first begotten] He is the "only begotten," and yet is called the first begotten; because he hath the right of firstborn over his brethren, and was begotten before the world was.

And let all the angels of God] The manhood of itself could not be thus adored (because it is a creature), but as it is received into unity of person with the Deity, and hath a partner agency therewith, according to its measure, in the work of redemption and mediation, Philippians 2:9.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https: 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Hebrews 1:6

Christ worshipped by Angels.

I. The first thing which the text teaches is that Christ is a proper object of Divine worship.

II. The text suggests another point—that the incarnation of our ever-blessed Lord affords a special call upon all in earth and heaven to ascribe unto Him the honour which is due unto His name.

J. N. Norton, Every Sunday, P.-25.

References: Hebrews 1:6.—Expositor, 1st series, vol. i., p. 349; Homilist, vol. i., p. 38.

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Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https:

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Hebrews 1:6. And let all the angels of God worship him In proof of the infinite superiority of Christ over the angels, the apostle shews, that he was not only the Son of God, while even the highest of them were but servants; but that he was the object of their adoration and worship. It is matter of doubt, whence the quotation in this verse is taken; some taking it from Deuteronomy 32:43 and others from Psalms 97:7 which seems the most probable. See the notes on that Psalm. Instead of spirits, in the next verse, Doddridge, Waterland, and others, read winds. "He who rules the winds and the lightnings, has his angels under equal command; and employs them with the strength of winds, and the rapidity of lightning in his service." However noble and lofty this description of the angels is, it falls infinitely short of what was before said, and what is immediately added in the next verses, concerning the Son: and in this view, the quotation was very much to the apostle's purpose.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https: 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

6.] But ( δέ, because a further proof, and a more decisive one as regards the angels, is about to be adduced) when He again (or, ‘when again He’? Does πάλιν introduce a new citation, or does it belong to εἰσαγάγῃ, and denote a new and second introduction? This latter view is taken by many, principally the ancient expositors, Chrys., Thl., (not Thdrt. appy.,) Ambr(4), Œc., Anselm, Thos. Aquin., &c., and lately by Tholuck, De Wette, Lünemann, and Delitzsch,—interpreting the ‘second introduction’ diversely: some, as His incarnation, contrasted with His everlasting generation, or His creating of the world, which they treat as His first introduction: so Primasius, al.: others (Wittich, Surenhus., Peirce, al.), as His resurrection, contrasted with His incarnation: others (Greg.-nyss. contra Eunom. ii. vol. ii. p. 504 ed. Migne, Corn.-a-lap., Camerar., Gerhard, Calmet, Estius, Mede, Tholuck, De Wette, Lünemann, Delitzsch, Hofmann, in his Schriftbeweis, i. p. 151, al.), to His second coming, as contrasted with His first. The other view supposes a transposition of the adverb πάλιν, = πάλιν δέ, ὅταν εἰσαγάγῃ. And this is taken by the Syr., Erasm., Luth., Calv., Beza, Cappellus, Schlichting, Grot., Hammond, Owen, Bengel, Wolf, Kuin., al. Bleek discusses the question, and adopts this meaning: Ebrard sets it down as certain, and congratulates himself on being “spared the fruitless trouble of deciding which are the two introductions.” But I think we shall find the matter not quite so clear, nor so easily to be dismissed. The two passages of Philo adduced by Bleek (after Carpzov) for the transposition of πάλιν, do not touch the present construction. They are, ὁ δὲ πάλιν ἀποδιδράσκων θεὸν.… φησιν, Leg. Alleg. iii. 9, vol. i. p. 93: and ἡ δὲ πάλιν θεὸν ἀποδοκιμάζουσα κ. τ. λ. ib. Now in both of these, as Lünemann has pointed out, the contrary suppositions have preceded: ὁ δὲ νοῦν τὸν ἴδιον ἀπολείπωνὁ δὲ πάλιν ἀποδιδρ. κ. τ. λ.: ἡ μὲν γὰρ τὸν ἐπὶ μέρους, τὸν γεννητὸν κ. θνητὸν ἀπολιποῦσα.… ἡ δὲ πάλιν κ. τ. λ.: and consequently in both, πάλιν has the meaning of e contra, and necessarily stands after the subject of the sentence, as δέ would: and as we find it repeatedly in Plato, e. g. Gorg. § 83, νῦν δὲ πάλιν αὖθις (or αὐτὸς) ταὐτὸν τοῦτο ἔπαθε: Laches, § 22, νῦν δʼ αὖ πάλιν φαμὲν κ. τ. λ.: Rep. x. § 11, ἐπειδὴ τοίνυν κεκριμέναι εἰσίν, ἐγὼ πάλιν ἀπαιτῶ κ. τ. λ. Now manifestly no such meaning can here have place (notwithstanding that Storr and Wahl so give it): nor can I find any analogous instance in prose of a transposition of πάλιν in its ordinary sense. In this Epistle, when it is joined to a verb, it always has the sense of ‘a second time:’ e. g. ch. Hebrews 4:7; Hebrews 5:12; Hebrews 6:1; Hebrews 6:6. This being the case, I must agree with those who join πάλιν with εἰσαγάγῃ. And of the meanings which they assign to the phrase πάλιν εἰσαγ., I conceive the only allowable one to be, the second coming of our Lord to judgment. See more below) hath (‘shall have:’ this rendering, the ‘futurus exactus,’ is required by grammar: cf. the same verb in Exodus 13:5; Exodus 13:11, καὶ ἔσται ἡνίκα ἐὰν ( ὡς ἂν) εἰσαγάγῃ σε κύριος ὁ θεός σου εἰς τὴν γῆν τῶν χαναναίων κ. τ. λ.: Luke 17:10, ὃταν ποιήσητε πάνταλέγετε, “when ye shall have done,” &c.: Matthew 21:40, ὅταν ἔλθῃ ὁ κύριος …, τί ποιήσει; See numerous other instances cited in Winer, § 42.5. It would certainly appear from all usage that the present rendering is quite inadmissible) introduced (in what sense? See some of the interpretations above. But even those who hold the trajection of πάλιν are not agreed as to the introduction here referred to. Some hold one of the above-mentioned meanings, some another. I have discussed the meaning fully below, and gathered that the word can only refer to the great entering of the Messiah on His kingdom. At present, the usage of εἰσάγειν must be considered. It is the ‘verbum solenne’ for the ‘introducing’ the children of Israel into the land of promise, the putting them into possession of their promised inheritance: see Exod. above, and indeed Exod., Levit., Num., Deut., passim: also Ps. 77:54. It is sometimes used absolutely in this sense: e. g. Exodus 23:23, εἰσάξει σε πρὸς τὸν αμοῤῥαῖον κ. χετταῖον κ. τ. λ. We have it again in Nehemiah 1:9, of the second introduction, or restoration of Israel to the promised land. The Prophets again use it of the ultimate restoration of Israel: cf. Isaiah 14:2; Isaiah 56:7; Jeremiah 3:14; Ezekiel 34:13; Ezekiel 36:24; Ezekiel 37:21; Zechariah 8:8. This fact, connected with the circumstances to be noted below, makes it probable that the word here also has this solemn sense of ‘putting in possession of,’ as of an inheritance. The sense ordinarily given, of ‘bringing into the world,’ the act of the Father corresponding to the εἰσέρχεσθαι εἰς τὸν κόσμον (ch. Hebrews 10:5) of the Son, appears to be unexampled. Estius remarks, “Juxta hunc sensum (that given above) magis apparet ἐνέργεια vocis ‘introducere:’ quatenus ea significatur id quod jurisperiti vocant inducere seu mittere in possessionem”) the firstborn (only here is the Son of God so called absolutely. It is His title by præ-existence, πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως, Colossians 1:15 (where see the word itself discussed):—by prophecy, Ps. 88:27, πρωτότοκον θήσομαι αὐτόν, ὑψηλὸν παρὰ τοῖς βασιλεῦσι τῆς γῆς:—by birth, Luke 2:7, see also Matthew 1:18-25 :—by victory over death, Colossians 1:18, πρωτότοκος ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν: Revelation 1:5 :—and here, where he is absolutely ὁ πρωτότοκος, it will be reasonable to regard all these references as being accumulated—Him, who is the Firstborn,—of the universe, of the new manhood, of the risen dead. And thus the inducting Him in glory into His inheritance is clothed with even more solemnity. All angels, all men, are but the younger sons of God, compared to HIM, THE FIRSTBORN) into the earth (not = κόσμον, ch. Hebrews 10:5; the ‘inhabited earth:’ and very frequently used by the LXX in prophetic passages, where the future judgments of God on mankind are spoken of. Cf. Ps. 9:8; 95:13: Isaiah 10:23; Isaiah 13:5; Isaiah 13:9; Isaiah 14:26; Isaiah 24:1 al. fr., and see below on the citation. The usage would not indeed be decisive against referring the words to Christ’s entrance into the human nature, but is much more naturally satisfied by the other interpretation), He (i. e. God, the subject of Hebrews 1:5) saith, And let all the angels of God worship Him—(there are two places from which these words might come; and the comparison of the two will be very instructive as to the connexion and citation of prophecy. 1. The words themselves, including the καί, which has no independent meaning here; come from Deuteronomy 32:43, where they conclude the dying song of Moses with a triumphant description of the victory of God over His enemies, and the avenging of His people. It will cause the intelligent student of Scripture no surprise to find such words cited directly of Christ, into whose hand all judgment is committed: however such Commentators as Stuart and De Wette may reject the idea of the citation being from thence, because no trace of a Messianic reference is there found. One would have imagined that the words οὔτε ἔστιν ὃς ἐξελεῖται ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν μου, occurring just before, Deuteronomy 32:39 (cf. John 10:28), would have prevented such an assertion. But those who see not Christ every where in the Old Testament, see Him no where. The fact of the usual literal citation of the LXX by our Writer, decides the point as far as the place is concerned from which the words are immediately taken. But here a difficulty arises. The words in the LXX, Deuteronomy 32:43, εὐφράνθητε οὐρανοὶ ἅμα αὐτῷ, καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ, do not exist in our present Hebrew text. It is hardly however probable, that they are an insertion of the LXX, found as they are (with one variation presently to be noticed) in nearly all the MSS. The translators probably found them in their Heb. text, which, especially in the Pentateuch, appears to have been an older and purer recension than that which we now possess. It is true that (5) (6) have here υἱοὶ θεοῦ, and in the third clause of the verse ἄγγελοι θεοῦ: while the Ed-vat. reads as here. But our Writer cites from the Alexandrine text: and it has been noticed that the Alexandrine MS. itself in a second copy of this song, subjoined to the Psalter, reads ἄγγελοι, only prefixing to it οἱ. And Justin Martyr, Dial. 130, p. 222, quotes the words as here. 2. The other passage from which they might come is Psalms 96:7, where however they do not occur verbatim, but we read προσκυνήσατε αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ. This, especially the omission of the καί, which clearly belongs to the citation, is against the supposition of their being taken from thence: but it does not therefore follow that the Psalm was not in the sacred Writer’s mind, or does not apply to the same glorious period of Messiah’s triumph in its ultimate reference. Indeed the similarity of the two expressions of triumph is remarkable, and the words in the Psalm must be treated as a reference to those in Deut. at least in the LXX rendering, for the Heb. seems rather (as Delitzsch in loc.) to regard the gods of the heathen nations (“Worship Him, all ye gods”). As a corroboration of the view, that the Psalm was in the Writer’s mind, it may be mentioned, that in introducing the description of the divine Majesty in Hebrews 1:4, we read ἔφαναν αἱ ἀστραπαὶ αὐτοῦ τῇ οἰκουμένῃ. Ebrard denies the reference to the Psalm, but has some valuable remarks on the Messianic import of the passage in Deut. See also the whole subject and context of it set forth in Delitzsch.

προσκυνέω classically governs the accus. Some exceptions are found in which it has a dat., e. g. Hippocrates, Præcept. i. p. 29, κακοτροπίῃ προσκυνεῦντες: and more among the later authors, and in Philo and Josephus. See Bernhardy, Synt. p. 113 and 266, and Kypke on Matthew 2:8).

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https: 1863-1878.

Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae



Hebrews 1:6. When he bringeth in the First-begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

IF God had been pleased to try our faith, he might have required us to believe whatsoever he should reveal, even though he should mention it but once: but, in condescension to our weakness, he has given us a great variety of testimonies to confirm every fundamental doctrine of our holy religion. The doctrine of the divinity of Christ is as important as any in the whole Bible: and it stands, not on one or two doubtful passages of Scripture, but on the plainest, and almost numberless declarations of the inspired writers. In the passage before us the Apostle is shewing the infinite superiority of Jesus above the highest orders of created beings; and he adduces a whole series, as it were, of testimonies in proof of this point. The one which we have now read is taken from the 97th Psalm, and confessedly relates to Jesus [Note: It speaks of Christ’s kingdom, ver. 1; and the duty of angels, here called gods, to worship him, ver. 7.].

