Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Hebrews 10:29

How much severer punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled under foot the Son of God, and has regarded as unclean the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has insulted the Spirit of grace?
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Apostasy;   Backsliders;   Blasphemy;   Blood;   Holy Spirit;   Infidelity;   Jesus Continued;   Judgment;   Judgments;   Punishment;   Reprobacy;   Scoffing;   Types;   Wicked (People);   Scofield Reference Index - Apostasy;   Thompson Chain Reference - Christ;   Divinity;   Divinity-Humanity;   Eternal;   Everlasting;   Future State of the Wicked;   Future, the;   Holy Spirit;   Punishment;   Reward-Punishment;   Sin;   Son;   Spirit;   Unpardonable Sin;   Wicked, the;   The Topic Concordance - Forgiveness;   Holy Spirit;   Judges;   Punishment;   Sin;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Apostates;   Covenant, the;   Grace;   Hatred to Christ;   Offences against the Holy Spirit;   Paschal Lamb, Typical Nature of;   Titles and Names of the Holy Spirit;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Testament;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Apostacy;   Backsliding;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Apostasy;   Backsliding;   Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit;   Sin Unto Death;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Atonement;   Covenant;   Hell;   Peace;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Blood;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Lord's Supper;   Passover;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Covenant;   Grace;   Hebrews;   Perseverance;   Sanctification;   Security of the Believer;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Atonement;   Covenant;   Guilt;   Hebrews, Epistle to;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Atonement (2);   Blood;   Clean, Unclean, Common;   Death of Christ;   Foot;   Grace ;   Hebrews Epistle to the;   Holiness Purity;   Mediator;   Punishment;   Regeneration;   Sin;   Unpardonable Sin;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Sanctification;   41 Common Unclean Defiled Profane;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Christ;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Foot;   Unholy;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Hebrews;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Apostasy;   Despite;   Grace;   Justice;   Punishments;   Retribution;   Sanctification;   Wrath (Anger);  
Devotionals:
Chip Shots from the Ruff of Life - Devotion for December 24;   Every Day Light - Devotion for February 25;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Of how much sorer punishment - Such offenses were trifling in comparison of this, and in justice the punishment should be proportioned to the offense.

Trodden under foot the Son of God - Treated him with the utmost contempt and blasphemy.

The blood of the covenant - an unholy thing - The blood of the covenant means here the sacrificial death of Christ, by which the new covenant between God and man was ratified, sealed, and confirmed. And counting this unholy, or common, κοινον, intimates that they expected nothing from it in a sacrificial or atoning way. How near to those persons, and how near to their destruction, do they come in the present day who reject the atoning blood, and say, "that they expect no more benefit from the blood of Christ than they do from that of a cow or a sheep!" Is not this precisely the crime of which the apostle speaks here, and to which he tells us God would show no mercy?

Despite unto the Spirit of grace? - Hath insulted the Spirit of grace. The apostle means the Holy Spirit, whose gifts were bestowed in the first age on believers for the confirmation of the Gospel. See Hebrews 6:4-6. Wherefore, if one apostatized in the first age, after having been witness to these miraculous gifts, much more after having possessed them himself, he must, like the scribes and Pharisees, have ascribed them to evil spirits; than which a greater indignity could not be done to the Spirit of God. Macknight. This is properly the sin against the Holy Ghost, which has no forgiveness.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/hebrews-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy - That is, he who renounces Christianity ought to be regarded as deserving a much severer punishment than the man who apostatized from the Jewish religion, and if he ought to be so regarded he will be - for God will treat every man as he ought to be treated. This must refer to future punishment, for the severest punishment was inflicted on the apostate from the Jewish religion which can be in this world - death; and yet the apostle here says that a severer punishment than that would be deserved by him who should apostatize from the Christian faith. The reasons why so much severer punishment would be deserved, are such as these - the Author of the Christian system was far more exalted than Moses, the founder of the Jewish system; he had revealed more important truths; he had increased and confirmed the motives to holiness; he had furnished more means for leading a holy life; he had given himself as a sacrifice to redeem the soul from death, and he had revealed with far greater clearness the truth that there is a heaven of glory and of holiness. He who should apostatize from the Christian faith, the apostle goes on to say, would also be guilty of the most aggravated crime of which man could be guilty - the crime of trampling under foot the Son of God, of showing contempt for his holy blood. and despising the Spirit of grace.

Who hath trodden under foot the Son of God - This language is taken either from the custom of ancient conquerors who were accustomed to tread on the necks of their enemies in token of their being subdued, or from the fact that people tread on what they despise and contemn. The idea is, that he who should apostatize from the Christian faith would act as if he should indignantly and contemptuously trample on God‘s only Son. What crime could be more aggravated than this?

And hath counted the blood of the covenant - The blood of Jesus by which the new covenant between God and man was ratified; see the notes on Hebrews 9:16-20; compare the notes on Matthew 26:28.

Wherewith he was sanctified - Made holy, or set apart to the service of God. The word “sanctify” is used in both these senses. Prof. Stuart renders it, “by which expiation is made;” and many others, in accordance with this view, have supposed that it refers to the Lord Jesus. But it seems to me that it refers to the person who is here supposed to renounce the Christian religion, or to apostatize from it. The reasons for this are such as these:

(1)it is the natural and proper meaning of the word rendered here “sanctified.” This word is commonly applied to Christians in the sense that they are made holy; see Acts 20:32; Acts 26:18; 1 Corinthians 1:2; Jude 1:1; compare John 10:36; John 17:17.

(2)it is unusual to apply this word to the Saviour. It is true, indeed, that he says John 17:19, “for their sakes I sanctify myself,” but there is no instance in which he says that he was sanctified by his own blood. And where is there an instance in which the word is used as meaning “to make expiations?”

(3)the supposition that it refers to one who is here spoken of as in danger of apostasy, and not of the Lord Jesus, agrees with the scope of the argument. The apostle is showing the great guilt, and the certain destruction, of one who should apostatize from the Christian religion. In doing this it was natural to speak of the dishonor which would thus be done to the means which had been used for his sanctification - the blood of the Redeemer. It would be treating it as if it were a common thing, or as if it might be disregarded like anything else which was of no value.

An unholy thing - Greek common; often used in the sense of unholy. The word is so used because what was holy was separated from a common to a sacred use. What was not thus consecrated was free to all, or was for common use, and hence, also the word is used to denote what is unholy.

And hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace - The Holy Spirit, called “the Spirit of grace,” because he confers favor (grace) upon people. The meaning of the phrase “done despite unto” - ἐνυβρίσας enubrisas- is, “having reproached, or treated with malignity, or contempt.” The idea is, that if they were thus to apostatize, they would by such an act treat the Spirit of God with disdain and contempt. It was by him that they had been renewed; by him that they had been brought to embrace the Saviour and to love God; by him that they had any holy feelings or pure desires; and if they now apostatized from religion, such an act would be in fact treating the Holy Spirit with the highest indignity. It would be saying that all his influences were valueless, and that they needed no help from him. From such considerations, the apostle shows that if a true Christian were to apostatize, nothing would remain for him but the terrific prospect of eternal condemnation. He would have rejected the only Saviour; he would have in fact treated him with the highest indignity; he would have considered his sacred blood, shed to sanctify people, as a common thing, and would have shown the highest disregard for the only agent who can save the soul - the Spirit of God. How could such an one afterward be saved? The apostle does not indeed say that anyone ever would thus apostatize from the true religion, nor is there any reason to believe that such a case ever has occurred, but if it should occur the doom would be inevitable. How dangerous then is every step which would lead to such a precipice! And how strange and unscriptural the opinion held by so many that sincere Christians may “fall away” and be renewed, again and again!

(See the supplementary note on Hebrews 6:6. where certain principles are laid down, for the interpretation of this and similar passages, in consistency with the doctrine of the saints‘ perseverance. If that doctrine be maintained, and our author‘s view of the passage at the same be correct, then plainly it contains an impossible case. It is descriptive of real Christians, yet they never can fall away. The utility of the warning, in this case, may indeed successfully be vindicated, on the ground that it is the means of preventing apostasy in the saints, the means by which the decree of God in reference to their stability is effected. Most, however, will incline to the view which regards this case, as something more than imaginary, as possible, as real. The warning is addressed to professors generally, without any attempt of distinguishing or separating into true or false. Doubtless there might be some even of the latter class in the churches whose members the apostles, presuming on their professed character, addressed as “saints, “elect,” and “faithful,” without distinction.

