Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Hebrews 10:30

For we know Him who said, " Vengeance is Mine , I will repay ." And again, " The Lord will judge His people ."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Apostasy;   God Continued...;   Judgment;   Punishment;   Quotations and Allusions;   Reprobacy;   Wicked (People);   Scofield Reference Index - Apostasy;   Thompson Chain Reference - Retribution;   Reward-Punishment;   Salvation-Condemnation;   Vengeance;   The Topic Concordance - Belonging;   Judges;   Punishment;   Recompense/restitution;   Sin;   Vengeance;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Apostates;   Covenant, the;   Hatred to Christ;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Testament;   Vengeance;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Backsliding;   Punishment;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Backsliding;   Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit;   Lake of Fire;   Sin Unto Death;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Atonement;   Covenant;   Peace;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Hebrews, the Epistle to the;   Old Testament;   Sin (2);   Holman Bible Dictionary - Hebrews;   Perseverance;   Sanctification;   Security of the Believer;   Vengeance;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Hebrews, Epistle to;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Guilt (2);   Hebrews Epistle to the;   Propitiation (2);   Unpardonable Sin;   Vengeance;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Christ;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Hebrews;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Apostasy;   Judging;   Justice;   Parousia;   Retribution;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for February 25;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Vengeance belongeth unto me - This is the saying of God, Deuteronomy 32:35, in reference to the idolatrous Gentiles, who were the enemies of his people; and is here with propriety applied to the above apostates, who, being enemies to God's ordinances, and Christ's ministry and merits, must also be enemies to Christ's people; and labor for the destruction of them, and the cause in which they are engaged.

The Lord shall judge his people - That is, he shall execute judgment for them; for this is evidently the sense in which the word is used in the place from which the apostle quotes, Deuteronomy 32:36; : For the Lord shall judge his people, and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth that their power is gone. So God will avenge and vindicate the cause of Christianity by destroying its enemies, as he did in the case of the Jewish people, whom he destroyed from being a nation, and made them a proverb of reproach and monuments of his wrathful indignation to the present day.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/hebrews-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

For we know him that hath said - We know who has said this - God. They knew this because it was recorded in their own sacred books.

Vengeance belongeth unto me … - This is found in Deuteronomy 32:35; see it explained in the notes on Romans 12:19. It is there quoted to show that we should not avenge ourselves; it is here quoted to show that God will certainly inflict punishment on those who deserve it. If any should apostatize in the manner here referred to by the apostle, they would, says he, be guilty of great and unparalleled wickedness, and would have the certainty that they must meet the wrath of God.

And again, The Lord shall judge his people - This is quoted from Deuteronomy 32:36. That is, he will judge them when they deserve it, and punish them if they ought to be punished. The mere fact that they are his people will not save them from punishment if they deserve it, any more than the fact that one is a beloved child will save him from correction when he does wrong. This truth was abundantly illustrated in the history of the Israelites; and the same great principle would be applied should any sincere Christian apostatize from his religion. He would have before him the certainty of the most fearful and severe of all punishments.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/hebrews-10.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

Hebrews 10:30

Vengeance belongeth unto Me

I.
VENGEANCE BELONGETH TO THE LORD. By vengeance is meant vindicative justice punishing offenders, the acts whereof are condemnation and execution; and it is proper to a judge, as here it may be taken either for the power or the act and exercise of the power. The party to whom it belongs is the Lord, as He is the supreme and universal Judge; for He that is the supreme Law-giver must needs be the supreme Judge. Angels or men may have the use of it, but the propriety is in God; and that you may understand it more fully, you must know that this power of punishing is an universal, an original power, as it belongs to God and none else. It extends to all persons, to all causes, and to these in all respects; for He hath jurisdiction over angels, and the consciences and immortal souls of men, and can arrogate spiritual and eternal punishments.

II. As vengeance, so RETRIBUTION BELONGS UNTO THE LORD and it may be considered, not only as it is a power or right to recompense, but the act and exercise of vindicative justice, and may include both the sentence and the execution, which is nothing else but a returning evil for evil, the evil of punishment for the evil of sin. The apostle in this follows the Septuagint, which turn it, “I will recompense,” which seems to imply, that as He is

III. HE WILL JUDGE HIS PEOPLE. This may be understood two ways.

1. That God will judge the cause of His oppressed and persecuted people, by punishing and destroying their enemies; and this the context in Deuteronomy seems to imply.