In discoursing upon it we are led to observe,

I. That Christ is a proper object of divine worship—

The command contained in the text is itself decisive upon the point—

[God is a jealous God, and claims divine worship as his unalienable prerogative [Note: Matthew 4:10.]; yet he at the same time requires it to be given to his Son. Would he do this, if his Son were not worthy of that high honour? Would he, contrary to his express declaration, give his glory to another [Note: Isaiah 42:8.]? We are assured he would not; and therefore his Son must be a proper object of our supreme regard.]

The practice of the Christian Church confirms it beyond a doubt—

[Stephen, when he was full of the Holy Ghost, and his face shone like that of an angel, at the very instant that he saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God, addressed himself, not to the Father, but to Jesus; and that too in terms precisely similar to those in which Jesus in his dying hour had addressed the Father [Note: Compare Acts 7:59-60. with Luke 23:34; Luke 23:46.]. Can we wish for any plainer example? The Apostle Paul, under the buffetings of Satan, applied to Jesus for relief, and was expressly answered, as he himself tells us, by Jesus; in consequence of which answer he from that time “gloried in his infirmities, that the power of Christ might rest upon him [Note: 2 Corinthians 12:8-9.].” The whole Church of God, not only at Corinth, but “in all other places,” are described and characterized by this very thing, the worshipping of Christ [Note: 1 Corinthians 1:2.]. But the Church triumphant no less than the Church militant are incessantly presenting before him their humble and grateful adorations [Note: Revelation 7:9-10.].

Surely if worship be not to be paid to Christ, the Scriptures are not calculated to instruct, but to deceive and ensnare us.]

Nor must it be forgotten, that to worship Christ is the highest act of obedience to the Father—

[It is the Father who enjoins it in the text; and that, not to men only, but to angels also: “He has committed all judgment to his Son for this very purpose, that all men may honour the Son even as they honour the Father [Note: John 5:22-23.];” he even swears that all, at the peril of their souls, shall bow to Jesus [Note: Romans 14:10-11.]; and, so far from thinking himself dishonoured by it, he expressly requires it, in order that he himself may be more abundantly glorified [Note: Philippians 2:10-11.].]

The text leads us further to observe respecting Christ,

II. That his incarnation affords a special call to all both in heaven and earth to worship him—

“The bringing in of the First-begotten into the world,” may comprehend the whole period of his reign under the Gospel dispensation; in which case the command to worship him is general: but if we confine the expression to the time of his incarnation, the command to worship him will be a special call, arising from the circumstance of his incarnation, and founded on it. To elucidate it in this latter view we may observe that,

1. It (his incarnation) affords the brightest discovery of the Divine perfections—

[The angels had doubtless seen much of the Divine glory before: they had seen God’s wisdom, power, and goodness in the creation and government of the world. But they never before had such a view of his condescension and grace as when they beheld him lying in the manger, a helpless babe. Now also the design of God to glorify all his perfections in the work of redemption was more clearly unfolded. Hence the whole multitude of the heavenly choir began to sing, “Glory to God in the highest.” And if their hosannas increased with their discoveries of the Divine glory, should not ours also? Have not we also abundant reason to magnify our incarnate God; and to exalt our thoughts of him in proportion as he has debased himself for our sakes?]

2. It opens a way for our reconciliation with God—

[Men were indeed accepted of God before Christ’s advent in the flesh; but it was through him who was to come, as we are accepted through him who has come. But when Christ was manifested in the flesh, his mediatorial work commenced; and that course of sufferings and obedience, which is the meritorious ground of our acceptance, was begun. It may be said, that, though we are bound on this account to adore him, the angels feel no interest in it. But can we suppose that those benevolent spirits, who minister to the heirs of salvation, and bear them on their wings to the realms of glory, feel no delight in our happiness? Doubtless they do; and are themselves made happier by their sympathy with us. If they rejoice over one sinner that repenteth, they also have reason to adore the Saviour for opening both to us and them such an inexhaustible fountain of blessedness and joy.]

3. It reunites men and angels under one Head—

[Christ was the Creator and sovereign Lord both of men and angels [Note: Colossians 1:16.]; but man, by casting off his allegiance to his Lord, lost also his connexion with angels. Jesus however, by becoming man, gathers together again [Note: ἀνα·κεφαλαιώσασθαι, Ephesians 1:10.] both men and angels under himself as their common head: yea, he comes, as it were, to the very gates of hell, that he may take from thence sinners of the human race to fill the thrones once vacated by the apostate angels. It is by no means improbable that the very same humiliation of Jesus that exalts men to glory, is the source of establishment to the angels that retained their innocence. At all events, the restoration of their Lord to the honour of which man by transgression had deprived him, and their communion with man in the benefits conferred upon him, cannot fail of exciting in their breasts the liveliest emotions of gratitude. Indeed, we see that this is no fanciful idea, since it is realized in heaven, where saints and angels join in one general chorus, ascribing “salvation to God and to the Lamb [Note: Revelation 5:9; Revelation 5:13.].”]

To enforce then the injunction we have been considering, we would say,

1. Welcome him—

[Let not his advent be regarded with indifference; but welcome him with acclamations and hosannas. The captious Pharisees may indeed condemn you; but if you neglect to honour him thus, the very stones will cry out against you [Note: Luke 19:38-40.].]

2. Submit to him—

[Jesus comes, not merely to save mankind, but to set up his kingdom in the world. Let your hearts then, yea, “the very thoughts of your hearts, be brought into a willing captivity to him.” “Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish [Note: Psalms 2:12.]:” and present your offerings before him in token of your allegiance to him, and your unreserved subjection to his will [Note: Matthew 2:11.].]

3. Depend upon him—

[He is that nail in a sure place on which are to be hanged all the vessels of his Father’s house [Note: Isaiah 22:23-24.]. Trust then on him; and let his vicarious sufferings and obedience be the stay and support of your souls.]

4. Glory in him—

[Since he is the boast of all in heaven, let him be the boast of all on earth. Let the frame of your hearts be joyous, exulting, and triumphant [Note: See Isaiah 44:23.]. Thus from worshipping him here below, you shall be brought to worship him for evermore in heaven above.]

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Simeon, Charles. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae. https: 1832.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Hebrews 1:6. ὅταν, with the conjunctive aorist, takes the place of the Latin futurum exactum. See Winer, Gramm., 7 Aufl. p. 289. ὅταν εἰσαγάγῃ cannot consequently mean, as was still assumed by Bleek I., and recently by Reuss:(35) “when He brings in,” but only: “when He shall have brought in.” To take πάλιν, however, with the Peshito, Erasmus, Luther, Calvin, Jac. Cappellus, Schlichting, Grotius, Limborch, Hammond, Bengel, Wolf, Carpzov, Cramer, Valckenaer, Schulz, Kuinoel, Bleek, Stengel, Ebrard, Bloomfield, Reuss, alii, as Hebrews 1:5, i.e. merely as the formula for linking on a new citation, is forbidden by the position of the words. It must then have been written: πάλιν δέ, ὅταν εἰσαγάγῃλέγει. The possibility of an inversion of the πάλιν is defended, it is true, by Bleek, after the precedent of Carpzov, on the authority of two passages in Philo (Legg. Allegor. iii. p. 66; ed. Mangey, p. 93). But neither of these presents a case analogous to the one before us, nor does an inversion of the πάλιν at all take place in them. For in both πάλιν has the signification in turn, or on the other hand, inasmuch as in the former two classes of persons ( δὲ νοῦν τὸν ἴδιον ἀπολείπων and δἑ πάλιν ἀποδιδράσκων θεόν), in the latter two classes of δόξαι or opinions ( ΄ὲν τὸν ἐπὶ ΄έρους, τὸν γεννητὸν καὶ θνητὸν ἀπολιποῦσα and δὲ πάλιν θεὸν ἀποδοκι΄άζουσα), are compared together by way of contrast, in such wise that in both πάλιν only serves for bringing the δέ into stronger relief, and in both has occupied its legitimate place. By virtue of its position, πάλιν, in our passage, can be construed only with εἰσαγάγῃ, in such wise that a bringing again of the First-born into the world, which is an event still belonging to the future, is spoken of. In the former member of Hebrews 1:6 the reference can accordingly be neither to the time of the Incarnation of the Son (Chrysostom, Primasius, Calvin, Owen, Calov, Bengel, Storr, Kuinoel [Stuart: or beginning of His ministry], Bleek II. alii); nor to the time of the Resurrection and Exaltation to heaven (Schlichting, Grotius, Hammond, Wittich, Braun, Wetstein, Rambach, Peirce, Whitby, and others); nor, as Bleek I. supposed, to a moment yet preceding the Incarnation of Christ, in which the Father had, by a solemn act as it were, conducted forth and presented the Son to the beings created by Him, as the First-born, as their Creator and Ruler, who was to uphold and guide all things,(36)—which in any case would be an entirely singular thought in the N. T.,—but simply and alone to the coming again of Christ to judgment, and the accomplishment of the Messianic kingdom. So, rightly, Gregory Nyssen, contra Eunom. Orat. iii. p. 541; Cornelius a Lapide, Cameron [Mede: for the inauguration of His millennial kingdom], Gerhard, Calmet, Camerarius, Estius, Gomar, Böhme, de Wette, Tholuck, Bisping, Hofmann (Schriftbew. I. p. 172, 2d ed.), Delitzsch, Riehm (Lehrbegr. des Hebräerbr. p. 306, 617), Alford, Conybeare, Maier, Moll, Kurtz, Ewald, M‘Caul, Woerner. The objection brought by Bleek and Ebrard against this interpretation of the former member, required as it is by the exigencies of the grammar, viz. that the discourse could not turn on the bringing again of the First-born into the world, unless an earlier bringing in of the same into the world, or at least a former being of the Son ἐν τῇ οἰκουμένῃ had been explicitly spoken of, is invalidated by Hebrews 1:1; Hebrews 1:3, where certainly the discourse was already of the historic appearing of the Son on earth, and thus of a first bringing in of the same into the world. The additional objection of Bleek, however, that the author would hardly have limited the scope of a divine summons to the angels to do homage to the First-born to a time even in his day future, is set aside by the consideration that, according to Hebrews 2:9, Christ was during His earthly life humbled to a condition beneath the angels, and only the Parousia itself is the epoch at which His majesty will be unfolded in full glory.

τὸν πρωτότοκον] in the N. T. only here without more precisely defining addition; comp. however, Psalms 89:28 (27). That the expression must not be regarded as equivalent to ΄ονογενής, as is done by Primasius, Oecumenius ( τὸ δὲ πρωτότοκον οὐκ ἐπὶ δευτέρου λέγει ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ ἑνὸς καὶ ΄όνου τοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐκ τοῦ πατρός), Clarius, and even now by Stengel, is self-evident. But neither is it identical with the πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως, Colossians 1:15, in such wise that the temporal priority of Christ, as the eternal Logos, over all creatures, and the notion of His precedence over all creatures, necessarily resulting therefrom, should be contained in the word (Bleek, Grimm in the Theol. Literaturbl. to the Darmstadt A. K.-Z., No. 29, p. 662; Riehm, Lehrbegr. des Hebräerbr. p. 292 f.; Kurtz, Ewald, and others). For this interpretation is excluded by the absoluteness of the expression in our passage. Rather is Christ called the First-born with respect to Christians, who are His brethren (Hebrews 2:11 f.), and therefore likewise υἱοί of God (Hebrews 2:10). Comp. also Romans 8:29.

As, for the rest, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews terms Christ the First-born Son of God; so does Philo also term the Logos the First-born Son. Comp. de Agricultura, p. 195 B (ed. Mangey, I. p. 308): τὸν ὀρθὸν αὑτοῦ λόγον, πρωτόγονον υἱύν. De Confus. Ling. p. 329 (ed. Mang. I. p. 415): τοῦτον μὲν γὰρ πρεσβύτατον υἱὸν τῶν ὄντων ἀνέτειλε πατήρ, ὅν ἐτέρωθι πρωτόγονον ὠνόμασεν, al.

οἰκουμένη] the world, not in the widest sense (equivalent to οἱ αἰῶνες, Bleek; or to οἰκου΄ένη ΄έλλουσα, Böhme); but, since the former member has reference to the Parousia, the habitable earth.

λέγει] sc. θεός, not γραφή (Grotius, Clericus, Böhme, and others). The present is chosen, because the utterance of God, which shall infallibly be made in the future, stands already noted down in the Scripture.

The citation is not derived from Psalms 97:7, but from Deuteronomy 32:43. For, in the former passage, the LXX. have a reading divergent from that of our text, in the words: καὶ προσκυνήσατε αὐτῷ πάντες [ οἱ] ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ, whereas in the Codex Vaticanus of Deuteronomy 32:43, the words occur as in our text; while the καί, taken up by the author into his citation, manifestly points—seeing that it is without any importance for his reasoning—to the verbatim reproduction of an O. T. utterance. Now, it is true our author follows in other cases a form of the Sept. text which bears affinity less to that contained in the Codex Vaticanus than to that in the Codex Alexandrinus, and the latter displays the variation from the Cod. Vat. Deuteronomy 32:43, in so far as υἱοὶ θεοῦ is found therein in place of ἄγγελοι θεοῦ. But the Song of Moses, of which Deuteronomy 32:43 forms the conclusion, is communicated anew, in many MSS. of the LXX., and so also in the Codex Alexandrinus, in a second recension, having its place after the Psalms; and in this second recension the Codex Alexandrinus, too, reads ἄγγελοι θεοῦ, only the article οἱ has been interpolated between πάντες and ἄγγελοι. It is probable, therefore, that the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews did not take the citation direct from Deuteronomy 32:43, but mediately, i.e. from that second recension of the hymn.