Of course, in consistency with the doctrine of perseverance only the “false,” in whom the “root of the matter” had never existed, could apostatize; yet at the same time, when no distinction was made, when the apostle made none, but addressed all in the language of charity, when Christians themselves might find it difficult at all times to affirm decidedly on their own case, universal vigilance was secured, or at all events designed. But is not the party whose apostasy is here supposed, described by two attributes which belong to none but genuine Christians, namely, the “reception of the knowledge of the truth,” and “sanctification through the blood of the covenant?” The answer which has been given to this question is generally, that neither of these things necessarily involves more than external dedication to God. The first is parallel to the “once enlightened” of Hebrews 6:4, and of course admits of the same explanation; see supplementary note there.

The second thing, namely, the sanctification of the party “is not real or internal sanctification, and all the disputes concerning the total and final apostasy from the faith of them who have been really and internally sanctified from this place, are altogether vain. As at the giving of the Law, the people being sprinkled with blood, were sanctified or dedicated to God in a special manner, so those who, by baptism and confession of faith in the church of Christ, were separated from all others were especially dedicated to God thereby.” - “Owen.” Yet, this eminent writer is rather disposed to adopt the opinion of those who construe, ἐν ᾡ ἡγιασθη en hō hēgiasthēwith the immediate antecedent, τον Υἱον του Θεου ton Huion tou Theouthus referring the sanctification to Christ, and not to the apostate; see John 17:19. Whichever of these views we receive, the great doctrine of perseverance is, of course, unaffected. In reference to an objection which the author has urged that “the sentiment (in the Hebrews 10:26 and Hebrews 10:27 verses) would not be correct, if it referred to any but true Christians,” let it be noticed that while many may be saved, who have long resisted the Spirit, yet the assertion must appear hazardous in the extreme, that any can be saved, who do all that the apostate in this passage is alleged to do. The sin described seems to be that of a determined, insulting, final rejection of the only remedy for sin.)

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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/hebrews-10.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

Of how much sorer punishment, think ye, shall he be judged worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant wherewith he was sanctified an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?

There are two directions one's thoughts may take in reference to this verse. The extremely powerful language used to describe the apostate has led some to suppose that only the most shameful and incorrigibly wicked are included in the author's thoughts. Thus, Thomas affirms that "It is obvious that this is no case of ordinary backsliding, but, as in Hebrews 6, of willful and persistent apostasy."[37] On the other hand, there may be another intention of these holy words, namely, to show what dreadful guilt attaches to such ordinary lapses as forsaking the assembly or neglect of the Lord's Supper. Only a moment before this verse, the author had mentioned that very kind of failure on the part of some; and though not implied that an occasional or isolated instance of such failure could call forth such a proscription as this, it may very likely be intended that persistent and habitual neglect of such sacred duties may be accurately described as trampling the Son of God under foot and insulting the Spirit of grace. The demand for this understanding of the warning is inherent in the fact that one must look to the sins of the people whom this epistle was addressed in order to identify the condition described; and what were those sins? A neglect of Christian duty, lack of diligence in study, forsaking the assembly, and a tendency to revert to their old religion - those were the sins which were under consideration; and such were not the sins of reprobates, debauchers, or scoundrels, but the sins of "nice people"! - nice people who did not realize that their indifference and dalliance were not minor but major departures from the path of duty and that they were in deadly danger from such conduct. If the attitude of millions today may be taken as example of the same sins they committed, it is probable that they did not realize that their wrongs were of any serious consequence. For us, as well as for them, excuses are plentiful; cares, riches, and pleasures require a dreadful preoccupation of most; and it becomes quite easy to view the kind of spiritual lapse in view here as trivial, especially since it violates no law, is in fact customary for millions, and hardly viewed as sinful at all by the vast majority. But may God help Christians to remember that as custodians of the Light of all nations, their utmost endeavor is the least required of them, for their lives are forfeit to this task above all others that the lamp of truth be held aloft in the darkness of human sin and transgression. Any carelessness or preventable inattention, any conscious neglect of Christian duty shall certainly bring upon the offender a mountainous load of blood-guiltiness. When people who are generally supposed to be Christians live lives that lead others to despise the truth, they stand in the same condemnation as the Pharisees who did not enter the kingdom themselves nor allow others to do so.

Trodden under foot here translates a Greek word used by Matthew for heartless and totally indifferent action. Bristol says:

The verb is used by Jesus of the useless salt cast out and trodden under foot (Matthew 5:13) and of the perils of being trampled down by swine (Matthew 7:6). Here it denotes that the sinner rejects the Son of God completely and brutally.[38]

It is easy to take the penalties of neglect, and other so-called milder sins, as stated in this verse, and from the practical RESULT of such sins, impute to those that committed them "brutality," "harshness," and even reprobacy, as Bristol does both here and in the quotation below. This actually avoids the point of the exhortation, namely, that neglecting the assembly, absence from the Lord's table, indifference, and impiety - these things are said to make common the blood of Jesus, trample Christ under foot, and insult the Holy Spirit. Of course, this is the same manner of interpretation that imputes all manner of sins to the rich man at whose gate Lazarus lay. It is alleged that he had acquired his wealth dishonestly, that he was a drunkard, and that he even kicked Lazarus! The human mind finds it hard to believe that respectable people will be lost. It is in this tradition that commentators assign much worse sins to those ancient Hebrew Christians than any they committed.

The blood of the covenant ... an unholy thing refers to a lack of appreciation of the blood of Christ, making it "common" (see Greek, English Revised Version (1885) margin). How does one make the blood of Jesus common? By his indifference to it, by responding to it not at all, or half-heartedly, by neglecting to enter by means of the access provided through it, or, in short, either by non-Christian or anti-Christian conduct.

Wherewith he was sanctified is further evidence that the people addressed in Hebrews, and with such a powerful exhortation, were true Christians, as far as previous experience was concerned, and that they were not merely those "superficially" associated with Christianity. This poses so great a difficulty that translators and commentators alike often resort to radical devices in a vain attempt to remove it. Hewitt said, "The omission of the words `wherewith he was sanctified' by the Codex Alexandrinus was most probably due to an attempt to avoid this difficulty."[39] The difficulty, of course, is the sad, unwelcome fact, and one almost unbelievable, that even after one is a true and devoted Christian, enjoying all the privileges of salvation, even "sanctified" as in this verse, that even then such a person can defect from the Lord and lose his soul. All efforts to alter this fact, whether by tampering with the text of scripture or by explanations that deny the text, should be rejected. As an example of the latter, take Bristol's words concerning the passage here. Of course, they are true, at least on the surface; but they nevertheless fail to present one vital and overwhelming truth of God's word in these verses. He said:

(Regarding "hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace") The verb contains the thought of violent self-assertion and arrogance. Through his Spirit, God offers his love in action for man's redemption. But the defiant sinner thinks that he does not need this help in his life. His rejection is harsh and brutal.[40]

It is in that last sentence of Bristol's words that the common fallacy comes to light. What about the sinner who is not "harsh and brutal" but who rather reluctantly turns away from the fountain of grace, as did the rich young ruler (Mark 10)? How about him who is merely too busy with this life to concern himself with another? What about the man who simply never has time to think about it, after the first blush of his conversion is past? What of the soul which merely drifts away from it? It is the solemn conviction of this student that such conduct on the part of men, however good they may be in the ordinary sense, and however justified by the customs of a permissive society - that such conduct is not merely deplorable but GUILTY. The verse at hand calls such behavior by its proper labels; it is a trampling under foot the Son of God, making the blood of Jesus common, and insulting the Spirit of grace.

[37] W. H. Griffith Thomas, op. cit., p. 136.

[38] Lyle O. Bristol, Hebrews, A Commentary (Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: The Judson Press, 1967), p. 134.

[39] Thomas Hewitt, The Epistle to the Hebrews (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1960), p. 167.

[40] Ibid., p. 135.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/hebrews-10.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Of how much sorer punishment,.... Than a mere corporeal death, which was the punishment inflicted on the transgressors of the law of Moses.