2. That He will judge His people, and punish severely all apostates among them. Men may threaten and never condemn, they may condemn and never execute; but God will certainly do both.

IV. THE LORD SAITH SO. Man might have said it, and it might have been otherwise; out of ignorance he might have been deceived, or out of pravity he might deceive others; or if any earthly judge, who knew his own mind and power, should have said so, yet he might change his mind, or want power; and so recompense might fail. But it is God who is Supreme Judge, who cannot be deceived, cannot deceive, cannot change His mind; who hath almighty power that saith so, and His word is His deed. If therefore He say, “I will recompense, I will judge”; recompense and judgment will certainly follow, they cannot fail.

V. THEY KNEW IT WAS GOD WHO SAID SO THAT GOD WHO COULD CERTAINLY DO AS HE HAD SAID, If any other had said it, and they had been ignorant of it, their fear had been less, though the danger had been as great as if they had known it. Seeing, therefore, it is the Lord who said it, and they knew that it was said, and that by Him, their fear should be answerable to the danger, and so much the greater, as their knowledge was more clear and certain. They knew this, and that by Scripture, which they believed to be the Word of God. Ignorance of this truth makes men secure and presumptuous, and so doth unbelief; this seems to prove the punishment to be unavoidable. (G. Lawson.)

Accurate scales

In the reign of King Charles I., the goldsmiths of London had a custom of weighing several sorts of their precious metals before the Privy Council. On this occasion they made use of scales poised with such exquisite nicety that the beam would turn, the Master of the company affirmed, at the two-hundredth part of a grain. Now the famous Attorney-General, standing by, and hearing this, replied, “I shall be loath, then, to have all my actions weighed in these scales.” (Baxendale’s Anecdotes.)

God avenges wrong:

When a Chief Justice was spoken to of showing mercy to a prisoner before him, he said, “Let me remember that there is mercy due to my country.” Have you travelled in the Alps? You will come to a magnificent and beautiful valley with flowing streams and exuberant foliage. A few miles--it may be a few steps--further, and you have a great mountain with its awful shadows, and threatening to hurl its mass over you. You cannot have the sunny valley without the frowning mountain. So there are changes in the scenery when you study the Divine working. There is the lowly valley where the flowers of redemption grow, and the waters of grace curl their eddies; and there is also the great white throne, glorious indeed, but great and terrible in its shadows, because of the intense light that shines upon it. The same engine that beneficently draws the train along will be an instrument of wrath and destruction to anything that crosses its path. God moves on the track of perfect holiness, not only bestowing blessing, but avenging wrong for the benefit of His universe. If the sinner throws himself across that track, the same law that moves Him to love will cause Him to punish the unrepenting sinner. (A. P.Pierson, D. D.)

Vengeance a Divine prerogative

A person happened to complain in the hearing of a pious man of some conduct which had been manifested towards him by his neighbours, and concluded by saying that he had a large portion of vengeance in store for them. “You have stolen it, then,” was the answer, “for I know it does not belong to you of right, because God says, ‘Vengeance is Mine; I will repay.’”

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Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Hebrews 10:30". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/hebrews-10.html. 1905-1909. New York.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

For we know him that said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense. And again, The Lord shall judge his people. It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

These quotations are Deuteronomy 32:35,36; but a check of those verses will show that their form, but not their meaning, has been altered by the author of Hebrews. The quotation is not like the Septuagint, nor like Philo, so what is it? It is the apostle Paul quoting a well-known scripture in his own words; and the proof of this is Romans 12:19 where exactly the same quotation in exactly the same words is found; and, if the scholarship of the world will forgive us, by exactly the same author, namely, Paul himself. It is certainly a gratuitous assumption of intolerable dimensions to make Barnabas, Apollos, Luke, Clement, Mark or anybody else misquote a passage in exactly the same words of Paul's misquotation.

The fact of God's wrath is inherent in his holiness. These verses trumpet the fact that the God of the Old Testament is the God of the New Testament, and that he is angry with the wicked every day, that sin shall not stand in his presence, and that the utter and final destruction of everything evil is a part of God's eternal purpose.