It remains to be said that the words of the citation are wanting in the Hebrew; they are found only in the LXX.

προσκυνεῖν] with the dative only in the case of later classic authors, whereas the earlier combine the accusative with this verb. Comp. Lobeck, ad Phryn. p. 463; Bernhardy, Syntax, p. 113, 266. The N. T. has both constructions, as besides them the Hebraizing turns προσκυνεῖν ἐνώπιον, or ἔ΄προσθέν τινος, or τῶν ποδῶν τινος. See the Lexicons.

αὐτῷ] That this pronoun of the third person was to be referred to the Messiah naturally suggested itself, inasmuch as Jehovah is the subject speaking immediately before in the Song.

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https: 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Hebrews 1:6. ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ τὸν πρωτότοκον εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην, and again, when He brings His First-begotten into the world) Comp. with ὅταν, when, ὅταν in James 1:2, joined with the 2d Aor. subj. The particle δὲ, but, intimates that something more important is to follow. Not only is the Son greater than angels, but He is worshipped by angels. οἰκουμένη, is the world subject to Christ, ch. Hebrews 2:5, as the First-begotten; see the psalm last quoted, and presently about to be quoted. This introduction implies something more than a mission, or mere sending. Both, however, take for granted τὴν προΰπαρξιν, the pre-existence of the Son of GOD and His entrance into the world corresponds to that pre-existence: ch. Hebrews 10:5. He entered, by the will of GOD, when He presented Himself to do the will of GOD, ch. Hebrews 10:5; with which comp. ch. Hebrews 9:11; when He came into the world, as He is everywhere said to have done. πάλιν, again, is brought in, corresponding to the common word, likewise, where scripture upon scripture is quoted, Hebrews 1:5, ch. Hebrews 2:13, Hebrews 10:30; but the meaning of this particle is more clearly seen when it is enclosed in a parenthesis, the verb, I say, or some other of that kind, being supplied, in this manner: But when (I shall again state what GOD says concerning His Son) He brings in His First-begotten. So John 12:39, They could not believe, because (I shall again quote Isaiah) the same prophet says, He has blinded, etc. Matthew 5:33, Ye have heard (I shall again bring forward an example) that it was said to the ancients. For the forms of quotation are somewhat freely introduced into a speech; ch. Hebrews 8:5, ὃρα γὰρ φησι, instead of For, He says, See.

The appellation, First-begotten, includes the appellation, Son, and further shows the force of its signification. For it involves the rights of primogeniture, which the Only-begotten most eminently possesses. Paul also uses similar language, Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15; Colossians 1:18. In this passage, the appellation, First-begotten, includes the description of the subject of Whom the Psalm is treating, with the Ætiology(7) or reason given for the predicate, viz. He is brought in, for He is the First-begotten.— λέγει, He says) An abbreviated mode of expression. When the bringing in was predicted, the word was given; when the bringing in was accomplished, the same word was fulfilled. He says, viz. GOD comp Hebrews 1:5. Therefore the word αὐτῷ, Him, presently after, refers to the Son.— καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ, and let all the angels of GOD worship Him) LXX., Deuteronomy 32, before Deuteronomy 1:43, has these words: εὐφράνθητε οὐρανοὶ ἅμα αὐτῷ καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ, which are wanting in the Hebrew text and in the Chaldee Paraphrase. Mill is of opinion that the omission was occasioned long ago by the recurrence of the verb הרנינו . Then [after the words in the LXX. at the beginning of Deuteronomy 1:43] there follows in Moses, εὐφράνθητε ἔθνη μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ, הרנינו גוים עמו (where ב after מ is wanting), which Paul, Romans 15:10, also refers to the times of the Messiah. Moses, especially in the Song, wrote of Christ. Nevertheless, Psalms 97:7 has, προσκυνήσατε αὐτῷ πάντες οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ; and Paul refers to this psalm, for the bringing in of the First-begotten into the world, in this passage, corresponds to the inscription of the psalm in the LXX, τῷ δαβὶδ, ὅτε γῆ αὐτοῦ καθίσταται, that is, of David, when the land is brought under his authority, as Oederus has observed.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https: 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

This is a further proof of the great gospel Minister being more excellent than angels, by God’s command to them to worship him.

And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world: palin some refer to God the Father’s speech, as: Again he saith: others think it too gross a transposition, and unusual in the Scripture, and so read it as it stands in the Greek text: He again, or a second time, bringeth, &c. This hath started a query about what time it is that the Father saith this, and that he brought in the First-born into the world? Some say it was at his incarnation; others, at his coming to judgment. Considering the former proofs brought out of Psalms 2:7, and 2 Samuel 7:14, it seems most fairly to be at his resurrection and ascension, when the decree was proclaimed of his being the great King; and he was actually exalted far above all gods, whether angels or men: compare Psalms 2:7, with Psalms 97:1,9, and Acts 13:33, to which agrees Colossians 1:15,18. Then was the demonstration of what a royal Head he was to be, and how acknowledged by all, Philippians 2:9-11.

He saith, And let all the angels of God worship him; he powerfully and effectually publisheth his command unto his angels, as recorded by his prophet in his word. Psalms 97:7, where the sense of the Hebrew text is full: Bow down to him all ye Elohim, or gods; which the Septuagint renders angels, and is so quoted by Paul here; and the Spirit warrants it: so is it rendered, Deuteronomy 32:43. That translation was commonly used by the dispersed Graecising Hebrews. This title is attributed to angels, Psalms 8:5. By their worship they do obey the Father, and own their subjection to his Son at his resurrection, Matthew 28:2 Luke 24:4 John 20:12; and at his ascension, Acts 1:9,10 Re 5:11,12: so that the worshipped is more excellent than the worshippers.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https: 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Bringeth in the first-begotten into the world; by his incarnation and the events that followed it, thus establishing in and through him "the kingdom of heaven" among men. It is of this kingdom that the ninety-seventh Psalm, from which the apostle immediately proceeds to quote, speaks. It describes, by anticipation, the coming of God as king to destroy the wicked and save his people, verses Hebrews 1:3-6. His reign is one in which "the multitude of isles," the whole gentile world, is called upon to rejoice, verse Hebrews 1:1. The ancient Jews rightly understood the psalm of the Messiah, in whom alone it is fulfilled, and whose kingdom it describes in its whole extent to the end of time.

Let all the angels of God worship him; quoted according to the Greek version from Psalms 97:7, where the word "gods" in the original Hebrew means the heavenly hosts. As Christ in his deepest humiliation received the worship of angels as well as of men, and as he is now receiving it in glory, it is certain that he is God; and that in paying him divine honors they and we are not breaking, but obeying the command, Worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. Matthew 4:10; Revelation 5:8-14.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Family Bible New Testament". https: American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

6. ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ. The older and literal rendering is as in the margin of the R. V., “and when he, again, shall have brought in …” The A.V. takes the word “again” (πάλιν) as merely introducing a new quotation, as in Hebrews 1:5, and in Hebrews 2:13, Hebrews 4:5, &c. The word “again,” says Bp Wordsworth, serves the purpose of inverted commas (see Romans 15:10-12). In that case it is displaced by an accidental hyperbaton or trajection, as this transmission of a word into another clause is called. If however the “again” belongs to the verb it can only be explained of Christ’s second coming to judge the world (Matthew 25:31), unless the writer, assuming the point of view of the ancient prophet, alludes to the Resurrection. Chrysostom and others refer it to the Incarnation. But since the mere displacement of the πάλιν is certainly possible, it is better to accept this simple explanation than either to adopt these latter theories or to suppose that there had been some previous and premundane presentation of the Son to all created beings. Hypotheses non fingo is a rule even more necessary for the theologian than for the scientist.

εἰσαγάγῃ. The aorist subjunctive means “shall have brought in,” exactly as in Exodus 13:5; Exodus 13:11 (where the same word occurs in the LXX.) and as in Luke 17:10, “when ye shall have done all that is commanded you” (ποιήσητε). It is the Latin futurum exactum implying uncertainty of time.

τὸν πρωτότοκον, “first-born.” This title (see Psalms 89:27) was always applied in a Messianic sense to Christ as “the first-born of all creation” (Colossians 1:15); and the first-born of many brethren (Hebrews 2:10-11).

εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην, “into the inhabited earth.”

λέγει. The language of the Scriptures is regarded as a permanent, continuous, and living utterance (Hebrews 3:7, Hebrews 5:6, Hebrews 8:8-10, Hebrews 10:5, &c.).

Καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ. It is doubtful whether the quotation is from Psalms 97:7 “worship Him all ye gods (Elohim)”—where the word Elohim is rendered “angels” in the LXX. as in Psalms 8:5—or rather from Deuteronomy 32:43, where there is an “and,” and where the LXX. either added these words or found them in the Hebrew text. The Messianic application of the word is natural in the latter passage, for there Jehovah is the speaker, and if the “him” is applied to the ideal Israel, the ideal Israel was the Jashar or “upright man,” and was the type of the Messiah. The Apostles and Evangelists always describe Christ as returning “with the Holy Angels” (Matthew 25:31; Mark 8:38), and describe “all Angels and authorities” as “subject unto him” (1 Peter 3:22; Revelation 5:11-13).

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"Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https: 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

6. And—As the last verse touches the coronation of the eternal Son, so this verse describes his induction into the rule of the world.

Again— Understood by our translators and by many commentators as correlated to the again of the last verse, as introducing a superadded quotation. Others make it qualify bringeth in; as if reading, when he again bringeth in; as referring to some second being, brought in after a first. Alford and Delitzsch refer it to the second advent; very arbitrarily, for it needs some previous mention of the first advent to make it allowable. If a second bringing into the inhabited world is to be supposed, then we should refer it to his resurrection, which was the time of a return and of exaltation, closing the period of his humiliation. See note on Matthew 28:18. Then all power in heaven and in earth was given unto him. So Ephesians 1:19-20 : “He raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named,” etc. Then, of course, was fulfilled the requirement on all supernal powers to do him homage. But to describe the second advent as a bringing of the Son into the world is entirely unbiblical.

First-begotten—Because eternally begotten. For even if God has been eternally engaged in creating, still the Son is in order of nature first. And when the Son is called first-begotten, it is implied both that his being begotten is prior in order and superior in nature; for creation and formation are in a lower sense figured as generation. And it is as first-begotten that he is, by the divine primogeniture, heir. Hebrews 1:1. So he is firstborn of every creature, Colossians 1:15; firstborn among earthly rulers, Psalms 89:27; firstborn from the dead, Colossians 1:18; Revelation 1:5. Here the term stands alone, and it alludes to the this day, that is, primordially, have I begotten thee, (of the last verse,) as God manifest, prior to and above all created things.

World—Not cosmos, or frame-world, nor aeon, or time-world; but oikoumene, the inhabited earth.

He [God] saith—Quoted, perhaps, from Psalms 97:7, which reads in the Septuagint, “Worship him, all his angels.” Yet the precise words are found in the Septuagint in Deuteronomy 32:43, which the Jewish doctors held also Messianic. Indeed, Delitzsch maintains that in the Old Testament, Jehovah, when described as coming, manifestive, administering the affairs of the world, implies Jehovah, the Word, the Son, the ultimate Messiah. The words in Deuteronomy are in the Seventy, but not in the Hebrew. They may, indeed, be supposed to have been in the Hebrew copy used by the Septuagint translators, but dropped out from other copies. They may have been transferred from the psalm, being, perhaps, an essentially accurate reading in some copy of the Septuagint, and even in the copy used by our author. More probably the addition to the Septuagint of Deuteronomy 32:42 is made up from Isaiah 44:33, Psalm 117:7, and Psalms 29:1, springing probably from the liturgical use in the Jewish synagogue of the song of Moses, that is, its use in the chanting of the song in the public worship. Our author, therefore, even if quoting a superaddition to the song, quotes a superaddition acknowledged by his readers, and really made up of inspired words. All the psalms from 93 to 150 were by the Jews held predictive of the Messiah. Psalms 97 is an expansion of our author’s words in Hebrews 1:2, appointed heir of all things.

This quotation is an expansion, also, of Psalms 2:7-12, which all confess, who confess any Messiah, to be Messianic. It describes the firstborn, the eternal Son, as God manifest, ruling over nature and overruling all things to the highest ultimate moral good. And when, by the Father, he is thus installed over all, the very highest intelligences are required to do him homage.

In our English version, as in the Hebrew, Psalms 97:7 reads, “Worship him, all ye gods;” and the connexion indicates the idea that the heathen deities are to submit to Jehovah. In accordance with the idea that behind the idol there is a demon, the Jewish Church preferred to extend the term to include all supernaturals. Stuart shows that elohim (gods) is a term repeatedly rendered in the Septuagint by angel, as Job 20:15; Psalms 8:6; Psalms 137:1. The writer of Hebrews does the same in Hebrews 2:7, in quoting Psalms 8:6, as he does in this present verse.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https: 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And when he again brings in the firstborn into the inhabited earth he says, “And let all the angels of God worship him.”