Suppose ye; the apostle appeals to the Hebrews themselves, and makes them judges of what punishment

shall he be thought worthy; who is described as follows:

who hath trodden under foot the Son of God: this seems to be a stronger expression than crucifying him again, Hebrews 6:6 and is to be understood, not of what was in fact committed, but in will by persons; who, could they have had their will of him, would have pulled him from his throne, and trampled upon him: it is a phrase expressive of the utmost scorn, contempt, and ill usage; and which such are guilty of, who deny his deity, and eternal sonship; who render him useless in his offices, undervalue his sacrifice, despise his righteousness, and strip him of the glory of his person, office, and grace. And this is aggravated by his being the Son of God who is thus used, who became the son of man for the sake of men, is superior to men, and equal with God:

and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing; or "common thing"; putting it upon a level with the blood of a bullock, or at most counting it איך דכלנש, "as that of another man"; as the Syriac version renders it; yea, reckoning it as unclean and abominable, as the blood of a very wicked man: this is aggravated by its being "the blood of the covenant"; of the covenant of grace, because that is ratified and confirmed by it, and the blessings of it come through it; and from sanctification by it: either of the person, the apostate himself, who was sanctified or separated from others by a visible profession of religion; having given himself up to a church, to walk with it in the ordinances of the Gospel; and having submitted to baptism, and partook of the Lord's supper, and drank of the cup, "the blood of the New Testament", or "covenant": though he did not spiritually discern the body and blood of Christ in the ordinance, but counted the bread and wine, the symbols of them, as common things; or who professed himself, and was looked upon by others, to be truly sanctified by the Spirit, and to be justified by the blood of Christ, though he was not really so: or rather the Son of God himself is meant, who was sanctified, set apart, hallowed, and consecrated, as Aaron and his sons were sanctified by the sacrifices of slain beasts, to minister in the priest's office: so Christ, when he had offered himself, and shed his precious blood, by which the covenant of grace was ratified, by the same blood he was brought again from the dead, and declared to be the Son of God with power; and being set down at God's right hand, he ever lives to make intercession, which is the other part of his priestly office he is sanctified by his own blood to accomplish. This clause, "wherewith he was sanctified", is left out in the Alexandrian copy:

and hath done despite unto the spirit of grace; by denying his being, deity, and personality; despising his powerful operations as enthusiasm; treating his extraordinary gifts as illusions; and ascribing his miracles to Satan, and representing the Gospel dictated by him as a fable, or a lie: and this is aggravated by his being "the spirit of grace"; the author, giver, and applier of all grace to the saints; and who therefore ought not to be in the least slighted, but highly esteemed and honoured; nor will such affronts go unpunished.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/hebrews-10.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

sorerGreek, “worse,” namely, “punishment” (literally, “vengeance”) than any mere temporal punishment of the body.

suppose ye — an appeal to the Hebrews‘ reason and conscience.

thought worthy — by God at the judgment.

trodden under foot the Son of God — by “willful” apostasy. So he treads under foot God Himself who “glorified His Son as an high priest” (Hebrews 5:5; Hebrews 6:6).

an unholy thing — literally, “common,” as opposed to “sanctified.” No better than the blood of a common man, thus involving the consequence that Christ, in claiming to be God, was guilty of blasphemy, and so deserved to die!

wherewith he was sanctified — for Christ died even for him. “Sanctified,” in the fullest sense, belongs only to the saved elect. But in some sense it belongs also to those who have gone a far way in Christian experience, and yet fall away at last. The higher such a one‘s past Christian experiences, the deeper his fall.

done despite unto — by repelling in fact: as “blasphemy” is despite in words (Mark 3:29). “Of the Jews who became Christians and relapsed to Judaism, we find from the history of Uriel Acosta, that they required a blasphemy against Christ. ‹They applied to Him epithets used against Molech the adulterous branch,‘ etc.” [Tholuck].

the Spirit of grace — the Spirit that confers grace. “He who does not accept the benefit, insults Him who confers it. He hath made thee a son: wilt thou become a slave? He has come to take up His abode with thee; but thou art introducing evil into thyself” [Chrysostom]. “It is the curse of evil eternally to propagate evil: so, for him who profanes the Christ without him, and blasphemes the Christ within him, there is subjectively no renewal of a change of mind (Hebrews 6:6), and objectively no new sacrifice for sins” (Hebrews 10:26) [Tholuck].

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/hebrews-10.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

How much (ποσωιposōi). Instrumental case of degree or measure. An argument from the less to the greater, “the first of Hillel‘s seven rules for exegesis” (Moffatt).

Think ye (δοκειτεdokeite). An appeal to their own sense of justice about apostates from Christ.

Sorer
(χειρονοςcheironos). “Worse,” comparative of κακοςkakos (bad).

Punishment
(τιμωριαςtimōrias). Genitive case with αχιωτησεταιaxiōthēsetai (first future passive of αχιοωaxioō to deem worthy). The word τιμωριαtimōria originally meant vengeance. Old word, in lxx, only here in N.T.

Who hath trodden under foot the Son of God
(ο τον υιον του τεου καταπατησαςho ton huion tou theou katapatēsas). First aorist active articular participle of καταπατεωkatapateō old verb (Matthew 5:13) for scornful neglect like Zechariah 12:3. See same idea in Hebrews 6:6.

Wherewith he was sanctified
(εν ωι ηγιαστηen hōi hēgiasthē). First aorist passive indicative of αγιαζωhagiazō It is an unspeakable tragedy that should warn every follower of Christ not to play with treachery to Christ (cf. Hebrews 6:4-8).

An unholy thing
(κοινονkoinon). Common in the sense of uncleanness as Peter used it in Acts 10:14. Think of one who thus despises “the blood of Christ wherewith he was sanctified.” And yet there are a few today who sneer at the blood of Christ and the gospel based on his atoning sacrifice as “a slaughter house” religion!

Hath done despite
(ενυβρισαςenubrisas). First aorist active participle of ενυβριζωenubrizō old verb to treat with contumely, to give insult to, here only in the N.T. It is a powerful word for insulting the Holy Spirit after receiving his blessings (Hebrews 6:4).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/hebrews-10.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Of how much ( πόσῳ )

Not qualifying χείρονος sorerbut the whole clause: “by how much think ye shall he be thought worthy of sorer punishment.”

Punishment ( τιμωρίας )

N.T.oOccasionally in lxx, frequent in Class. Originally assistance; assistance to one who has been wronged; punishment. With no sense of chastisement. It is purely retributive.

Trodden under foot ( καταπατήσας )

Only here in Hebrews. oP. Frequent in lxx for spoiling, defeating, treating contemptuously. The strong term is purposely selected in order to convey the sense of the fearful outrage involved in forsaking Christ and returning to Judaism.

Hath counted an unholy thing ( κοινὸν ἡγησάμενος )

Ἡγεῖσθαι tocount or deem means a conscious judgment resting on a deliberate weighing of the facts. See Romans 12:10; Philippians 2:3. Here it implies a deliberate, contemptuous rejection of the gifts of the new covenant. The fundamental idea of κοινὸς is shared by all, public. Thus Acts 2:44; Acts 4:32; Titus 1:4; Judges 1:3. Out of this grows the idea of not sacred; not set apart for particular uses by purification, and so (ceremonially) unclean or defiled, as Mark 7:2, Mark 7:5; Acts 10:14, Acts 10:28; Acts 11:8. In these cases it is not implied that the thing is defiled or filthy in itself, but only unclean through the absence of that which would set it apart. Comp. Romans 14:14. Here the word admits of two explanations: (1) that Christ's blood was counted common, having no more sacred character or specific worth than the blood of any ordinary person; (2) that in refusing to regard Christ's blood as that of an atoner and redeemer, it was implied that his blood was unclean as being that of a transgressor. The former seems preferable. There was no specific virtue in Christ's blood as blood; but a peculiar and unique virtue attached to it as the offering of his eternal spirit (Hebrews 9:14), as the blood shed in ratification of a sacred covenant established by God, and as having sanctifying virtue. This view is further justified by the combination of blood and spirit, as sources of sanctification allied in the writer's mind.

Hath done despite unto the spirit of grace ( καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος ἐνυβρίσας )

Ἐνυβρίζειν toinsult, N.T.oThe simple verb ὑβρίζειν in Matthew, Luke, Acts, and Pastorals. It will be observed that the work of the Holy Spirit does not receive in this epistle the emphasis which marks it in some other portions of the N.T.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/hebrews-10.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?

Of how much sorer punishment is he worthy, who — By wilful, total apostasy. It does not appear that this passage refers to any other sin. Hath, as it were, trodden underfoot the Son of God - A lawgiver far more honourable than Moses. And counted the blood wherewith the better covenant was established, an unholy, a common, worthless thing. By which he hath been sanctified - Therefore Christ died for him also, and he was at least justified once.