The Lord shall judge his people is a pointed warning of judgment for the saints themselves, a fact noted by Peter who said, "And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and sinner appear?" (1 Peter 4:18).

There is by us a line unseen That crosses every path, The hidden boundary between God's mercy and God's wrath.

When King David was offered a choice of three punishments for his sin in numbering Israel, he said, "Let us now fall into the hands of Jehovah, for his mercies are great" (2 Samuel 24:14). However, as Milligan wisely noted, there is a difference in falling into the hands of God for correction and in doing so for judgment.[41] The fearful penalties to be executed upon apostates are exceedingly dreadful.

The living God is an expression used here and in three other passages of Hebrews 3:12; Hebrews 9:14; and Hebrews 12:22; and in this place seems to be given in answer to a possible question of why it is a fearful thing to fall into God's hands. Because he is a living God!

ENDNOTE:

[41] R. Milligan, op. cit., p. 288.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/hebrews-10.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

For we know him that hath said,.... That is, God, whom the apostle and the Hebrews knew; not merely by the works of creation and providence, but by the Scriptures, which they were favoured with, and by which they were distinguished from the Gentiles, and by which they knew his being, nature, and perfections; particularly, that what he said he was able to perform, and that he was true and faithful to every word of his, and to what he has said, Deuteronomy 32:35

vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompence, saith the Lord. Vengeance belongs to God, not as to the affection, as if there was any such passion in him; but as to the effect, there being that produced by him, which answers to the effect of such a passion among men, namely punishment: and punishment for sin belongs to God, against whom it is committed; and not to Heathen deities, one of which goes by the name of Vengeance, Acts 28:4 nor to Satan, and his spiteful angels; nor to men, to exercise it in a private and personal way; though civil magistrates, being in God's stead, are allowed to exercise it in a public way, according to the laws of God: and there is good reason to believe, that what the Lord here says, "I will recompence", or revenge sin, shall be done; which may be concluded from his hatred of sin; from his purity, holiness, and justice; from his faithfulness to his word; from his omnipotence; from the notice he takes of sin, in his own people, in a way of chastisement, and correction; and from the vengeance he has poured on his own Son, as their surety.

And again, in Deuteronomy 32:36 the Lord shall judge his people; such as are truly so, his chosen and covenant people, his redeemed and called ones; these he judges by chastising them in a fatherly way, that they may not be condemned with the world; and by governing and protecting them; and by vindicating and pleading their cause, and avenging them on their enemies: or else such as are only his people by profession; on these he will write a "Lo-ammi"; he distinguishes them from his own, and judges between them and his people, and will condemn them; nor will their profession screen them from his wrath and vengeance.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/hebrews-10.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

10 For we know him that hath said, Vengeance [belongeth] unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall o judge his people.

(10) The reason of all these things is, because God is a revenger of those who despise him: otherwise he could not rightly govern his Church. Now there is nothing more horrible then the wrath of the living God.

(o) Rule or govern.

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/hebrews-10.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

him — God, who enters no empty threats.

Vengeance belongeth unto meGreek, “To Me belongeth vengeance”: exactly according with Paul‘s quotation, Romans 12:19, of the same text.

Lord shall judge his people — in grace, or else anger, according as each deserves: here, “judge,” so as to punish the reprobate apostate; there, “judge,” so as to interpose in behalf of, and save His people (Deuteronomy 32:36).

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/hebrews-10.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

We know him that said (οιδαμεν τον ειπονταoidamen ton eiponta). God lives and is true to his word. He quotes Deuteronomy 32:35 (cf. Romans 12:19). For εκδικησιςekdikēsis see Luke 18:7. God is the God of justice. He is patient, but he will punish.

And again (και παλινkai palin). Deuteronomy 32:36.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/hebrews-10.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

We know him that hath said ( οἴδαμεν γὰρ τὸν εἰπόντα )

The retribution ( τιμωρία ) is certain, because assured by the word of God in Scripture.

Vengeance ( ἐκδίκησις )

An unfortunate translation, since it conveys the idea of vindictiveness which does not reside in the Greek word. It is the full meting out of justice to all parties. The quotation is an adaptation of the lxx of Deuteronomy 32:35. The second citation is literally from lxx of Deuteronomy 32:36.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/hebrews-10.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people.