The idea of sonship (and heirship - Hebrews 1:2) continues under another title, the firstborn. ‘When He again brings in the firstborn into the inhabited earth ’. The firstborn is another title for the unique son. Israel had been His son, even His firstborn (Exodus 4:22), but had then come to be represented by the King whom they saw as ‘the breath of our nostrils, the anointed of Yahweh’ (Lamentations 4:20), so that the Davidic king is described as God’s ‘firstborn’ in Psalms 89:27. There the idea is of high favour and honour, which is very much in mind there. The idea behind the use of ‘firstborn’ (of a king) is of prestige and authority. Colossians links the title to creation indicating the One Who is the pre-existent non-created source Who has authority over creation (Colossians 1:15), ‘pre-born’ not created, and to the resurrection (the new creation) indicating the One Who as the initial Resurrected One, raised in honour and power, is the Giver of life to God’s people (Colossians 1:18), and thus He is the Firstborn twice over. All contain the thought of authority and power and relationship.

But the idea of the firstborn also contains within it that the firstborn is the heir. This ties it in here with Hebrews 1:2 where He is declared to be the heir of all things. So as the Firstborn He is the One Who was before all things, the One for Whom all things are destined, and the One Who was raised as the Source of all true life.

‘Again.’ The question here is as to whether we translate ‘again’ as indicating a second ‘bringing into the world’ of the Firstborn (‘again brings’), thus looking to His second coming, or whether ‘again’ is to refer back in contrast and conjunction with the previously quoted verses, as with ‘again’ in Hebrews 1:5. This latter is superficially attractive in the English rendering but the opening construction in Greek is very different. It is not kai palin as in Hebrews 1:5 but ‘otan de palin’, representing not a simple continuation but a specific break. The natural reading is to take it as ‘again brings’.

Such a reference to His second coming as the Firstborn to finalise His creative and life-giving purpose, following the description of His first coming as ‘Son’, gives added significance to the passage, indicating an advancement in idea rather than it being just a string of quotations all with the same point, and significantly it parallels the similar idea in the seventh. It also fits in with the use of firstborn in Colossians 1:18 as ‘the firstborn from the dead’. He Who was the firstborn from the dead, the first to arise and the Lord of resurrection, now comes again to the inhabited world for His own to raise them too, whether by resurrection or rapture (compare Hebrews 9:28). It also explains the emphasis on the ‘inhabited earth’. The idea then is that He is called Son or its equivalent, firstly at His anointing, and then on His return to bring all to its consummation.

‘He says.’ Compare the use of the present tense with ‘He said’ (aorist - Hebrews 1:5), thus giving a differing emphasis. Hebrews 1:5 was referring to a once for all event. This refers to something that is to be said continually. Thus God’s command comes over continually, ‘let all the angels of God worship Him’.

“And let all the angels of God worship him.” This could be a paraphrase of Psalms 97:7 where we read, ‘Worship Him all you heavenly beings (elohim - LXX ‘angels’)’, the Him referring to ‘the Lord’ Who ‘reigns’, and this would fit the quotation reasonably well.

But the almost (but not identical) exact phrase may be seen in Deuteronomy 32:43 LXX, where it is shown as an addition which is not found in the Hebrew text, (but is now actually confirmed as in a Hebrew text found at Qumran). The LXX version reads, ‘Rejoice, you heavens, with him, and let all the sons of God worship him; rejoice you Gentiles, with his people, and let all the angels of God strengthen themselves in him.’ This is spoken of the Lord Who comes to judge His people (Deuteronomy 32:36), and would therefore naturally be applied to Him Who is called Lord, and to Whom judgment has been committed (John 5:22; John 5:27).

But the important point here is that all angels will pay Him homage, confirming that He is to be superior to the angels at the second coming (Mark 13:26-27 and often in the Gospels) as He was at the first (compare Philippians 2:9-11; Ephesians 1:19-21).

This is now followed by a series of quotations which are clearly interpreted Messianically, and thus as referring to the Son, in line with previous verses. But first we have one which contrasts the transitory work of angels. Note that this one is placed in the middle of the seven. The angels in their anonymous tasks are sandwiched within the authority and power of the Son as He fulfils His destiny, in order to indicate the secondary and derived nature of their authority and power.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https: 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

We can see the superiority of the Son also in the third quotation from Deuteronomy 32:43 (in the Septuagint) in that the angels worship Him as Yahweh. "Again" may go with "brings" implying Jesus Christ"s second advent. [Note: Westcott, p22.] On the other hand, it may go with "says" implying the first advent. [Note: Bruce, p15.] In this case it would simply separate this quotation from the former one. The word order in the Greek text favors the first option, but the sense of the context favors the second. Many translators and interpreters connect "again" with "says." [Note: See Hughes, p58.] The point is that the angels worship the Son. The angels worshiped Jesus at His first advent ( Luke 2:13-14), and they will undoubtedly worship Him at His second advent.

The title "first-born" reflects the sovereignty, uniqueness, and superiority of Messiah ( Psalm 89:27). It does not always mean born first chronologically. Solomon exercised the sovereignty of the Davidic house as Israel"s king even though he was the tenth son of David chronologically ( 1 Chronicles 3:1-5). The title describes rank and honor here. The first-born received special blessings (inheritance) from his father.

"The context requires that oikoumene ["world"] be understood as the heavenly world of eschatological salvation into which the Son entered at his ascension [cf. Hebrews 2:5] ..." [Note: Lane, p27.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https: 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Hebrews 1:6. And in accordance with this relation, whenever (to quote another passage, ‘again’) He bringeth or leadeth (literally ‘shall have led’) in the first-begotten into the world, he saith, ‘Let all the angels of God worship him.’ Here are several difficulties. The quotation from Psalms 97:7 is not exact, as most of the quotations in this Epistle are. In Deuteronomy 32:43 the very words are found in the Septuagint; but there are no words corresponding to them in the Hebrew text. The Psalm belongs to the Messianic Psalms, and the exact words of Deuteronomy describe the welcome given to the Messianic King. Two passages are here blended in one. Some translate ‘bringeth or leadeth again,’ and refer the words to our Lord’s second coming alone. But ‘bringeth in’ is hardly appropriate to the second coming; and the use of an expression that describes an indefinite future is justified by the fact that it is a quotation of what was spoken long ago, from which time the futurity begins. It is therefore better to regard the language as fulfilled whenever Christ is introduced into the world of men. Then—at His birth, His resurrection, His kingdom—is He the object of angelic worship.

The angels. The Hebrew of Psalms 97:7 is, ‘all ye mighty or divine ones,’ a word applied to God, and applicable to magistrates, and to all who had a divine message and spoke in God’s name (John 10:34). Comp. ‘The divine in man,’ ‘The divine disciples sat.’ Divine though they be, the Son is exalted above them all—in His nature, and in the reverence paid Him. (See on Hebrews 2:6.)

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https: 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Hebrews 1:6. ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ … “And when He shall again have brought the first-begotten into the world [of men], He says, “And let all God’s angels worship Him”. Having shown that “Son” is a designation reserved for the Messiah and not given to any of the angels, the writer now advances a step and adduces a Scripture which shows that the relation of angels to the Messiah is one of worship. It is not easy to determine whether πάλιν merely indicates a fresh quotation (so Bleek, Bruce, etc.) as in Hebrews 1:5; or should be construed with εἰσαγάγῃ. On the whole, the latter is preferable. Both the position of πάλιν and the tense of εἰσαγ. seem to make for this construction. The “bringing in” is still future. Apparently it is to the second Advent reference is made; cf. Hebrews 9:28. To refer εἰσαγ. to the incarnation, with Chrysostom, Calvin, Bengel, Bruce (see esp. Schoettgen); or to the resurrection with Grotius; or to an imagined introduction of the Son to created beings at some past period, with Bleek, is, as Weiss says, “sprachwidrig”. Rendall remarks: “The words bring in have here a legal significance; they denote the introduction of an heir into his inheritance, and are used by the LXX with reference to putting Israel in possession of his own land both in the time of Joshua and at the Restoration (Exodus 6:8; Exodus 15:17; Deuteronomy 30:5).” This throws light not only on εἰσαγ. but also on πρωτότοκον and οἰκουμένην, and confirms the interpretation of the clause as referring to the induction of the first-born into His inheritance, the world of men. πρωτότ. is used of Christ (1) in relation to the other children of Mary (Luke 2:7; Matthew 1:25); (2) in relation to other men (Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:18); (3) in relation to creation (Colossians 1:15). Nowhere else in N.T. is it used absolutely; but cf. Psalms 89:27. “I will make him first-born,” i.e., superior in dignity and closer in intimacy. λέγει, the present is used because the words recorded in Scripture and still unfulfilled are meant. These words, καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν … occur verbatim in Moses’ song (Deuteronomy 32:43). In the Alexandrian text, from which this writer usually quotes, we find υἱοὶ θεοῦ (v. Swete’s LXX), but in a copy of the song subjoined to the Psalter this MS. itself has ἄγγελοι. The words are not represented in the Hebrew, and are supposed by Delitzsch to have been added in the liturgical use of Moses’ song. The part of the song to which they are attached represents the coming of God to judgment, a fact which further favours the view that it is the second Advent our author has in view.

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https: 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Let all the Angels of God adore him. These words seem to be cited out of Psalm xcvi. 7. according to the Septuagint. And they seem to be an invitation, and a command to the Angels to adore Jesus Christ, when at the end of the world he shall come to judgment. This is one of the proofs which St. Paul here brings, to shew that the Angels are inferior to Christ, because they are commanded to adore him. (Witham) --- God shews the superiority of his divine Son over the Angels, in ordering the latter to adore him. Wherever the person of Christ is, there it ought to be adored by both men and Angels, therefore in the blessed sacrament [of the Eucharist].

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https: 1859.

John Owen Exposition of Hebrews

The apostle proceeds to the confirmation of the same important truth by another testimony, wherein we shall meet with some difficulty, both in the manner of the citation and the importance of the testimony itself.

Hebrews 1:6. ῝οταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ τὸν πρωτότοκον ει῏ς τὴν σἰκουμένην, λέγει· καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ. V. L., “Et rum introducit primogenitum in orbem terrae, dicit, Et adorenteum omnes angeli Dei;” omitting πάλιν, “again.” Syr., תּוּב דֵּין אַמַתָי דְּמַעֵל; “Rursum autem rum inducit;” — “And again when he bringeth in.” εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην, לְעָלְמָא. — “into the world.” πάλιν, “again,” is omitted in the Arabic, as in the Vulgar Latin.

Beza, “Rursum autem cum inducit primogenitum in orbem terrarum, dicit, Et adorent” (Eras., “adorabunt”) “eum omnes angeli Dei;” which is exactly expressed by ours, “And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.”

There is not much of difficulty in the words themselves.

῝οταν δὲ, “cum autem,” “quando autem;” — “but when.”

πάλιν, “rursum” “again,” as in the former verse. What sense it is here used in, and what word it is to be joined withal, shall be afterwards declared.

εἰσαγάγῃ, “inducit,” or “inducet,” or “introducit,’— “he bringeth in,” or “leadeth in,” or “shall bring in;” of which difference also afterward.

τὸν πρωτότοκον, “the first-begotten,” “the first-born,” he before whom none is born, nor necessarily after whom any is so. Under the law there was a sacrifice for the πρωτότοκος, “first-begotten;” so called when as yet none were begotten after him, and very uncertain whether ever any should be so of the same womb or no; and doubtless it often fell out that none were so. εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην, תֵּבֵּל the habitable world,” or תֵבֵל אֶיֶת׃, Proverbs 8, the public place of habitation, where the creatures of God do dwell. The word is nowhere used absolutely in Scripture in any sense but for this habitable world. Only, sometimes it hath a restrained sense, denoting the Roman empire, as Luke 2:1, according to the usual language of those days, wherein the people of Rome, or their emperors, were styled “rerum,” and “orbis terrarum domini;” and it sometimes indefinitely denotes any part of the world as habitable, Luke 2:1; Luke 4:5; Luke 21:26; and therefore oftentimes hath ὅλη “the whole,” joined with it, when it is extended universally to the habitable earth.

προσκυνησάτωσαν. Hebrews הִשְׁתַּהֲווּ, imperative in Hithpael, from שָׁחָה, “to incline, “to bow down.” The LXX. constantly render that word by προσκυνέω. And προσκυνέω is probably derived from κύω, and thence κυνέω, “osculor,” “to kiss;” which also is sometimes used for “to adore,” or “worship,” as πάντες γόνυ πεπτηκῶτες ἐμοὶ κυνέσντι δεσπότην. That is, says Eustathius, προσκυνοῦσι με, ὠς δεσπότην, — “They worship me as their lord;” for being joined with πεπτήκοτες, “bowing,” or “falling down,” it expresseth the whole use and signification of προσκυνέω. How kissing was of old a sign, token, and pledge of worship, especially to bow down and kiss the ground, I have elsewhere declared. And this derivation of the word I prefer far before that which makes it primitively signify “more canum adulari,” as if taken from the crouching of dogs.