And done despite to the Spirit of grace — By rejecting all his motions.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/hebrews-10.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Кто попирает Сына Божия. Отступники от закона и отступники от Евангелия схожи в том, что и те, и другие должны погибнуть без всякого милосердия. Однако вид этой погибели различен. Ибо презрителям Христовым апостол грозит не только телесной смертью, но и вечным осуждением. Посему он говорит, что последних ожидает худшая казнь. Он изображает отрекшегося от христианства тремя фразами: отступник попирает Сына Божия, профанирует Его кровь иоскорбляет Духа благодати. Попирать же – более тяжкое преступление, чем отвергать. И достоинство Христово много превышает достоинство Моисея. Добавь к этому, что апостол противопоставляет не просто Евангелие закону, но Христа и Святого Духа – Моисею.

Кровь завета. Апостол подчеркивает неблагодарность отступников, сравнивая два вида благодеяний. Весьма преступно профанировать кровь Христову, средство нашего освящения. Но это делают те, кто отходит от веры. Ведь вера наша взирает не на голое учение, но на кровь, узаконившую наше спасение. Посему апостол называет ее кровью завета. Ибо обетования становятся действительными для нас лишь тогда, когда добавляется этот залог. Говоря же о нашем освящении, апостол имеет в виду способ подтверждения завета. Ведь пролитая кровь не принесла бы никакой пользы, если бы не оросила нас через Святой Дух. Отсюда проистекает и прощение грехов, и святость. Одновременно апостол намекает на древний обряд окропления, неспособный произвести истинное освящение, но являющийся его образом или тенью.

Духа благодати. Апостол называет Дух Духом благодати, исходя из Его воздействия, в силу которого мы принимаем предложенную нам во Христе благодать. Ведь именно Дух просвещает наш разум верою, запечатлевает усыновление Божие в наших сердцах, возрождает нас к новой жизни, прививает нас к телу Христову, дабы Он жил в нас, и мы жили в Нем. Посему заслуженно зовется Духом благодати тот Дух, через Которого Христос становится нашим со всеми Своими благами. Значит, оскорблять Того, от Кого мы получаем столькие и столь великие благодеяния, – весьма преступное нечестие. Отсюда вывод: Духа Святого оскорбляют все те, кто сознательно делает напрасной полученную от Него благодать. Так что ничего удивительного в том, что Бог столь сурово карает подобное святотатство. Ничего удивительного, если Он выказывает Себя неумолимым к тем, кто попирает ногами Посредника Христа, единственного Просителя за нас перед Богом. Ничего удивительного, если Бог закрывает путь спасения перед теми, кто отталкивает Духа Святого, единственного вождя на этом пути.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/hebrews-10.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

Spirit of grace

Grace (in salvation). 1 Peter 1:10; 1 Peter 1:13; Romans 3:24

(See Scofield "John 1:17").

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Hebrews 10:29". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/hebrews-10.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

29 Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?

Ver. 29. Who hath trodden under foot] Respecting him no more than the vilest and filthiest dirt in the street, or the most abject thing iu the world, as Ambrose expounds it; he disdains to receive benefit by Christ’s propitiatory and expiatory sacrifice, he would not if he might, he is so Satanized. King Henry VI, going against Richard Duke of York (that ambitious rebel), offered them a general pardon. (Speed, 898.) This was rejected by them, and called "A staff of reed," or "glass-buckler." In Ket’s conspiracy, when King Edward VI’s pardon was offered to the rebels by a herald, a lewd boy turned toward him his naked posteriors, and used words suitable to that gesture. (Sir John Hayward.) Desperate apostates deal as coarsely with Christ; they hold him for a scorn, as an offender that is carted, Hebrews 6:6.

The blood of the covenant] That is, the blood of Christ, whereby the covenant is sealed, the Church purchased, the atonement procured, and heaven opened for our more happy entrance.

Wherewith he was sanctified] By external profession, and by participation of the sacraments.

An unholy thing] Gr. A common profane thing, as if it were the blood of a common thief, or unhallowed person, yea, or of a dead dog. In the Passover they sprinkled the door and lintel with blood, but not the threshold, to teach them that they must not tread upon the blood of Jesus, as they do in a high degree that sin against the Holy Ghost.

And hath done despite, &c.] Spitting at him their hellish venom, persecuting and blaspheming his immediate effect, work, and office; and this out of desperate malice and desire of revenge, without any colour of cause or measure of dislike. One that had committed this sin, wished that his wife and children and all the world might be damned together with him.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/hebrews-10.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Hebrews 10:29. Who hath trodden under foot, &c.— Treading under foot, in general, is a mark of contempt, or of setting no value upon what is so treated. Hence it is applied to signify despising or not valuing the gospel of Christ. The next clause means, "And has looked upon the blood of Christ, wherewith he was separated from the world, admitted into covenant with God, and made one of his peculiar people, as a thing of no value or consequence; but as common, and not separated or designed for any peculiar or sacred purpose." Christ's blood was shed to make us a separate people from the world, holy, zealous of good works. Holy and common, or pure and common, in the Greek, are opposed to each other. A man is sanctified, or made holy, when he is brought into covenant with God, by being separated from sin and the world. He is deemed impure, unholy, common, profane, when he is not in covenant with God. Such a treatment of the blood of Christ as above described, offers the most contemptuous injury to the Spirit of grace, by whose miraculous and saving operations the truth of the gospel is demonstrated to such a degree, that the highest blasphemy against him must virtually be expressed by such a conduct as we here suppose.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/hebrews-10.html. 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