The Lord will judge his people — Yea, far more rigorously than the heathens, if they rebel against him. Deuteronomy 32:35, etc.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/hebrews-10.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Hebrews 10:30; Deuteronomy 32:35,36.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/hebrews-10.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Мы знаем Того, Кто сказал. Оба отрывка взяты из Втор.23:35. Поскольку Моисей обещает там, что Бог отомстит за нанесенные народу оскорбления, кажется, что апостол неуместно приспосабливает отрывок к своей теме. Ведь о чем ведет апостол речь? О том, что нечестие насмехающихся над Богом не останется безнаказанным. Но Павел (Рим.12:19), следуя подлинному смыслу данного отрывка, использует его, однако, для другой цели. Ведь, желая поощрить нас к терпению, он велит нам предоставлять месть Богу, поскольку это – Его прерогатива. Причем, доказывает сказанное свидетельством Моисея. Однако ничто не мешает отнести эти частные положения к общему учению. Хотя замысел Моисея и состоял в утешении верующих, поскольку в этом случае Бог выступал бы в качестве мстителя за их обиды, все же из слов его также можно заключить: наказывать нечестивых – служение, присущее именно Богу. И этим свидетельством не злоупотребит тот, кто докажет из него, что презрение к Богу не останется безнаказанным, поскольку Он – праведный судья, утверждающий за Собой служение мстителя. Хотя апостол мог бы рассуждать здесь от большего к меньшему следующим образом: Бог говорит, что не потерпит безнаказанно вредить своему народу, провозглашая, что непременно за него отомстит. Но если Бог не оставляет неотмщенными обиды, нанесенные людям, разве Он не станет мстить за обиды, нанесенные Ему Самому. Разве Бог столь мало заботится о Собственной славе, что притворится незамечающим, когда ее станут поносить? Но проще и менее натянуто такое толкование: апостол показывает только то, что над Богом невозможно безнаказанно насмехаться, ибо отплачивать нечестивым по заслугам присуще именно Ему.

Будет судить народ Свой. Здесь возникает та же самая или даже большая трудность. Ведь кажется, что смысл Моисея никак не отвечает настоящему намерению апостола. Кажется, что апостол цитирует это место так, будто «судить» значит у Моисея «наказывать». Однако, поскольку Моисей ради истолкования тут же добавляет: ради святых Своих будет милосердным, – отсюда явствует: слово «судить» означает здесь осуществлять обязанности правителя, что в еврейском языке встречается весьма часто. Кажется, что этот смысл мало подходит замыслу апостола. Однако тот, кто все тщательно взвесит, признает, что данное место приведено вполне уместно и подходяще. Ибо Бог не может управлять Своей Церковью, одновременно ее не очищая и не приводя в порядок то, что подвергается в ней расстройству. Посему правление Его заслуженно внушает страх лицемерам, которым предстоит ответить за присвоение себе места среди благочестивых и вероломное злоупотребление священным божественным именем. Ответить тогда, когда Сам Отец семейства возьмет под опеку сооружение Собственного дома. В этом смысле говорится, что Бог восстает судить Свой народ, когда истинно отделяет благочестивых от лицемеров (Пс.49:1). И в Пс.124:3, где пророк, говоря об истреблении лицемеров (дабы те из-за терпения к ним Бога больше не дерзали хвалиться принадлежностью к Церкви), возвещает мир Израилю после того, как этот суд завершится.

Итак, апостол вполне уместно говорит, что Бог предводительствует Своей Церковью, не упуская ничего, что способствует законному правлению над ней, дабы все научились находиться под Его властью и помнили, что дадут отчет своему судье. Отсюда он выводит: страшно впасть в руки Бога живого, – поскольку смертный человек, даже самый разгневанный, не может свирепствовать после смерти, а сила Божия не ограничена столь узкими рамками. Кроме того, мы часто избегаем суда людей, но не сможем избежать суда Божия. Посему всякий, думающий о том, что имеет дело с Богом, с необходимостью (если он не совершенно глуп) будет трепетать и бояться. Больше того, предвкушение Бога неизбежно поглотит всего человека, так что с ним не сравнятся никакие страдания и мучения. Наконец, всякий раз как наша плоть доставляет нам наслаждение, и мы каким-либо образом потакаем себе в грехах, нам должно быть достаточно и того увещевания, что страшно впасть в руки живого Бога, гнев Которого сопровождается столькими жуткими карами вечной смерти.