In the New Testament it is nowhere used but for that religious worship which is due to God alone. And when it is remembered of any that they did προσκυνεῖν or perform the duty and homage denoted by this word unto any but God, it is remembered as their idolatry, Revelation 13:12; Revelation 13:15. And unto this sense was it restrained of old by the Spartans, whodenied that it was ἐν νόμῳ, lawful for them ἄνθρωπον προσκυνέειν, — that is, to fall down to or to adore a man, Herodot. in Polym.

And in this sense it is exceedingly restrained from the use and importance of שָׁחָה, yea, and from that of הִשְׁתַּהֲוָהin Hithpael, though that always signifies a bowing down with respect and reverence; for it is employed to denote civil as well as religious worship. But for several sorts of religious worship, diversified by its objects, the Scripture knows nothing. The word properly denotes to bow down, and when it is referred unto God, it respects the inward reverence and subjection of our minds by a metonymy of the adjunct. See it for civil respect, Genesis 27:29; Genesis 33:6.

The difficulty in receiving the words as a quotation from Psalms 97:7, lies in the fact that the word is Elohim, “God” or “gods;” it is employed also to denote angels. “It may be sufficient to adduce one striking passage from Psalms 8:5, ‘Thou hast made him a little lower, than the angels;’ literally, than God or gods. But such a literal translation is entirely out of the question, and there can be no reasonable doubt that angels is the true meaning.” The Syriac and Vulgate agree with the LXX. in the use of angels [in Psalms 97]. — Turner. — ED

Hebrews 1:6. — And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

This is the second argument used by the apostle to confirm his assertion of the preference of the Son above angels, and is taken from the command of God given unto them to worship him; for without controversy, he who is to be worshipped is greater than they whose duty it is to worship him. In the words we must consider, —

1. The apostle’s preface;

2. His proof. And in the latter we must weigh, —

(1.) The sense of it;

(2.) The suitableness of it to his present purpose.

His preface, or the manner of his producing of this second testimony, is this: ῝οταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ..... λέγει. Which words have been exposed unto variety of interpretations: for if πάλιν be joined with εἰσαγάγῃ, which immediately follows, they are to be rendered, “And when he bringeth in again into the world;” if with λέγει, which follows it after the interposition of sundry other words, then it is to be rendered as by our interpreters, “And again when he bringeth,..... he saith.”

Moreover, it is not clear in what sense Christ is called πρωτότοκος, “the first-born,” who is elsewhere termed μονογενὴς παρὰ πατρὸς, “the only-begotten Son of the Father.”

We must also inquire what is the introduction or bringing in here intended, how and when performed; as also what is the world whereinto he was brought. The difficulties about all which must be severally considered.

1. πάλιν, “again,” may be joined with εἰσαγάγῃ, and then the sense of the words must run as above intimated, — namely, “When he bringeth in again the first-born into the world.” And it is evident that most expositors, both ancient and modern, embrace this sense. So do Chrysostom, Theodoret, Ambrose, (Ecumenius, Thomas, Lyra, Cajetan, Ribera, Cameron, Gomarus, Estius, a Lapide, our Mede, with many others. But about what this bringing in again, or second bringing in, of the first-born into the world should be, they are greatly divided.

The ancients refer it to his incarnation; affirming, somewhat harshly, that he was brought before into the world, when all things were made by him.

2. Others refer it to the resurrection, which was as it were a second bringing of Christ into the world, as David was brought into his kingdom again after he had been expelled by the conspiracy and rebellion of Absalom.

3. Others refer it unto his coming forth in the effectual preaching of the gospel after his ascension, whereby he was brought forth in another manner and with another kind of power than that in which he appeared in the days of his flesh.

4. Some suppose the personal reign of Christ on the earth for a thousand years with his saints is intended in these words, when God will bring him again with glory into the world: of which judgment was Mede, and now many follow him.

5. Others again, and they the most, assign the accomplishment of what is here asserted to the general judgment and the second coming of Christ in the glory of the Father, with all the holy angels attending him, to judge the quick and the dead.

6. Some of the Socinians refer them unto the triumphant ascension of Christ into heaven after his resurrection, he having, as they fancy, once before been taken into it, there to be instructed in the mind and will of God.

Now all these assertions concerning the bringing in of Christ into the world have a truth in them, absolutely considered; but whether any of them be here intended by the apostle, we must inquire by an examination of the common foundation that all their authors proceed upon, with the reasons given for its confirmation. Now, this is that which we observed before, namely, that in the construction of the words, πάλιν, “again,” is to be joined with εἰσαγάγῃ, “he bringeth in;” and so to be rendered, “When he bringeth in again,” (or, “a second time,”) “the first-born:” which must needs point to a second coming of Christ, of one kind or another. And to this purpose they say, —

1. That the trajection of the words in the other sense is hard and difficult, and not to be admitted but upon very cogent reasons. It is to suppose that the apostle by ὅταν δὲ πάλιν, “when again,” intends πάλιν δὲ ὅταν, “again when.” And besides, the interposition of the many words between it and λέγει “he saith,” will not admit that they should be conjoined in sense and construction.

But this reason is not cogent; for, —

(1.) Most of the ancient translations acknowledge this transposition of the words. So the Syriac, reading thus, “And again, when he bringeth in;” so the Vulgar Latin; and the Arabic, omitting the term “again,” as not designing any new thing, but merely denoting a new testimony. And they are followed by Valla, Erasmus, Beza, and the best of modern translators.

(2.) Such trajections are not unusual, and that in this place hath a peculiar elegancy; for the word πάλιν, “again,” being used in the head of the testimony foregoing, this transposition adds to the elegancy of the words; and that there was cause for it we shall see afterwards.

(3.) The apostle having immediately before used the word πάλιν, “again,” as his note of producing a second testimony, and placing it here in the entrance of a third, it must needs be used equivocally, if the trajection proposed be not allowed.

2. They deny that the angels worshipped Christ at his first coming into the world, — that is, that they are recorded so to have done; and therefore it must needs be his second coming that is intended, when he shall come in glory, with all his holy angels openly worshipping him and performing his commands.

This reason is especially suited unto the fifth opinion before mentioned, referring the words to the coming of Christ at the general day of judgment, and is unserviceable unto any of the rest. But yet neither is this satisfactory; for the question is, not whether it be anywhere recorded that the angels worshipped Christ at his first entrance into the world, but whether the Lord Christ, upon his incarnation, was not put into that condition wherein it was the duty of all the angels of God to worship him. Now this being at least interpretatively a command of God, and the angels expressly always doing his will, the thing itself is certain, though no particular instances of it be recorded. Besides, the angels’attendance on his birth, proclamation of his nativity, and celebrating the glory of God on that account, seem to have been a performance of that duty which they had received command for. And this is allowed by those of the ancients who suppose that the second bringing of Christ into the world was upon his nativity.

3. They say that this bringing in of the first-begotten into the world denotes a glorious presenting of him in his rule and enjoyment of his inheritance.


(1.) This proves not that the words must respect the coming of Christ unto judgment, to which end this reason is insisted on; because he was certainly proclaimed with power to be the Son, Lord, and Heir of all, upon his resurrection, and by the first preaching of the gospel And,

(2.) No such thing, indeed, can be rightly deduced from the words. The expression signifies no more but an introduction into the world, a real bringing in, without any intimation of the way or manner of it.

4. It is argued in the behalf of the same opinion, from the psalm from whence these words are taken, that it is a glorious reign of Christ and his coming unto judgment that are set forth therein, and not his coming and abode in the state of humiliation. And this reason Cameron affirms, to prove undeniably that it is the coming of Christ unto judgment that is intended.

But the truth is, the consideration of the scope of the psalm doth quite reject the opinion which is sought to be maintained by it; for,

(1.) Hebrews 1:1, Upon the reign of the Lord therein set forth, both Jews and Gentiles, the earth and the multitude of the isles, are called to rejoice therein; that is, to receive, delight in, and be glad of the salvation brought by the Lord Christ unto mankind, — which is not the work of the last day.

(2.) Idolaters are deterred from their idolatry, and exhorted to worship him, Hebrews 1:7, — a duty incumbent on them before the day of judgment.

(3.) The church is exhorted upon his reign to abstain from sin, and promised deliverance from the wicked and oppressors. All which things, as they are unsuited unto his coming at the day of judgment, so they expressly belong unto the setting up of his kingdom in this world. And hereby it appears, that that opinion which indeed seems with any probability to assert a second coming of Christ into the world to be intended in these words, is inconsistent with the scope of the place from whence the testimony is taken, and consequently the design of the apostle himself. The other conjectures mentioned will easily be removed out of the way. Unto that of the ancients, assigning this bringing in of Christ into the world unto his incarnation, we say it is true; but then that was his first bringing in, and being supposed to be intended in this place, the words can be no otherwise rendered but that πάλιν, “again,” must be esteemed only an intimation of the citation of a new testimony.

Neither can the resurrection of the Lord Christ be assigned as the season of the accomplishment of this word, which was not, indeed, a bringing of him into the world, but rather an entrance into his leaving of it; neither did he at his death leave the world utterly, for though his soul was separated from his body, yet his body was not separated from his person, and therein he continued on the earth.

The coming of Christ to reign here on earth a thousand years is, if not a groundless opinion, yet so dubious and uncertain as not to be admitted a place in the analogy of faith to regulate our interpretation of Scripture in places that may fairly admit of another application.

The figment of the Socinians, that the Lord Christ during the time of his forty days’fast was taken into heaven, — which they lay as a foundation unto their interpretation of this place, — I have elsewhere showed to be irrational, antiscriptural, Mohammedan, and derogatory to the honor of our Lord Jesus, as he is the eternal Son of God.

From what hath been spoken, it is evident that the trajection proposed may be allowed, as it is by most of the ancient and modern translations. And so the word πάλιν, “again,” relating unto λέγει, “he saith,” denotes only the introduction of a new proof, and doth not intimate a second bringing in of the Lord Christ. And unto what hath already been spoken I shall only add, that such an intention in these words as hath been pleaded for would be so far from promoting the apostle’s design, that it would greatly weaken and impair it; for the matter he had in hand was to prove the pre-eminence of the Lord Christ above the angels, not absolutely, but as he was the revealer of the gospel; and if this was not so, and proved to be so by this testimony, whilst he was employed in that work in the world, it is nothing at all to his purpose.

Having cleared this difficulty, and showed that no second coming of Christ is intended in this word, but only a new testimony to the same purpose with them foregoing produced, the intention of the apostle in his prefatory expression may be further opened, by considering what that world is whereinto the Father brought the Son, with how and when he did so, and the manner of it.

There are two opinions about the world whereinto Christ is said to be brought by the Father.

1. The one is that of the Socinians, asserted as by others of them, so by Schlichtingius in his comment on this place, and by Grotius after them in his annotations. “ οἰκουμένη,” saith Grotius, “est ‘regio illa superna quae ab angelis habitatur,’ut ipse mox scriptor noster ad haec sua verba respiciens dicet, cap. ;” — “It is,” saith he, “that region above which is inhabited by the angels that is intended; and our author declares as much in that respect which he hath to these words, chapter 2:5.” In like manner Schlichtingius:

“Per terrain istam, non esse intelligendam hanc quam mortales incolimus, sed coelestem illam quam aliquando immortales effecti incolemus, et res ipsa, et D. auctor sequenti capite Hebrews 1:5, aperte declarat.”

That is, by the earth, not the earth but the heaven is to be understood! But, —

(1.) This suits not at all with the purpose and design of the apostle, which is plainly to prove that the Lord Christ, then when he spake to us, and revealed the will of God, and in that work, was above the angels; which is not at all proved by showing what befell him after his work was accomplished.

(2.) It receives no countenance from that other place, of Hebrews 2:5, whither we are sent by these interpreters; for that the apostle is there treating of a matter quite of another nature, without any respect unto these words, shall be there declared. Neither doth he absolutely there mention οἰκουμένην, “the world,” but with the addition of μέλλουσαν, “to come;” which what it is we shall inquire upon the place.

(3.) οἰκουμένη signifies properly the “habitable earth,” and is never used absolutely in the Scripture but for the habitable world, or men dwelling in it; and causelessly to wrest it unto another signification is not to interpret but to offer violence unto the text.

2. By οἰκουμένη, then, “the world,” or “habitable earth,” with them that dwell therein, and nothing else is intended; for as the word hath no other signification, so the psalmist in the place from whence the ensuing testimony is taken expounds it by “the multitude of isles,” or the nations lying abroad in the wide earth. This is the world designed, even that earth wherein the rational creatures of God converse here below. Into this was the Lord Christ brought by the Father.