29.] of how much worse punishment (though τιμωρία does not elsewhere occur in the N. T., we have the verb, Acts 22:5; Acts 26:11), think ye ( δοκεῖτε stands separate from the construction, and forms an appeal to the judgment of the readers themselves), shall he be found worthy (viz. by God. The participle is in the aor., as pointing to the single fact of the doom, not to a continued estimate), who trampled under foot (aor. part. as spoken at that day, and looking back upon this life. τί δέ ἐστι καταπατήσας; τουτέστι καταφρονήσας· ὥσπερ γὰρ τῶν καταπατουμένων οὐδένα λόγον ἔχομεν, οὕτω καὶ τοῦ χριστοῦ μηδένα λόγον ἔχοντες οὕτως ἐπὶ τὸ ἁμαρτάνειν ἐρχόμεθα. Thl. See reff., and cf. John 13:18. Stier remarks, “Some of us remember the cry, ‘Ecrasez I’infame!’ ”) the Son of God (the higher title of the Mediator of the new covenant is used, to heighten the enormity of the crime), and accounted common the blood of the covenant (the αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης, being the τίμιον αἷμα of Christ Himself, far above all blood of sprinkling under the old covenant. Even that (Leviticus 16:19) had hallowing power: how much more this. But the apostate κοινὸν ἡγήσατο this blood—accounted it mere ordinary blood of a common man, and if so, consented to its shedding, for then Christ deserved to die as a blasphemer. And this, of that holy Blood, by which we have access to God! So that we have quite enough for the solemn sense, by rendering κοινόν common, without going to the further meaning, unclean. Chrys. gives both meanings: κοινόν, τί ἐστι; τὸ ἀκάθαρτον, ἢ τὸ μηδὲν πλέον ἔχον τῶν λοιπῶν: Œc., κοινόν, τὸ μηδὲν τῶν ἄλλων διαφέρον, οἷον λέγουσιν οἱ φάσκοντες αὐτὸν ψιλὸν ἄνθρωπον· οὗτοι γὰρ οὐδὲν τοῦ ἡμετέρου διαλλάττον εἰς τιμὴν λέγουσιν αὐτό: Beza compares 1 Corinthians 11:29, μὴ διακρίνων τὸ σῶμα: and Bretschneider quotes Justin Mart. Apol. i. 66, p. 83, οὐ γὰρ ὡς κοινὸν ἄρτον οὐδὲ κοινὸν πόμα ταῦτα λαμβάνομεν. Cf. Acts 10:28, ἐμοὶ ὁ θεὸς ἔδειξεν μηδένα κοινὸν ἢ ἀκάθαρτον λέγειν ἄνθρωπον, where the two are distinguished. Syr. has “hath counted the blood of the covenant of him by which (whom?) he hath been sanctified as that of every man.” The reader will recall our Lord’s own τὸ αἷμα τὸ τῆς κ. διαθήκης, cf. ref. Matt. (57) Mark. See also our ch. Hebrews 13:20) in which (as sprinkled with which; as his element and condition of sanctification) he was sanctified (see Leviticus 16:19 LXX, and our ch. Hebrews 13:12 and Hebrews 9:13. He had advanced so far in the reality of the spiritual life, that this blood had been really applied to his heart by faith, and its hallowing and purifying effects were visible in his life: which makes the contrast the more terrible. And Delitzsch finely remarks, as against the assertors of mere shallow supralapsarianism, that without former experience of grace, without a life of faith far more than superficial, so irrecoverable a fall into the abyss is not possible. It is worthy of remark how Calvin evades the deep truth contained in the words ἐν ᾧ ἡγιάσθη: “Valde indignum est sanguinem Christi, qui sanctificationis nostræ materia est, profanare: hoc vero faciunt, qui desciscunt a fide:” thus making ἡγιάσθη into ἁγιαζόμεθα. Lightfoot’s idea, that Christ is the subject of ἡγιάσθη, is hardly worth refutation (Hor. Hebr. in 1 Corinthians 11:29): as neither is that of Claudius, in Wolf, that διαθήκη is the subject), and insulted ( ἐνυβρίζω, in prose, belongs to later Greek: but is found in the poets, e. g. Eur. Electr. 68, ἐν τοῖς ἐμοῖς οὐκ ἐνυβρίσας κακοῖς: Aristoph. Thesm. 719, τάχʼ οὐ χαίρων ἴσως ἐνυβρίσεις: Soph. Philoct. 342, with an accus. as here, πρᾶγμʼ ὅτῳ σʼ ἐνύβρισαν. In prose it is found in Ælian, Polybius, Herodian, Josephus, principally with a dative of the object) the Spirit of grace (for τὸ πν. τῆς χάριτος, see ref. No two things can be more opposed, as Del. remarks, than ὕβρις and χάρις. And this remark guides us to the answer to the question whether χάριτος here is a gen. objective or subjective: whether it is the πνεῦμα which belongs to χάρις, so that it is the gift of the divine χάρις (so Grot., Schlicht., De W., Bleek, Lünem., and most of the moderns), or χάρις which belongs to πνεῦμα, so that it is the gift of and the character of the πνεῦμα. The latter is adopted by Calv., Estius, a-Lapide, Justiniani (altern., but prefers it. He gives the alternative very neatly put by Pseudo-Anselm: “Spiritui sancto gratis dato, vel gratiam danti”), Beza, Owen, al., Böhme, Von Gerlach, Delitzsch, al., and is much the more probable, both on account of the prophecy which is referred to, ἐκχεῶπνεῦμα χάριτος κ. οἰκτιρμοῦ,—and on account of ἐνυβρίσας, which is most naturally referred to a Person as its object. Chrys. strikingly says, ὁ τὴν εὐεργεσίαν μὴ παραδεχόμενος, ὕβρισε τὸν εὐεργετήσαντα. ἐποίησέ σε υἱόν· σὺ δὲ θέλεις γενέσθαι δοῦλος; ἦλθε κατασκηνῶσαι πρός σε· σὺ δὲ ἐπεισάγεις σαυτῷ πονηροὺς λογισμούς. He does not hold with any definiteness that apostasy is here meant, but applies the whole text homiletically to wilful sin of any kind. Thl., in reproducing Chrys.’s sentence, puts τὸν διάβολον for πονηροὺς λογισμούς)?

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/hebrews-10.html. 1863-1878.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Hebrews 10:29. Of how much more severe punishment, think ye, will he be counted worthy, who, etc.

With δοκεῖτε the author leaves the decision to the readers, inasmuch as on the question how this will be given, no doubt whatever can prevail.

ἀξιωθήσεται] sc. by God at the judgment.

τιμωρία in the N. T. only here.

καταπατήσας] who has trodden under foot, as though it were a contemptible, useless thing. A strong expression. Designation of the bold contemning and insulting of Him who is nevertheless the Son of God, and with whom one has become personally acquainted as the Redeemer.

τὸ αἶμα τῆς διαθήκης] the blood of the covenant, i.e. the blood which Christ shed for the sealing of the New Covenant for the redemption of mankind. Comp. Hebrews 9:15 ff.

κοινόν] either: as common, ordinary blood, not distinguished in any respect from other blood (Peshito, Oecumenius, Theophylact, Clarius, Beza, Schlichting, Bengel, Schulz, Stuart, Bleek, Stein, de Wette, Bloomfield, Bisping, Delitzsch, Alford, and others), or—what is better, because stronger, and on that account more in accord with the other statements—as impure (Vulgate, Luther, Grotius, Carpzov, Michaelis, Chr. Fr. Schmid, Storr, Böhme, Tholuck, Ebrard, Riehm, Lehrbegr. des Hebräerbr. p. 769; Maier, Moll, Kurtz, and others), i.e. as the blood of a transgressor, which Christ must be, if He was not the Son of God and the Redeemer.

ἐν ἡγιάσθη] contrasting addition to κοινὸν ἡγησάμενος, and paronomasia: by the communion with which he was nevertheless sanctified, or: the sanctifying efficacy of which he has nevertheless felt in his own person.

καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος ἐνυβρίσας] and has done despite to the Spirit of Grace, sc. by scorn and mockery of the wondrous unfolding of that Spirit’s power in the life of the Christians. The compound form ἐνυβρίζειν τινί or τί, found, apart from the poets (Soph. Phil. 342), only with the later Greeks. In the N. T. a ἅπαξ λεγόμενον.

τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος] the Holy Spirit, who is a gift of the divine grace.

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/hebrews-10.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Hebrews 10:29. χείρονος) which is worse and more horrible than any punishment of the body.— ) i.e. he who most atrociously sins against GOD, whose Son is the Priest, ch. Hebrews 5:5, and against the Son, whose own blood is the blood of the New Testament, and against the Holy Spirit, who is the Spirit of grace. A man of this sort retracts the whole form and confession of his baptism, and rejects the whole economy of the New Testament; comp. Hebrews 6:6, note.— καταπατήσας, who has trodden) whereas he ought to adore. But he who sins spontaneously, treads under foot, as it is described at Hebrews 10:26.— τῆς διαθήκης) of the testament, that is, the better testament or covenant which GOD has made.— κοινὸν, common) as if it were the blood of a mere man, common or even guilty. The antithesis is, he was sanctified.— ἡγησάμενος, and has counted) without discernment; comp. 1 Corinthians 11:29.— ἐν ἡγιάσθη, by which he was sanctified) Therefore Christ died even for such a man as this. The same word is used concerning the redeemed, Hebrews 10:10; Hebrews 10:14, ch. Hebrews 2:11 (where they are distinguished from the Redeemer, who sanctifies); ch. Hebrews 13:12, where mention is likewise made of the blood.— τῆς χάριτος, of grace) See note on Hebrews 10:26.— ἐνυβρίσας, and has treated insultingly, [and hath done despite to]) by repelling Him. Insult or despite is done by deeds; blasphemy is vented by words: comp. 1 Timothy 1:13, note. Where blasphemy is added, the guilt is in the very worst degree aggravated; Mark 3:29.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/hebrews-10.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Of how much sorer punishment: the expostulation aggravates both the sin and the punishment in the consequent on the former assertion; a punishment heavier, bitterer, sorer, more grievous, and unexpressibly greater, than death.

Suppose ye; you yourselves being judges, to whom I appeal about it; what can you suppose, think, or determine of it?

Shall he be thought worthy; doth he fully deserve, and is liable to, by the judgment of man, but much more by the righteous and inexorable judgment of God?

Who hath trodden underfoot the Son of God; who sinneth at a higher rate than a Jew against Moses’s law, being an apostate from the gospel, a revolter from and a rebel against it, discovering it by as much as in him lieth, tearing from his throne God the Son incarnate, and treading him under his feet, wickedly undervaluing and horribly vilifying him, treating him with the greatest contempt that can be expressed by such an action, as if he were the vilest malefactor. A person so much greater and more excellent than Moses, to be so used; so as, if he were here on earth, he would tread him (who is higher than the heavens, and had done and suffered so much for him) as the dust and dirt under his feet; and this by a contemptuous forsaking his church assemblies, wherein he was set out in all his excellencies.

And hath counted the blood of the covenant an unholy thing; accounting and so deserting the blood of Christ, (which ratified the everlasting covenant of grace, by whose virtue was made unalterable, firm, and effectual in all the promises of it of pardon, righteousness, holiness, grace, and glory, unto penitent believing sinners), as either the common blood of men, or the blood of a malefactor, to have not so much excellency in it as the blood of bulls, or goats, or rams, or birds, under the law; as not sanctifying souls, but polluted.