Но кажется, что сказанному противоречит фраза Давида, говорящего, что лучше впасть в руки Божии, чем в руки человеческие (2Цар.24:14). Ответ на этот вопрос довольно прост, если вспомнить о том, что Давид избирал в судьи не людей, а Бога, уповая на Его божественное милосердие. Хотя Давид и знал, что Бог по праву на него сердится, но все же надеялся на Его умилостивить Его. Ведь, будучи простертым в самом себе, Давид, тем не менее, поддерживался обетованием милости. Значит, если Давид думал, что может умолить Бога, нет ничего удивительного в том, что он боялся Его гнева меньше, чем гнева людей. Здесь же апостол возвещает гнев Божий страшным для отверженных, которые, лишенные надежды на получение прощения, ожидают одну лишь крайнюю суровость, ибо ранее закрыли себе доступ к божественной благодати. Мы знаем, что Бог изображается по-разному в зависимости от тех людей, к которым обращается речь. Именно это имеет в виду Давид, Пс. 17:27: с милостивым Ты будешь милостив, а со злым – суровым.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/hebrews-10.html. 1840-57.

William Newell's Commentary on Romans, Hebrews and Revelation

For we know Him that said, Vengeance belongeth unto Me, I will recompense. And again, The Lord shall judge His people: The judgments recounted in the Book of The Revelation are awful in character and solemnity; but in the book of Hebrews judicial visitation has a peculiarly personal character, because in Hebrews God is speaking in tenderness "in a Son," and woe to them that will not hear! This personal element in God's punishment of Christ-rejecters you hardly hear mentioned in these days. Even earnest preachers, who do show the danger of "losing the soul, rarely describe the far more fearful thing of meeting an infinite God full of eternal jealousy. But what will it be to face the offended Majesty of the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings? To feel the jealousy of love despised? The penalty of contempt of a court where God is judge of all? To meet the fury that comes upon patience finally exhausted--the infinite hatred of God towards rebels who have finally allied themselves with the sin that God hates? To feel the terrible impotence of finite rebels against infinite aroused wrath? To know the meaning of that word "vengeance" when a Being of infinite power arises bent at last upon revenge?

"Love is strong as death;
jealousy is cruel as Sheol;
The flashes thereof are flashes of fire,
A most Vehement flame of Jehovah!"
(S.S. 8:6, R.V., margin).

Those who are forever seeking to do away with a God Who is capable of wrath, and to make void His words, are ready to quote the last part of verse 30, The Lord shall judge His people, and claim that the expression His people must make the verse mean that here God is dealing in "chastening" with His own children. But let us turn to the Old Testament passage (Deut. 32:35, 36) from which the words are quoted:

"Vengeance is Mine, and recompense, At the time when their foot shall slide: For the day of their calamity is at hand, And the things that are to come upon them shall make haste. For Jehovah will judge His people, And repent Himself for His servants."

No one with Scripture open before him will deny that in dealing with His people (Israel), God has done "terrible things in righteousness." Korah, Dathan and Abiram, "these wicked men" (Num. 16:26), were "swallowed up" by the earth, and "went down alive into Sheol." "They perished in the gainsaying of Korah" (Jude 11). Thus God judged His people? Will any claim that those whom the fiery serpents slew (Num. 21:6), or the idolaters who fell by the sword (Ex. 32:28), or the 70,000 who died by the plague when David numbered Israel (2 Sam. 24)--will any claim that these were true children of God, dealt with in chastening? Nay, the wicked of whom we read in the Psalms are, in general, the wicked of Israel. And the very first Psalm says, they "... are like the chaff which the wind driveth away. Therefore the wicked shall not stand in the judgment, Nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous." "The righteous," of course, are saved Israelites. Every Israelite "written in the book" (Dan. 12:1); "even every one that is written unto life (R.V., margin) in Jerusalem" (Is. 4:3), by Divine grace, will be among the Remnant that are saved even amid the judgment which then is, raised up to salvation along with the preserved Remnant of Daniel 12:1, which we repeat in full: "At that time thy people (Daniel's people, Israel) shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book."