We are therefore nextly to inquire wherein the Father’s bringing of the Son into this world did consist. We have seen formerly that some have assigned it unto one thing in particular, some to another; some to his incarnation and nativity, some to his resurrection, some to his mission of the Spirit and propagation of his kingdom that ensued. The opinion about his coming to reign in the world a thousand years, as also that of his coming at the general judgment, we have already excluded. Of the others I am apt to think that it is not any one in particular, exclusive of the others, that the apostle intendeth or designeth. That which was intended in the Old Testament in the promises of his coming into the world, is that which is here expressed by the phrase of bringing him in. See Malachi 3:1-2,

“The Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come..... But who may abide the day of his coming?”

Now, it was not any one special act, nor any one particular day that was designed in that and the like promises; but it was the whole work of God in bringing forth the Messiah, by his conception, nativity, unction with the Spirit, resurrection, sending of the Holy Ghost, and preaching of the gospel, which is the subject of those promises. And their accomplishment it is which these words express, “When he bringeth the first-begotten into the world;” that is, after he had kept his church, under the administration of the law given by angels in the hand of Moses the mediator, in the expectation of the coming of the Messiah, when he bringeth him forth unto and carries him on in his work unto the accomplishment of it, he says, “Let all the angels of God worship him.” And herein most of the former senses are comprised. And this interpretation of the words completely answers the intention of the apostle in the citation of the ensuing testimony, namely, to prove that, in the discharge of his work of revealing the will of God, he was such a one as, by reason of the dignity of his person, had all religious worship and honor due unto him from the angels themselves.

This sense, also, we are led unto by the psalm whence the ensuing testimony is taken, Psalms 92. The exultation which the first verse of the psalm requires and calls for is not unlike that which was, in the name of the whole creation, expressed at his nativity, Luke 2:14. And the four following verses are an allegorical description of the work that the Lord Christ should perform in and by the preaching of the gospel. See Malachi 3:1-4; Malachi 4:1; Matthew 3:12; Luke 2:17. And hereon ensues that shame and ruin which was brought upon idols and idolaters thereby, Luke 2:7; and the joy of the whole church in the presence of Christ, Luke 2:8; attended with his glorious reign in heaven, as a consequent of the accomplishment of his work, Luke 2:9; which is proposed as a motive unto obedience, and a matter of confidence and rejoicing unto the church. And this is the Father’s bringing of the Son into the world, described by the psalmist and intended by the apostle.

It remains that we inquire why and in what sense Christ is here called πρωτότοκος, “primogenitus,” or “the first-born.” The common answer is, “Non quod post ilium alii, sed quod ante illum nullus;” — “Not that any was born after him” (in the same way), “but that none was born before him;” which, as we have showed before, will agree well enough with the use of the word. And this is applied both to the eternal generation of his divine person, and to the conception and nativity of his human nature.

But if we suppose that his person and eternal generation may be intended in this expression, we must make πρωτότοκος, or the “firstborn,” to be the same with μονογενής, or “only-begotten;” which may not be allowed: for Christ is absolutely called the “only-begotten of the Father” in his eternal generation, — his essence being infinite, took up the whole nature of divine filiation, so that it is impossible that with respect thereunto there should be any more sons of God, — but πρωτότοκος, or “first-born,” is used in relation unto others; and yet, as I showed before, it doth not require that he who is so should have any other brethren in the same kind of sonship. But because this is by some asserted, namely, that Christ has many brethren in the same kind of sonship whereby he is himself the Son of God, and is on that account called the first-born (which is an assertion greatly derogatory to his glory and honor), I shall in our passage remove it, as a stumbling-block, out of the way.

Thus Schlichtingius on the place:

“Primogenitum eum nomine Dei Filium appellat, innuens hoc pacto plures Dei esse filios etiam ad Christum respectu habito; scilicet ut ostenderet non ita Christum esse Dei Filium, quin alii etiam eodem filiationis genere contine-antur, quanquam filiationis perfectione et gradu Christo multo inferiores.” And again: “Primogenitus dicitur Christus quod eum Deus ante omnes filios, eos nimirum qui Christi fratres appellantur genuerit; eo scilicet modo quo Dens filios gignere solet; eos autem gignit quos sibi similes efficit; primus est Christus qui Deo ea sanctitate similis fuit, qualem in novo foedere praecipit.”

But these things agree neither with the truth, nor with the design of the apostle in this place, nor with the principles of them by whom they are asserted. It is acknowledged that God hath other sons besides Jesus Christ, and that with respect unto him; for in him we are adopted, — the only way whereby any one may attain unto the privilege of sonship: but that we are sons of God with or in the same kind of sonship with Jesus Christ, is, —

1. False. because, —

(1.) Christ in his sonship is μονογενής, the “only-begotten” Son of God: and therefore it is impossible that God should have any more sons in the same kind with him; for if he had, certainly the Lord Christ could not be μονογενής, his “only-begotten” Son.

(2.) The only way of filiation, the only kind of sonship, that believers share in is that of adoption; in any other kind of sonship they are not partakers. Now, if Christ be the Son of God in this kind, he must of necessity antecedently unto his adoption be a member of another family, — that is, of the family of Satan and the world, as we are by nature, — and from thence be transplanted by adoption into the family of God; which is blasphemy to imagine. So that neither can believers be the sons of God with that kind of sonship which is proper to Christ, he being the only-begotten of the Father; nor can the Lord Christ be the Son of God with the same kind of sonship as believers are, which is only by adoption, and their translation out of one family into another. So that either to exalt believers into the same kind of sonship with Christ, or to depress him into the same rank with them, is wholly inconsistent with the analogy of faith and principles of the gospel.

(3.) If this were so, that the Lord Christ and believers are the sons of God by the same kind of sonship, only differing in degrees (which also are imaginary, for the formal reason of the same kind of sonship is not capable of variation by degrees), what great matter is in the condescension mentioned by the apostle, Hebrews 2:11, that “he is not ashamed to call them brethren;” which yet he compares with the condescension of God in being called their God, Hebrews 11:16?

2. This conceit, as it is untrue so it is contrary to the design of the apostle; for, to assert the Messiah to be the Son of God in the same way with men, doth not tend at all to prove him more excellent than the angels, but rather leaves us just ground for suspecting their preference above him.

3. It is contrary unto other declared principles of the authors of this assertion. They elsewhere affirm that the Lord Christ was the Son of God on many accounts; as first and principally, because he was conceived and born of a virgin by the power of God; now, surely, all believers are not partakers with him in this kind of sonship. Again, they say he is the Son of God because God raised him from the dead, to confirm the doctrine that he had taught; which is not so with believers. Also they say he is the Son of God, and so called, upon the account of his sitting at the right hand of God; which is no less his peculiar privilege than the former. So that this is but an unhappy attempt to lay hold of a word for an advantage, which yields nothing in the issue but trouble and perplexity.

Nor can the Lord Christ (which is affirmed in the last place) be called the Son of God and the First-born, because in him was that holiness which is required in the new covenant; for both all believers under the old testament had that holiness and likeness unto God in their degrees, and that holiness consists principally in regeneration, or being born again by the Word and Spirit out of a corrupted estate of death and sin, which the Lord Christ was not capable of. Yea, the truth is, the holiness and image of God in Christ was, in the kind of it, that which was required under the first covenant, — a holiness of perfect innocency and perfect righteousness in obedience. So that this last invention hath no better success than the former. It appeareth, then, that the Lord Christ is not called “the first-begotten,” or the “first-born,” with any such respect unto others as should include him and them in the same kind of filiation.

To give, therefore, a direct account of this appellation of Christ, we may observe, that indeed the Lord Christ is never absolutely called the “first- begotten” or “first-born” with respect either to his eternal generation or to the conception and nativity of his human nature. In respect of the former he is called “the Son,” and “the only-begotten Son of God,” but nowhere “the first-born,” or “first-begotten;” and in respect of the latter, indeed, he is called the “first-born son” of the virgin, because she had none before him, but not absolutely “the first-born” or “first-begotten,” which title is here and elsewhere ascribed unto him in the Scripture. It is not, therefore, the thing itself of being the first-born, but the dignity and privilege that attended it, which are designed in this appellation. So Colossians 1:15, he is said to be πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως, “the first-born of the creation;” which is no more but that he hath power and authority over all the creatures of God.

The word which the apostle intends to express is בְּכוֹר, which ofttimes is used in the sense now pleaded for, namely, to denote not the birth in the first place, but the privilege that belonged thereunto. So Psalms 89:27, God is said to make David his בְּכוֹר, his “first-born;” which is expounded in the next words, “Higher than the kings of the earth.” So that the Lord Christ being the firstborn is but the same which we have insisted on, of his being heir of all, which was the privilege of the first-born; and this privilege was sometimes transmitted unto others that were not the first-born, although the natural course of their nativity could not be changed, Genesis 21:10; Genesis 49:3-4; Genesis 49:8. The Lord Christ, then, by the appointment of the Father, being intrusted with the whole inheritance of heaven and earth, and authority to dispose of it, that he might give out portions to all the rest of God’s family, is and is called “the firstborn” thereof.

There remains now but one word more to be considered for the opening of this introduction of the ensuing testimony, and that is λέγει, “he saith;” that is, ‘God himself saith.’They are his words which shall be produced. Whatever is spoken in the Scripture in his name, it is his speaking; and he continueth to speak it unto this day. He speaks in the Scripture unto the end of the world. This is the foundation of our faith, that which it riseth from, and that which it is resolved into, ‘God speaketh;’and I suppose we need no interposition of church or tradition to give authority or credit unto what he says or speaks.

This, then, is the sum of these words of the apostle: ‘Again, in another place, where the Holy Ghost foretells the bringing forth into the world and amongst men him that is the Lord and Heir of all, to undertake his work, and to enter into his kingdom and glory, the Lord speaks to this purpose, Let all the angels of God worship him.’

To manifest this testimony to be apposite unto the confirmation of the apostle’s assertion, three things are required: —

1. That it is the Son who is intended and spoken of in the place from whence the words are taken, and so designed as the person to be worshipped.

2. That they are angels that are spoken unto, and commanded to worship him.

3. That on these suppositions the words prove the pre-eminence of Christ above the angels.

For the two former, with them that acknowledge the divine authority of this epistle, it is sufficient in general, to give them satisfaction, to observe that the place is applied unto Christ, and this passage unto the ministering angels, by the same Spirit who first wrote that Scripture. But yet there is room left for our inquiry how these things may be evidenced, whereby the strength of the apostle’s reasonings, with them who were not yet convinced of the infallibility of his assertions, any further than they were confirmed by testimonies out of the Old Testament and the faith of the ancient church of the Hebrews in this matter, may be made to appear; as also a check given to their boldness who, upon pretense of the impropriety of these allegations, have questioned the authority of the whole epistle.

1. Our first inquiry must be whence this testimony is taken. Many of the ancients, as Epiphanius, Theodoret, Euthymius, Procopius, and Anselm, conceived the words to be cited from Deuteronomy 32:43, where they expressly occur in the translation of the LXX., εὐφράςθητς οὐρανοὶ ἄμα αὐτοῦ καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῖ; — “Rejoice ye heavens with him, and let all the angels of God worship him.” But there are two considerations that put it beyond all pretensions that the words are not taken from this place of the LXX.: —

(1.) Because indeed there are no such words in the original text, nor any thing spoken that might give occasion to the sense expressed in them; but the whole verse is inserted in the Greek version quite beside the scope of the place. Now, though it may perhaps be safely granted that the apostles, in citing the Scripture of the Old Testament, did sometimes use the words of the Greek translation then in use, yea, though not exact according to the original, whilst the sense and meaning of the Holy Ghost was retained in them; yet to cite that from the Scripture as the word and testimony of God which indeed is not therein, nor was ever spoken by God, but by human failure and corruption crept into the Greek version, is not to be imputed unto them. And indeed I no way question but that this addition unto the Greek text in that place was made after the apostle had used this testimony. For it is not unlikely but that some considering of it, and not considering from whence it was taken, because the words occur not absolutely and exactly in the Greek anywhere, inserted it into that place of Moses, amidst other words of an alike sound, and somewhat an alike importance, such as immediately precede and follow the clause inserted.

(2.) The Holy Ghost is not treating in that place about the introduction of the first-born into the world, but quite of another matter, as is evident upon the first view of the text: so that this testimony is evidently not taken from this place; nor would nor could the apostle make use of a testimony liable unto such just exceptions,

Later expositors generally agree that the words are taken out of Psalms 97:7, where the original is rendered by the LXX., προσκυνήσατε αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ: which, with a very small variation in the words, and none at all in the sense, is here expressed by the apostle, “And let all the angels of God worship him.”

The psalm hath no title at all in the original; which the Greek version noteth, affirming that it is ἀνεπίγραφος παῤ ᾿εβραίοις: but it adds one of its own, namely, ψαλμός τῷ λάβιδ ὅτε ἤ γῆ αὐτοῦ καθίστατο, — “A Psalm of David when his land was restored.” Hence it is referred by some to the time of his return unto Jerusalem, after he had been expelled the kingdom by Absalom; by others, with more probability, to the time of his bringing the ark into the tabernacle from the house of Obed-edom, when the land was quieted before him. And unquestionably in it the kingdom of God was shadowed out under the type of the kingdom of David; which kingdom of God was none other but that of the Messiah. It is evident that this psalm is of the same nature with that which goes before, yea, a part of it, or an appendix unto it. The first words of this take up and carry on what is affirmed in the 10th verse, to close of that; so that both of them are but one continued psalm of praise. Now the title of that psalm, and consequently of this, is שיר חדש, “A new song,” Psalms 97:1; which psalms, as Rashi confesseth, are to be referred unto the world to come, — that is, the time and kingdom of the Messiah. So Kimchi affirms that this psalm and that following respect the time when the people shall be delivered from the captivity out of all nations; that is, the time of the Messiah. And Rakenati affirms that the last verse of it, “He cometh to judge the earth,” can respect nothing but the coming and reign of the Messiah. Thus they, out of their traditions.