Wherewith he was sanctified; en w hgiasyh, in or by which he was sanctified, is by most interpreters referred to the apostate, as aggravating his sin, to despise that blood by which he thought he was so, and boasted of it, and was so reputed by the church upon his baptism and profession of his faith, and, as a member of the church, had a visible relation to it, partaking of those ordinances wherein its fruits were conveyed, and enjoying the external privileges purchased by it. Others refer it unto Christ himself, the blood whereby he was consecrated to God as a holy sacrifice, John 17:19. All this was discovered by his forsaking the church assembly, wherein this was declared to be the only way and means to justification of life and salvation.

And hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace; injuring, wronging, despising, greatly grieving, not a creature, but God the Spirit, the quickening Spirit of dead sinners, who fits them for union to God, and in order to it, uniteth him to Christ and his God, animateth it; who graciously communicated to these apostates the knowledge natural and supernatural which they had and abused, Hebrews 6:5, by the desertion of the assemblies, where he manifested his gifts and graces. They reject him with them, and treat his gifts and motions as if they were the delusions and impostures of an evil spirit; and this wilfully done out of malice to Christ, and abhorrence of his church and religion. A sin like the devil’s, for them to forsake God loving, Christ redeeming, his blood justifying, his Spirit renewing, and so wilfully refuse to be saved, and expose themselves to the severest punishment God can inflict on such sinners, and they do deserve.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/hebrews-10.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

сколь тягчайшемунаказанию В аду будут применяться различные степени наказания. Это также ясно указано в Мф. 11:22-24 (см. пояснение там же).

попирает На Ближнем Востоке в древности одним из жестов, выражающих презрение к кому-либо, было «занести ногу» на кого-то или против кого-то (ср. Пс. 40:10). Наступить на кого-то или на что-то было еще более сильным жестом, показывающим полное презрение (ср. 4Цар. 9:33; Ис. 14:19; Мих. 7:10; Зах. 10:5). В этом случае такое поведение показывает полное отречение от Христа как от Спасителя и Господа.

не почитает за святыню Считать кровь Христа чем-то обыкновенным равнозначно утверждению, что она не чиста (см. пояснение к 9:13), т. е. подразумевать, что Христос был грешником и нечистой жертвой. Такие мысли – настоящая ересь.

Кровь завета См. пояснения к 9:14, 15. Со смертью Христа начался и утвердился Новый Завет.

освящен Это относится ко Христу и обозначает, что Он был отделен Богом (ср. Ин. 17:19). Это не может относиться к отступнику, так как только истинные верующие освящены (см. во Введении: Проблемы толкования).

Духа благодати оскорбляет См. пояснения к 6:4 и 9:14.Тот же самый титул употреблен в Зах. 12:10. Отрицание Христа оскорбляет Дух, Который действовал через Него (Мф. 12:31, 32), и Который свидетельствовал о Нем (Ин. 15:26; 16:8-11).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/hebrews-10.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

He be thought worthy; who has been set apart to the service of Christ, and yet treats him as a vile malefactor, and despitefully spurns the blessed influences of his Spirit.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/hebrews-10.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘Of how much sorer punishment, do you think, will he be judged worthy, who has trodden under foot the Son of God, and has counted the blood of the covenant with which he was sanctified (or ‘by which there was sanctification’) an unholy thing, and has shown wanton arrogance to the Spirit of grace?’

How much sorer punishment then was deserved by the one who did even worse than that in that they set at naught the Son of God, and all God’s provision for salvation. Once again we have the contrast between the Son and Moses (compare Hebrews 3:1-6), with the Son exalted above Moses. This clearly has in mind those of whom he has spoken previously who were considering turning away from Christ in order to return to full Judaism (compare Hebrews 6:4-6). They would be guilty of three heinous crimes:

1) They would have ‘trodden under foot the Son of God’. This is similar to having crucified Him afresh (Hebrews 6:6). He is treated like salt that has lost its savour which is trodden under men’s feet (Matthew 5:13). He is like pearls which are tossed before swine and trodden under foot because the swine see them as meaningless rubbish (Matthew 7:6). It is to treat the very Son of God as a defeated foe, as a charlatan, as One Who is useless and worthless, worthy only to be humiliated and trodden down. They have basically denied that ‘Jesus is Lord’ and have rather said that ‘Jesus is accursed’ (1 Corinthians 12:3), for many non-Christian Jews saw Him as accursed because He died on the tree (Galatians 3:13; Deuteronomy 21:23).

2) Each would have ‘counted the blood of the covenant with which he was sanctified (or ‘by which there was sanctification’) an unholy thing’. By this they will have rejected the new covenant bought and sealed by the blood of Christ and declared it not of God, thereby declaring Christ’s blood common if not debased.

‘By which he was sanctified (or ‘by which there was sanctification’).’ Under the old covenant the blood of the covenant was sprinkled on the people sanctifying them (setting them apart) to their part in the covenant. They were now outwardly God’s own people, although their genuineness would be proved by obedience, and many fell at that hurdle. The writer pictures this as also being true of the new covenant. Having been baptised and declared their commitment to Christ, and having claimed that they have been set apart for Him in that they partake of the symbol of the covenant in His blood by partaking of the wine at the Lord’s Table, thus declaring themselves as having been ‘set apart as Christ’s by His blood’ (and thus as being sanctified to Him), they now renounce that sanctification, declaring the means of it itself unholy and degraded. This exacerbates their crime. They renounce the very covenant blood which they had previously gloried in.

Alternately ‘by which there was sanctification’ may simply be a general statement of the effectiveness of the new covenant when properly entered into. It is the ‘sanctifying blood’ of the covenant that they are rejecting.

That this does not indicate that the apostates were once genuine Christians comes out in 1 John 2:16. ‘They went out from us but they were not of us. For if they had been of us they would have continued with us, but it was that it might be made manifest that they were not all of us.’

3) They would have shown wanton arrogance to the Spirit of grace. Their claim had been that the Spirit of grace had brought them to God though Christ, now they arrogantly reject Him and His ministry by denying that it was valid or genuine. Note the contrast between the graciousness of God and the arrogance of these rejecters. They have sinned against the love and graciousness of His Holy Spirit.

So having once confessed Him they now sin with a high hand against Christ Himself, against His blood and covenant and against the Holy Spirit, publicly repudiating them in the eyes of all. They have, outwardly at least, blasphemed against the Holy Spirit and committed the ‘sin unto death’ (Mark 3:29; 1 John 5:16). For such there can only be judgment.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/hebrews-10.html. 2013.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Hebrews 10:29. Of how much sorer punishment (a word used only here, and meaning punishment in vindication of the honour of a broken law; compare Acts 22:5). The phrases that follow describe the acts of the apostate Christian.

He tramples under foot (an expression of ruthless contempt) the Son of God—Him who has been proved to be above the mediator of the old covenant, and above angels and prophets. He treats the sacrifice of blood under the covenant as a common thing, nay, as a profane thing—as the blood of one who claimed to be what the apostate now denies Him to be, and who is, therefore, guilty of blasphemy—the blood, moreover, wherewith (or rather in which, i.e sprinkled with which) he was sanctified (Leviticus 16:19). What is this but the profanation of what he himself admitted to be most sacred. Who ‘was sanctified’? Christ, who did ‘sanctify Himself’? Hardly; for He is never said to sanctify Himself with his own blood; and, moreover, the word ‘sanctify’ is always used elsewhere in this Epistle in the sense of cleansing from the guilt of sin by the blood of sacrifice (chap. Hebrews 2:11, Hebrews 9:13, Hebrews 13:12). The person, therefore, said to be sanctified is the apostate himself. But in what sense? Not in the sense of the Divine purpose or will (Stier—see chap. Hebrews 10:10), not in the sense that he tramples upon blood wherewith we believers are sanctified (Calvin); but in the sense that he himself, the apostate, had claimed and had professed to be sanctified by it. So all the members of the first churches are addressed as saints elect, sanctified (1 Corinthians 1:2; 1 Peter 1:2), for this was their professed character. Similarly Peter speaks of the fruitless professor as having been cleansed from his old sins (2 Peter 1:9), and of false teachers, who denied the Lord that bought them (2 Peter 2:1). What men seem to be, what men claim to be, what men are commonly recognised as being, is fairly quoted as an aggravation of their guilt.