Some of the ancients, I confess, charge them with corrupting this psalm in the version of the 10th verse, affirming that the words at one time were, ᾿᾿ο κύριος ἐβασίλευσεν ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου, — “The Lord reigned from the tree,” denoting; as they say, the cross. So Justin Martyr, in his Dialogue with Trypho. And after him the same words are remembered by Tertullian, ad. Judae. cap. 10, ad. Marci. lib. 3; and Augustin. Enarr. in Psalms 95. And though the fraud and corruption pretended be improbable, indeed impossible, nor are the words mentioned by Justin acknowledged by the Targum, or any Greek translator, or Jerome, yet it is evident that all parties granted the Messiah and his kingdom to be intended in the psalm, or there had been no need or color for the one to suspect the other of corruption about it. It is evident, then, that the ancient church of the Jews, whose tradition is herein followed by the modern, acknowledged this psalm to contain a description of the kingdom of God in the Messiah; and on their consent doth the apostle proceed. And the next psalm, which is of the same importance with this, is entitled by the Targumist, תשבחת נבואה, “A prophetical psalm,” namely, of the kingdom and reign of the Messiah.

But the matter of the psalm itself makes it manifest that the Holy Ghost treateth in it about God’s bringing in the first-born into the world, and the setting up of his kingdom in him. A kingdom is described wherein God would reign, which should destroy idolatry and false worship; a kingdom wherein the isles of the Gentiles should rejoice, being called to an interest therein; a kingdom that was to be preached, proclaimed, declared, unto the increase of light and holiness in the world, with the manifestation of the glory of God unto the ends of the earth: every part whereof declareth the kingdom of Christ to be intended in the psalm, and consequently that it is a prophecy of the bringing in of the first-begotten into the world.

2. Our second inquiry is, whether the angels be intended in these words. They are, as was before observed, כָּלאּאַלֹהִים, “omnes dii;” and are so rendered by Jerome, “Adorate eum omnes dii;” and by ours, “Worship him, all ye gods,” The preceding words are, “Confounded be all they that serve graven images” הַמִּתְהַלְלִים בָּאַלִילִים“that boast themselves in” (or “of”) “idols,” — “vanities, nothings,” as the word signifies; whereon ensues this apostrophe, “Worship him, כָּלאּאַלֹהִים, all ye gods.” And who they are is our present inquiry.

Some, as all the modern Jews, say that it is the gods of the Gentiles, those whom they worship, that are intended; so making אַֹֹלֹהִיםand אַלִילִים, “gods,” and “vain idols,” to be the same in this place. But, —

(1.) It cannot be that the psalmist should exhort the idols of the heathen, some whereof were devils, some dead men, some inanimate parts of the creation, unto a reverential worshipping of God reigning over all. Hence the Targumist, seeing the vanity of that interpretation, perverts the words, and renders them, “Worship before him, all ye nations which serve idols.”

(2.) אַלֹהִים, “Elohim,” is so far in this place from being exegetical of אַלִילִים, “gods,” or “vain idols,” that it is put in direct opposition to it, as is evident from the words themselves.

(3.) The word Elohim, which most frequently denoteth the true God, doth never alone, and absolutely taken, signify false gods or idols, but only when it is joined with some other word discovering its application, as his god, or their gods, or the gods of this or that people: in which case it is rendered by the LXX. sometimes εἴδωλον, an “idol;” sometimes χειροποίητον, an “idol made with hands;” sometimes βδέλυλμα, an “abomination.” But here it hath no such limitation or restriction.

Whereas, therefore, there are some creatures who, by reason of some peculiar excellency and likeness unto God, or subordination unto him in their work, are called gods, it must be those or some of them that are intended in the expression. Now these are either magistrates or angels.

(1.) Magistrates are somewhere called elohim, because of the representation they make of God in his power, and their peculiar subordination unto him in their working. The Jews, indeed, contend that no other magistrates but only those of the great Sanhedrin are anywhere called gods; but that concerns not our present inquiry. Some magistrates are so called, but none of them are here intended by the psalmist, there being no occasion administered unto him of any such apostrophe unto them.

(2.) Angels also are called elohim: λεγόμενοι θεοί, 1 Corinthians 8:5. They have the name of god attributed unto them, as we have showed before in some instances. And these alone are they whom the psalmist speaks unto. Having called on the whole creation to rejoice in the bringing forth of the kingdom of God, and pressed his exhortation upon things on the earth, he turns unto the ministering angels, and calls on them to the discharge of their duty unto the King of that kingdom. Hence the Targumist, in the beginning of Psalms 96, which is indeed the beginning of this, expressly mentioneth אנגלי מרומא, “his high angels,” joining in his praise and worship, using the Greek word ἄγγελος, for distinction’s sake, as on the same account it often occurs in the Targum.

We have thus evinced that the psalm treats about the bringing in of the first-born into the world; as also that they are the ministering angels who are here commanded to worship him.

For the command itself, and the nature of it, it consisted in these two things: —

(1.) A declaration of the state and condition of the Messiah; which is such as that he is a meet object of religious adoration unto the angels, and attended with peculiar motives unto the discharge of their duty. The former he hath from his divine nature, the latter from his work, with his state and dignity that ensued thereon.

(2.) An intimation of the pleasure of God unto the angels. Not that divine worship was absolutely due unto the Son of God, which they knew from the first instant of their creation, but that all honor and glory were due unto him on the account of his work and office as mediator and king of his church.

3. It remaineth only that we show that this testimony thus explained was suitable unto the apostle’s design and purpose, and did prove the assertion in the confirmation whereof it was produced. Now, this is a matter of so full and clear an evidence that it will not at all detain us; for it is impossible that there should be any more clear or full demonstration of this truth, that the Lord Christ hath an unspeakable pre-eminence above the angels, than this, that they are all appointed and commanded by God himself to adore him with divine and religious worship. We may now, therefore, consider what observations the words will afford us for our own instruction. It appears, then, from hence, —

I. That the authority of God speaking in the Scripture is that alone which divine faith rests upon and is to be resolved into: “He saith.”

It was the begetting of faith in some of the Hebrews, and the increase or establishment of it in others, that the apostle aimed at. That which he proposed to them as the object of their faith, that which they were to believe, was that excellency of the person and kingly authority of the Messiah wherein they had not as yet been instructed. And hereof he endeavors not to beget an opinion in them, but that faith which cannot deceive or be deceived. To this end he proposeth that unto them which they ought to submit unto, and which they may safely rest in. For as faith is an act of religious obedience, it respects the authority of God requiring it; and as it is a religious infallible assent of the mind, it regards the truth and veracity of God as its object. On this alone it rests, “God saith.” And in whatever God speaks in the Scripture, his truth and authority manifest themselves to the satisfaction of faith; and nowhere else doth it find rest.

II. That for the begetting, increasing, and strengthening of faith, it is useful to have important fundamental truths confirmed by many testimonies of Scripture: “Again he saith.”

Any one word of God is sufficient to establish the most important truth to eternity, so as to hang the salvation of all mankind thereon, neither can any thing impeach or weaken what is so confirmed. No more is required in any case, to make faith necessary on our part as a duty of obedience, and infallible as to the event, but that God hath by any means, by any one word, revealed that which he requires our assent unto. But God dealeth not upon strict terms. Infinite condescension lies at the bottom of all wherein he hath to deal with us. He respects not what the nature of the thing strictly requires, but what is needful unto our infirmity and weakness. Hence he multiplies his commands and promises, and confirms all by his oath, swearing to his truth by himself, to take away all pretense of distrust and unbelief. For this cause he multiplies testimonies to the truths wherein the concernments of his glory and our obedience do lie, as might be manifested by the consideration of instances innumerable. Thus in his name deals the apostle in this place. And this is useful to faith: for, —

1. What, it may be, is obscure in one is cleared in another; and so what doubts and fears remain on the consideration of one testimony are removed by another, whereby the souls of believers are carried on unto a “full assurance.” And therefore, because such is our weakness that there is need hereof in ourselves, such is the goodness of God that there is no want of it in the word.

2. Faith discerns hereby the weight that God lays upon its embracing of the truth so testified unto. He knows our concernment in it, and thereon urgeth us with its acceptance. This awakens and excites faith unto attention and consideration, — the eminent means of its growth and increase. It knows that it is not for nothing that the Holy Ghost thus presseth his truth upon it, and attends the more diligently upon his urgency.

3. Every testimony hath something single in it, and peculiar unto it. Though many bear witness to the same truth, yet such is the fullness of the Scripture, and such the wisdom of God laid up therein, that every one of them hath also somewhat of its own, somewhat singular, tending to the enlightening and establishment of our minds. This faith makes a discovery of, and so receives peculiar profit and advantage thereby.

And this should teach us to abound in the study and search of the Scriptures, that we may thereby come to establishment in the truth. God hath thus left us many testimonies to each important truth; and he hath not done it in vain, — he knows our need of it; and his condescension in so doing, when he might have bound us up to the strictest terms of closing with the least intimation of his will, is for ever to be admired. For us to neglect this great effect and product of the wisdom, grace, and love of God, is unspeakable folly. If we think we need it not, we make ourselves wiser than God; if we think we do, and neglect our duty herein, we are really as unwise as the beasts that perish. Want of this fortifying of faith, by a diligent search after the testimonies given unto the truth proposed unto it to be believed, is the cause that so many every day turn away from it, and therewithal make shipwreck of faith and a good conscience. Let us, then, never think ourselves safe in the knowledge and profession of any truth, but whilst we continue sincerely in the investigation of all the confirmation that God hath given it in his word. The opposition made to every truth is so various, and from so many hands, that not the least contribution of evidence unto it can be neglected with safety.

III. The whole creation of God hath a great concernment in God’s bringing forth Christ into the world, and his exaltation in his kingdom.

Hence in the psalm from whence these words are taken, all the principal parts of it are called on to triumph and rejoice therein. The earth, and the multitude of the isles, the heaven, and all people, are invited unto this congratulation; neither is any thing excluded but idols and idolaters, whose ruin God intends in the erection of the kingdom of Christ. And this they have ground for, —

1. Because in that work consisted the principal manifestation of the wisdom, power, and goodness of God. The whole creation is concerned in the glory of the Creator. In his exaltation doth their honor, interest, and blessedness consist. For this end were they made, that God might be glorified. The more that is done by any means, the more is their end attained.

Hence the very inanimate parts of it are introduced, by a προσωποποιϊvα, rejoicing, exulting, shouting, and clapping their hands, when the glory of God is manifested, — in all which their suitableness and propensity to their proper end is declared; as also, by their being burdened and groaning under such an estate and condition of things as doth any way eclipse the glory of their Maker. Now, in this work of bringing forth the first-born is the glory of God principally and eminently exalted; for the Lord Christ is the “brightness of his glory,” and in him all the treasures of wisdom, grace, and goodness are laid up and hid. Whatever God had any otherwise before parcelled out, of and concerning his glory, by the works of his hands, is all, and altogether, and with an unspeakable addition of beauty and excellency, repeated in Christ.

2. The whole creation receiveth a real advancement and honor in the Son’s being made “the first-born of every creature;” that is, the especial heir and lord of them all. Their being brought into a new dependence on the Lord Christ is their honor, and they are exalted by becoming his possession. For after that they had lost their first original dependence on God, and their respect unto him, grounded on his pronouncing of them exceeding good, — that is, such as became his wisdom and power to have made, — they fell under the power of the devil, who became prince of this world by sin. Herein consisted the vanity and debasement of the creature; which it was never willingly or of its own accord subject unto. But God setting up the kingdom of Christ, and making him the first-born, the whole creation hath a right unto a new, glorious lord and master. And however any part of it be violently for a season detained under its old bondage, yet it hath grounds of an “earnest expectation” of a full and total deliverance into liberty, by virtue of this primogeniture of Christ Jesus

3. Angels and men, the inhabitants of heaven and earth, the principal parts of the creation, on whom God hath in an especial manner stamped his own likeness and image, are hereby made partakers of such inestimable benefits as indispensably call for rejoicing in a way of thankfulness and gratitude. This the whole gospel declares, and therefore it needs not our particular improvement in this place.

And if this be the duty of the whole creation, it is easy to discern in what a special manner it is incumbent on them that believe, whose benefit, advantage, and glow, were principally intended in this whole work of God. Should they be found wanting in this duty, God might, as of old, call heaven and earth to witness against them. Yea, thankfulness to God for the bringing forth of the first-born into the world is the sum and substance of all that obedience which God requires at the hands of believers.