They have done despite to (have insulted) the Spirit of grace—the Holy Spirit, the Giver of grace. To contemn mercy and holiness, to return insult to Him who gives them grace, is the sin of sins, for which, as the man has gone back to his old state, and continues in it, there can be no forgiveness; as in a previous passage we have learned that neither is there renewal (cp. Hebrews 6:6).

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/hebrews-10.html. 1879-90.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

sore = worse, as elsewhere. Greek. cheiron.

punishment. Greek. timoria. Only here.

thought worthy. Greek. axioo. See Hebrews 3:3.

trodden = trampled. Same as Matthew 7:6.

Son of God. App-98.

counted. Greek. hegeomai. See Acts 26:2.

wherewith = with (Greek. en. App-104.) which.

unholy = "unclean", or "valueless". Compare Mark 7:2. Acts 11:8; &c.

done, &c. = insulted. Greek. enubrizo. Only here. Compare Acts 14:5.

grace. Greek. charis. App-184. This expression only here.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/hebrews-10.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?

Sorer, [ cheironos (Greek #5501) timoorias (Greek #5098)] - 'worse vengeance' than any temporal punishment.

Suppose ye - an appeal to the Hebrews' conscience.

Thought worthy - by God at the judgment.

Trodden under foot the Son of God - and so God Himself, who 'glorified His Son as an High Priest;' by 'wilful' apostasy (Hebrews 5:5; Hebrews 6:6). Wherewith he was sanctified - for Christ died even for him (2 Peter 2:1). "Sanctified," in the full sense belongs only to the saved elect; but in some sense it belongs also to those who have gone far in Christian experience, yet fall away at last.

An unholy thing, [ koinon (Greek #2839)] - 'common:' opposed to "sanctified:" as if Christ were a common man, and so, in claiming to be God, guilty of blasphemy, and deserving to die!

Done despite unto, [ enubrisas (Greek #1796)] - 'insulted,' repelling in fact; as 'blasphemy,' in words (Mark 3:29). 'Of the Jews who became Christians and relapsed to Judaism, we find from the history of Uriel Acosta that a blasphemy was required against Christ. They applied to Him epithets used against Moloch, "the adulterous branch," etc. In their prayer Olenu they spit while they mention His name' (Tholuck).

The Spirit of (that confers) grace. 'He who does not accept the benefit insults the Bestower. He hath made thee a son: wilt thou become a slave? He has come to take up His abode with thee; but thou admittest evil into thyself' (Chrysostom). 'For him who profanes the Christ without him, and blasphemes the Christ within him, there is subjectively no renewal, and objectively no new sacrifice for sins (Hebrews 10:26; Hebrews 6:6)' (Tholuck).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/hebrews-10.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(29) Shall he be thought worthy.—Better, shall he be accounted (or, judged) worthy, by God the Judge of all, when “the Day” shall come. In the act of apostasy the sinner trampled under foot the Son of God, treated with contempt and scorn Him to whom belongs this highest Name (Hebrews 1:1-4); and the principle of this act becomes the principle of the whole succeeding life. That “blood” by which the new covenant was established (Hebrews 9:15-17)—the blood in which he himself had received the sanctification which the law could not give—he has esteemed an unholy thing. There is no medium between highest reverence and utter contumely in such a case: to those who did not receive Jesus as Lord He was a deceiver (Matthew 27:63), and one who deserved to die.

Hath done despite.—Hath treated with outrage and insult the Spirit of whose gifts he had been partaker (Hebrews 6:4), for “grace” returning arrogant scorn.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/hebrews-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?
how
2:3; 12:25
trodden
2 Kings 9:33; Psalms 91:13; Isaiah 14:19; 28:3; Lamentations 1:15; Ezekiel 16:6; *marg:; Micah 7:10; Matthew 7:6; Romans 16:20; 1 Corinthians 15:25,27
the blood
9:20; 13:20
wherewith
2:11; 9:13; Jeremiah 1:5; John 10:36; 17:19; 1 Corinthians 11:27,29
and hath
Isaiah 63:10; Matthew 12:31,32; Luke 12:10; Acts 7:51; Ephesians 4:30
the Spirit
Psalms 143:10; Zechariah 12:10
Reciprocal: Genesis 37:8 - reign over us;  Exodus 12:7 - GeneralExodus 29:21 - shall be;  Exodus 35:2 - whosoever;  Exodus 40:13 - anoint him;  Leviticus 4:34 - the horns of the altar;  Leviticus 7:27 - that soul;  Leviticus 15:31 - Thus shall;  Leviticus 17:10 - that eateth;  Leviticus 21:8 - for I;  Leviticus 24:23 - GeneralNumbers 8:17 - I sanctified;  Numbers 15:30 - doeth ought;  Numbers 15:31 - despised;  Numbers 16:49 - fourteen thousand;  Numbers 19:13 - purifieth;  Joshua 1:18 - that doth rebel;  Joshua 2:19 - whosoever;  2 Samuel 12:9 - despised;  2 Kings 7:17 - the people trode upon him;  Psalm 21:8 - GeneralPsalm 50:3 - a fire;  Psalm 81:11 - would none;  Proverbs 8:36 - he;  Proverbs 13:13 - despiseth;  Proverbs 21:11 - the scorner;  Isaiah 5:24 - cast away;  Ezekiel 20:13 - and they;  Daniel 8:13 - to be;  Zechariah 9:11 - by the blood of thy covenant;  Malachi 3:2 - who may abide;  Matthew 21:40 - what;  Matthew 23:33 - how;  Mark 4:17 - when;  John 3:36 - but;  John 12:48 - rejecteth;  John 16:9 - GeneralActs 26:11 - compelled;  Romans 6:21 - for the;  2 Corinthians 13:1 - In;  2 Thessalonians 1:9 - be;  Hebrews 3:15 - To day;  Hebrews 6:6 - they crucify;  Hebrews 13:12 - sanctify;  2 Peter 2:1 - bought;  1 John 5:6 - blood;  Revelation 1:7 - and they;  Revelation 11:2 - tread;  Revelation 16:6 - for they are

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/hebrews-10.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

The law of Christ is so much more final and far-reaching that the violation of it deserves a much sorer (worse) punishment than an unmerciful death of the body. But since such a punishment as that is the most severe of anv that can be imposed on a human being in this world. the sorer punishment will have to wait until the next world to be inflicted. That is why the unjust are to be "reserved unto the day of judgment to be punished"

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/hebrews-10.html. 1952.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews

Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?

The Gospel was far more glorious than the Mosaic dispensation; it bore to the law the relation of the sun to the moon, and consequently the guilt of those who rejected it, or apostatized from it, was far greater than that incurred by the breach of the law of Moses. The Israelites, indeed, like all mankind, were under the law to God, and they all received the deeds done in the body according to that they had done, whether good or bad; but the peculiar dispensation under which they were placed contained only temporal promises and temporal threatenings, Leviticus 26 :, Deuteronomy 28 : Everything was temporal and figurative. The life promised to obedience was a long life in the land of Canaan; the death threatened was the separation of soul and body. But the promises and threatenings of the Gospel are eternal; a life which shall never end is held out to believers, and the threatening is being cast off with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power as the portion of all who reject it. The rebellious Israelites only trod under foot the blood of calves and goats, with which the Sinai covenant was ratified; but the apostate from Christianity trod under foot the blood of the Son of God, and hath counted, &c. The blood of the covenant is that by which it was ratified. It may be a question whether the blood of the covenant wherewith he was sanctified refers to Christ or to the apostate. The Lord says, "For their sakes I sanctify myself, that they may be sanctified through the truth." John 17:19. Again, believers are sanctified in Christ Jesus, 1 Corinthians 1:2, chap13:12, but how can this be said of apostates? They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us." 1 John 2:19. It is replied that the Scripture frequently speaks of things as they appear to be. Thus we read that Simon believed. Acts 8 : Apostates are said to have been once enlightened, and so they may be said to be sanctified. This seems to be the meaning of the passage; but, if we suppose it refers to Christ, we must refer it to His separation at once as the victim and as the priest. Every family in Israel was commanded to take a lamb without blemish on the fourteenth day of the month; it was to be kept till the fourteenth, and then to be killed in the evening. In exact correspondence with this law, Jesus, six days before the passover, came to Bethany, where Mary anointed His feet against his burying. John 12:1-7. Thus was He sanctified, or set apart as our passover.

Again, it has been already observed that the first part of the consecration of the priests was their being washed with water, accordingly when Jesus began to be about thirty years of age, (the time when the consecration of a priest took place in Israel,) He was baptized in Jordan. The next step in consecration was the anointing with oil, and when Jesus came out of the water the Holy Spirit descended on Him in a bodily shape. Still the consecration was not complete, and accordingly our Lord did not act as a priest during his abode upon earth. Chap. The last part of the consecration was the blood of the sin offering and the burnt offering, which completed the consecration, when the priest entered upon the duties of his office, and thus was our great High Priest consecrated, and having offered Himself without spot unto God, he ever liveth to make intercession for the true Israel. Thus the expression, the blood of the covenant wherewith he was sanctified, may either apply to Christ or to him who professed the faith and afterwards apostatized, thus counting the blood of the covenant wherewith he appeared to be sanctified an unholy thing, and did despite to the Spirit of Grace by rejecting the testimony which he bore to Christ. This is the sin against the Holy Spirit, of which we elsewhere read. performed the most astonishing miracles: He cast out devils by the Spirit of God, but the Pharisees attributed this to the power of Satan, which led to the solemn caution given to them by the Lord, who informed them that all manner of sin and blasphemy should be forgiven to men; that a word spoken against the Son of man should be forgiven, but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost should not be forgiven. They might blaspheme the Lord Jesus, might condemn and crucify Him, vet pardon would be proclaimed to them through the blood which He had shed, and more abundant evidence given of His having come forth from God by the outpouring of the Spirit upon His disciples, bestowing on them the gift of tongues, of the cure of the sick, and raising the dead, but if they rejected the testimony of the Spirit, ascribing His miracles to the power of Satan, then it should not be forgiven them either In this world or in that which was to come. We have observed that the world to come was an expression employed by the Jews to denote the kingdom of Christ, and indeed is thus employed by the Apostle. Hebrews 2:5. The rejection of the Holy Spirit's testimony should be involved in all the miseries which befell the Jews previous to and in the destruction of Jerusalem, and should then have their portion in the lake of fire.

The Spirit is here termed the Spirit of Grace, because from Him proceedeth every good and perfect gift. He takes of the things of Christ and shows them to believers; by His grace and power they stand, holding fast the truth; and, finally, raises them from the dead.

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Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/hebrews-10.html. 1835.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

29.How much sorer punishment—As much sorer as the revealing Son was superior to the revealing Moses. The same argumentative aggravation as in Hebrews 2:3, derived from the greatness of the Son, then just unfolded.

Trodden under foot—By nothing less than most guilty apostasy. The intensity of the language implies the flagrancy of the sin.

Blood of the covenant—That blood which inaugurates and consecrates the new covenant, as the blood of calves and goats did the old “testament,” (Hebrews 9:20.)

He was sanctified—The expedients adopted to avoid the fact that the apostate was once truly sanctified are worthy of compassion. Lightfoot makes he refer to Christ, who was sanctified by his own blood! “It is worthy of remark,” says Alford, “how Calvin evades the deep truth contained in the words he was sanctified: ‘Very unworthy is it to profane the blood of Christ, which is the source of our sanctification: this do they who depart from the faith:’ thus making he was sanctified into we may be sanctified.”

An unholy thing—Literally, a common thing; as if the blood of the Redeemer was no more than ordinary matter. So 1 Corinthians 11:29, “Not discerning the Lord’s body.” Justin Martyr says, in Greek of the Communion, “We receive these elements, not as common bread or common drink.” So Acts 10:14-15: “Call not thou common,” where see note.

Done despite—Insulted. Bloomfield says, that in every known instance this verb has a person for its object; and hence he infers the personality of the Spirit from this passage.

Spirit of grace—As either coming to us from God’s grace, or as dispensing his grace upon us.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/hebrews-10.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Hebrews 10:29. .’ “Of how much sorer punishment, think ye, will he be counted worthy, who, etc.” The argument of Hebrews 2:1-4 and Hebrews 12:25. By the parenthetically interjected he appeals to their own sense of proportion and fitness; although the judgment alluded to in is not theirs but God’s. ’ The guilt of the apostate which justifies this sorer punishment is detailed in three particulars. He has trampled on the Son of God. The highest of Beings who has deserved best at his hands is spurned with outrageous scorn. “and has reckoned the blood of the covenant with which he was sanctified, a common thing”. “The blood of the covenant” is the blood of Christ (cf.Hebrews 9:15 ff., Hebrews 13:20); here it is thus designated because repudiation of the covenant is in question. This blood is the purifying agent by which men are fitted for the fellowship and service of God, and so brought within the covenant. Cf. with of Hebrews 9:13 and of Hebrews 9:14. This sole means of purification, the sanctifying virtue of which the supposed apostate has experienced, he now counts , common or unclean. [The Vulg. has “pollutum,” the Old Latin “communem”. Chrysostom ; and so Kübel, “which has no more worth than the blood of other men”. All these meanings lie close to one another. Cf.Mark 7:2, Acts 10:14. What is “common” is unsanctified, ceremonially unclean.] The third point in the heinousness of the sin of apostasy is , “and has insulted the spirit of grace”. This seems the direct antithesis to “Moses’ law” of Hebrews 10:28. The spirit of grace is the distinctive gift of Christian times, and is not only the Pauline but the universal antithesis to the law. To have blasphemed this gracious Spirit, who brings the assurance of God’s presence and pardon, and gifts suited to each believer, is to renounce all part in things spiritual. Cf.Hebrews 6:4, Hebrews 2:4; Ephesians 4:7.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/hebrews-10.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

29. Who despises the Son of God? “You see how much harsher punishment will come on any who rebel against the Son of God and renounce the Good News!” The blood of God’s covenant. See Hebrews 9:15-17; Hebrews 13:20. See note on Hebrews 6:6. Who Insults the Spirit. The Spirit of grace is the unique gift of the Christian System (see John 7:37-39and notes). This makes the Holy Spirit the exact opposite (direct antithesis) to the Law of Moses (see Galatians 3:2). One who renounced the Good News, must have then said the miraculous gifts came from the Devil (see Matthew 12:31-32). This would be an eternal sin, which they would not turn away from, and which God then could not forgive!

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/hebrews-10.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

29.Who has trodden under foot the Son of God, etc. There is this likeness between apostates under the Law and under the Gospel, that both perish without mercy; but the kind of death is different; for the Apostle denounces on the despisers of Christ not only the deaths of the body, but eternal perdition. And therefore he says that a sorer punishment awaits them. And he designates the desertion of Christianity by three things; for he says that thus the Son of God is trodden under foot, that his blood is counted an unholy thing, and that despite is done to the Spirit of grace. Now, it is a more heinous thing to tread under foot than to despise or reject; and the dignity of Christ is far different from that of Moses; and further, he does not simply set the Gospel in opposition to the Law, but the person of Christ and of the Holy Spirit to the person of Moses.

The blood of the covenant, etc. He enhances ingratitude by a comparison with the benefits. It is the greatest indignity to count the blood of Christ unholy, by which our holiness is effected; this is done by those who depart from the faith. For our faith looks not on the naked doctrine, but on the blood by which our salvation has been ratified. He calls it the blood of the covenant, because then only were the promises made sure to us when this pledge was added. But he points out the manner of this confirmation by saying that we are sanctified; for the blood shed would avail us nothing, except we were sprinkled with it by the Holy Spirit; and hence come our expiation and sanctification. The apostle at the same time alludes to the ancient rite of sprinkling, which availed not to real sanctification, but was only its shadow or image. (185)

The Spirit of grace. He calls it the Spirit of grace from the effects produced; for it is by the Spirit and through his influence that we receive the grace offered to us in Christ. For he it is who enlightens our minds by faith, who seals the adoption of God on our hearts, who regenerates us unto newness of life, who grafts us into the body of Christ, that he may live in us and we in him. He is therefore rightly called the Spirit of grace, by whom Christ becomes ours with all his blessings. But to do despite to him, or to treat him with scorn, by whom we are endowed with so many benefits, is an impiety extremely wicked. Hence learn that all who willfully render useless his grace, by which they had been favored, act disdainfully towards the Spirit of God.

It is therefore no wonder that God so severely visits blasphemies of this kind; it is no wonder that he shows himself inexorable towards those who tread under foot Christ the Mediator, who alone reconciles us to himself; it is no wonder that he closes up the way of salvation against those who spurn the Holy Spirit, the only true guide. (186)

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:29". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/hebrews-10.html. 1840-57.