IV. The command of God is the ground and reason of all religious worship. The angels are to worship the Lord Christ, the mediator; and the ground of their so doing is God’s command. He saith, “Worship him, all ye angels.”

Now the command of God is twofold: —

1. Formal and vocal, when God gives out a law or precept unto any creature superadded to the law of its creation. Such was the command given out unto our first parents in the garden concerning the “tree of the knowledge of good and evil;” and such were all the laws, precepts, and institutions which he afterwards gave unto his church, with those which to this day continue as the rule and reason of their obedience.

2. Real and interpretative, consisting in an impression of the mind and will of God upon the nature of his creatures, with respect unto that obedience which their state, condition, and dependence on him requireth. The very nature of an intellectual creature, made for the glory of God, and placed in a moral dependence upon him and subjection unto him, hath in it the force of a command, as to the worship and service that God requireth at their hands. But this law in man being blotted, weakened, impaired, through sin, God hath in mercy unto us collected, drawn forth, and disposed all the directions and commands of it in vocal formal precepts recorded in his word; whereunto he hath superadded sundry new commands in the institutions of his worship. With angels it is otherwise. The ingrafted law of their creation, requiring of them the worship of God and obedience to his whole will, is kept and preserved entire; so that they have no need to have it repeated and expressed in vocal formal commands. And by virtue of this law were they obliged to constant and everlasting worship of the eternal Son of God, as being created and upheld in a universal dependence upon him. But now when God brings forth his Son into the world, and placeth him in a new condition, of being incarnate, and becoming so the head of his church, there is a new modification, of the worship that is due to him brought in, and a new respect unto things, not considered in the first creation. With reference hereunto God gives a new command unto the angels, for that peculiar kind of worship and honor which is due unto him in that state and condition which he had taken upon himself.

This the law of their creation in general directed them unto, but in particular required not of them. It enjoined the worship of the Son of God in every condition, but that condition was not expressed. This God supplies by a new command; that is, such an intimation of his mind and will unto them as answers unto a vocal command given unto men, who by that means only may come to know the will of God. Thus, in one way or other, command is the ground and cause of all worship: for, —

1. All worship is obedience. Obedience respects authority; and authority exerts itself in commands. And if this authority be not the authority of God, the worship performed in obedience unto it is not the worship of God, but of him or them whose commands and authority are the reason and cause of it. It is the authority of God alone that can make any worship to be religious, or the performance of it to be an act of obedience unto him.

2. God would never allow that the will and wisdom of any of his creatures should be the rise, rule, or measure of his worship, or any part of it, or any thing that belongs unto it. This honor he hath reserved unto himself, neither will he part with it unto any other. He alone knows what becomes his own greatness and holiness, and what tends to the advancement of his glory. Hence the Scripture abounds with severe interdictions and comminations against them who shall presume to do or appoint any thing in his worship beside or beyond his own institution.

3. All prescriptions of worship are vain, when men have not strength to perform it in a due manner, nor assurance of acceptance when it is performed. Now, both these are and must be from God alone, nor doth he give strength and ability for any thing in his worship but what himself commands, nor doth he promise to accept any thing but what is of his own appointment; so that it is the greatest folly imaginable to undertake any thing in his worship and service but what his appointment gives warrant for.

And this should teach us, in all that we have to do in the worship of God, carefully to look after his word of command and institution. Without this all that we do is lost, as being no obedience unto God; yea, it is an open setting up of our own wills and wisdom against him, and that in things of his own especial concernment; which is intolerable boldness and presumption. Let us deal thus with our rulers amongst men, and obey them not according to their laws, but our own fancies, and see whether they will accept our persons? And is the great and holy God less to be regarded? Besides, when we have our inventions, or the commands of other men, as the ground and reason of our doing it, we have nothing but our own or their warranty for its acceptance with God; and how far this will secure us it is easy to judge.

We might hence also further observe, —

V. That the Mediator of the new covenant is in his own person God blessed for ever, to whom divine or religious worship is due from the angels themselves. As also that, —

VI. The Father, upon the account of the work of Christ in the world, and his kingdom that ensued it, gives a new commandment unto the angels to worship him, his glory being greatly concerned therein. And that,-

VII. Great is the church’s security and honor, when the head of it is worshipped by all the angels in heaven. As also that,-

VIII. It can be no duty of the saints of the new testament to worship angels, who are their fellow-servants in the worship of Jesus Christ.

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Owen, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "John Owen Exposition of Hebrews". https: 1862.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

And, &c. Read. "But when He again shall have brought in". Compare 1 Thessalonians 4:14.

First begotten. Greek. prototokos. See Romans 8:29. Colossians 1:15.

world. Greek. oikoumene App-129.

worship Greek. proskuneo. App-137. Quoted from Deuteronomy 32:43, which in the Septuagint reads, "Rejoice, ye heavens, together with Him, and let all the angels of God worship Him. Rejoice, ye nations, with His people, &c. "

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https: 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

And , [ De (Greek #1161)] - 'But.' Not only this, BUT a more decisive proof is Psalms 97:7, which shows that not only at His resurrection, but also in His being brought into the world (cf. Hebrews 9:11; Hebrews 10:5), in His incarnation (Luke 2:9-14), temptation (Matthew 4:10-11), resurrection (Matthew 28:2), and second advent in glory, angels were designed by God to be subject to Him. Compare 1 Timothy 3:16, "seen of angels:" God manifesting Messiah to be gazed at with adoring love by heavenly intelligences (Ephesians 3:10; 2 Thessalonians 1:9-10; 1 Peter 3:22). His Lordship shall be most fully manifested at His second coming (1 Corinthians 15:24-25; Philippians 2:9). "Worship Him all ye gods" (Psalms 97:7) - i:e., exalted beings; Septuagint, 'angels'), refers to God; but the Hebrews generally acknowledged that God would dwell, peculiarly, in Messiah (so as to be, in the Talmud phrase, 'capable of being pointed to with the finger'); so what was said of God was true of Messiah. The 97th Psalm describes such a kingdom as shall be the rejoicing of all nations-namely, those to be called by Christ. Kimchi says that Psalms 93:1-5 d to 101st contain in them the mystery of Messiah. God ruled the theocracy in and through him.

The (habitable) world , [ teen (Greek #3588) oikoumeneen (Greek #3625)] - subject to Christ (Hebrews 2:5). As "the first-begotten," He has the rights of primogeniture (Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15-16; Colossians 1:18). In Deuteronomy 32:43, the Septuagint have [ proskuneesatoosan (Greek #4352) autoo (Greek #846) pantes (Greek #3956) angeloi (Greek #32)] "Let all the angels of God worship Him;" words not now in the Hebrew. The Septuagint may have been in Paul's mind as to the form, but the substance is from Psalms 97:7. The type, David, in Psalms 89:27 (Hebrews 1:5), is called God's, "first-born, higher than the kings of the earth:" so the antitypical first-begotten, the Son of David, is to be worshipped by all inferior lords, as angels ("gods," Psalms 97:7); for He is "King of kings and Lord of lords" (Revelation 19:16). The Greek "again" is transposed; not necessarily (cf. margin), 'When He again shall have introduced,' etc.-namely, at Christ's second coming; for there is no previous mention of a first bringing in: "again" is often used in quotations, and may be parenthetical ('that I may again quote Scripture') (cf. Matthew 5:33; Greek, John 12:39). Still the Second Advent is included in the 'bringing in,' accompanied with angels' worship of Messiah: to it Psalms 97:1-12 chiefly refers (Matthew 24:29-30; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-8). His being brought into the WORLD [ oikoumenee (Greek #3625)] as the theater of His power mainly applies to His Second Advent (Wahl). 'When He shall again bring the First-begotten into the world, He shall be deemed worthy of not less honour, for He saith, "Let all the angels," etc. The former bringing in, though not expressed, is implied in Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 1:5.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https: 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(6) And again.—There seems little doubt that the true translation is, And when He again leadeth (literally, shall have led) the Firstborn into the world He saith. The position of “again” (in the Greek) shows that it does not indicate a new step in the argument, but must be joined with “leadeth.” The speaker (“He saith”) is God, speaking in the word of Scripture; in this Epistle quotations from the Old Testament are usually thus introduced. The quotation involves some difficulty. It cannot be directly taken from Psalms 97:7, “worship Him, all His angels;” for the citations from the Greek Bible in this Epistle are usually so exact that we cannot believe the writer would have so altered the form of the sentence now before us. In Deuteronomy 32:43, however, we find words identical with those of the text in most copies of the LXX.; but there is nothing answering to them in the Hebrew, and there is no sufficient reason for supposing that the clause has dropped out of the Hebrew text. There are similarities (both of subject and of diction) between the Psalm and the last section of the Song of Moses, which make it easy to see how the words could find their way into the Song. The Psalm belongs to a cycle (Psalms 93, 95-99) whose theme is the triumphant announcement of the coming of God’s kingdom, by which was denoted (as the readers of the Epistle knew) the kingdom of Christ. In the divine plan the predicted Theophany was coincident with the fulfilment of the Messianic hope. In both Psalm and Song we read of the judgment exercised and the vengeance inflicted by the enthroned King. (Comp. Psalms 2:9.) This agreement in tone and subject renders less important the question whether the Hebrew original of the Song really contained the words. The thought was familiar from Scripture, and in this very connection. When the Messiah, reigning as the Firstborn of God (see Hebrews 1:5), shall appear for judgment—that is, when God leadeth a second time His Firstborn into “the world of men” (see Hebrews 2:5), that He may receive full possession of His inheritance—He saith, And let all angels of God worship Him. The word here rendered “leadeth in” is in frequent use for the introduction of Israel (typically God’s “firstborn,” Exodus 4:22) into the land of Canaan. It should, perhaps, be noted that, though in Psalms 97:7 “angels” may not be perfectly exact as a rendering of the Hebrew Elohim, the verse so distinctly expresses the homage done to the King by superhuman powers, that its fitness for the argument here is obvious.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https: 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.
And again, etc
or, When he bringeth again. the first- begotten.
5; Proverbs 8:24,25; John 1:14,18; 3:16; Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15,18; 1 John 4:9; Revelation 1:5
And let
Deuteronomy 32:43; *Sept:; Psalms 97:7; Luke 2:9-14; 1 Peter 3:22; Revelation 5:9-12

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:

The Bible Study New Testament

When God was about to send. Chrysostom, Calvin, Bengel, Bruce, et. al, think this refers to the time when Jesus was born at Bethlehem. MacKnight thinks this refers to the Second Coming. Whatever time, it shows that Christ is superior to the angels, since they must worship him! A footnote on the NIV says this quotation is found: " Deuteronomy 32:43 (Septuagint, Dead Sea Scrolls); Psalm 97:7."

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "The Bible Study New Testament". https: College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Jesus was born of the virgin Mary, God directed all the angels to worship him. That word in the Greek New Testament comes from several different words, and has a variety of meanings, depending on the connection in which it is used. In the present passage it means to "do homage" or manifest great respect for one. There are myriads of angels, and all of them were told to render homage to the babe in Bethlehem. The argument the apostle is making is that if such great beings as the angels were commanded to acknowledge the superiority of the babe that was laid in a manger, He certainly is to be ascribed a great giver of law. (If angels worshipped the humble babe thus posed in the city of David, common mortals like us should regard it an honor to be permitted the act of worshiping him today, when He is sitting at his Father"s right hand, reigning as King of kings and Lord of lords.)

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https: 1952.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

And again...—There is a great difference of opinion with respect to the construction of the word rendered "again." It may be understood either as an additional proof of what had been asserted in verse5 , or it may refer to Christ being brought again into the world by His resurrection. The quotation is taken from Psalm 97 :, which is descriptive of the reign of Christ. During His humiliation he was made for a little while lower than the angels, being exposed to suffering and death; but when at His resurrection He was brought again into the world, all power in heaven and in earth was committed to Him, and all the angels of God were commanded to worship Him. The passage, therefore, appears to refer to His resurrection. In our version Psalm 97:7 is rendered "Worship him all ye gods;" but the expression is elliptical, and may be rendered "All ye angels of God."

Jesus is here termed the firstborn, or first- begotten, while personally distinct He is one with the Father. The firstborn had various privileges,—he had authority over his brethren. Hence the Lord said to Cain, after testifying his approbation of his brother's sacrifice, "Unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him." Genesis 4:7. God's accepting Abel's offering was not to interfere with Cain's superiority as the firstborn. Again, Jacob describes Reuben, his firstborn, as the excellency of dignity and the excellency of power. Genesis 49:3. This privilege was forfeited and transferred to Judah, of whom came the "chief ruler." 1 Chronicles 5 : Another privilege of the firstborn was a double portion. This, also, Reuben forfeited, and the privilege was transferred to Joseph, who was the father of two of the twelve tribes; while from each of Jacob's other sons sprang only one tribe. Another privilege was the priesthood, which was also forfeited by Reuben and bestowed on Levi.

Christ, as the firstborn in all things, had the preeminence; to Him every knee shall bow, of things in heaven and things on earth, and every tongue shall confess that He is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. The angels are all commanded to worship Him; He is exalted "far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come." Ephesians 1:21.

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Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:6". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". https: 1835.

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