Therefore the word, The Lord shall judge His people, involves the culling out from His people by His judicial action, in any age, those who profess, but who depart from their confession, even to viewing lightly the salvation purchased by the blood of the covenant, of the Son of God.*

* "The more we examine the cross, the more we shall find how all good and evil found its issue, and how it connects together the consummated evil of man in hatred against God. manifested in Christ in love, the full power of Satan as prince of this world, his hatred against goodness, and audacity against the Lord. Then perfection in man in Christ, and love to the Father, and obedience (and we may thankfully add to us), the double character of love to God: as man upward, and divinely to us. And all this in the very place of sin where it was needed, Christ being made sin. Then in God, perfect righteousness against sin, and perfect love to sinners. All was concentrated in the cross."--J.N. Darby, Vol. XXVI, 175.

For, alas, there are those who "neglect so great a salvation," which means that they do not care. There are those whose souls were never really roused, who, while they professed, remained "sluggish," became "disobedient," and "hardened by the deceitfulness of sin"; who forsook Christian assembling; who became unconcerned that God had made an infinite sacrifice for them. Their lives of sin put "to an open shame" Him they had once confessed. They did not care! (Hush! The streets of Christendom are crowded today with those who do not care! though many of them have heard the story of God's love, all their lives.) But their personal rejection of the Living God will bring on the Personal dealing of the Living God. And what will that be? And for how long?

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Newell, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". William Newell's Commentary on Romans, Hebrews and Revelation. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wnc/hebrews-10.html. 1938.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

30 For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people.

Ver. 30. I will recompense] And if God will avenge his elect, Luke 18:7, how much more his Son and his Spirit!

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/hebrews-10.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Hebrews 10:30. For we know him that hath said, Namely, Moses: see Deuteronomy 32:35. It maybe inquired how this passage is here applied to those who profess themselves Christians, since in Deuteronomy it evidently relates to the idolatrous Gentile adversaries of Israel? The answer is easy; for, besides that such as apostatized from the Christian religion declared themselves to beavowed enemies to the institutions of God by Jesus Christ our Lord, (which were much more sacred and important than those by Moses:) besides that, the assertion,—that vengeance belongeth to God, &c. is to be considered as a general maxim, and therefore equally applicable in all cases wherein vengeance and a penal recompence are due. The next words may be taken either from the places in Deuteronomy above referred to, or from Psalms 135:14 where we have exactly the same words; and their force may be this, "That if God will vindicate and avenge the injuries done to his chosen people the Jews, he will much more severely animadvert upon those injuries which were offered to his Christ, his Spirit, and his church."

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/hebrews-10.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

The apostle had declared in the verses before, the certain judgment of apostates: Here he declare the Judge, the Lord; and the judgment, vengeance; Vengeance is mine saith the Lord: Where, by vengeance, is meant vindictive justice in punishing sinners. The apostle's arguments seems to lie thus:

"If God professes himself an avenger of all sin and injury done to his people, as he certainly doth, Deuteronomy 32:36. Much more will he show himself an avenger of so horrible an indignity offered to his Son and his Holy Spirit."

Learn hence, That the consideration of the righteous nature of God, and that inclosure he has made of vengeance, to himself under an irrevocable assurance of the unavoidable purpose for its execution, gives undubitable assurance of the unavoidable destruction of all wilful apostates.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/hebrews-10.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

30.] For we know Him who said, To me belongeth vengeance, I will repay, saith the Lord (the citation is from Deuteronomy 32:35, and is given not in agreement with the Hebrew text ( לִי נָקָם וְשַׁלֵּם, “To me (belongeth) vengeance and recompense”) nor with the LXX ( ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐκδικήσεως (i. e. ליום נ, as is read in the Samaritan Pent.) ἀνταποδώσω, so also Philo, Leg. Alleg. iii. § 34, vol. i. p. 108), but, remarkably enough, in verbal accordance with St. Paul’s citation of the same text, Romans 12:19, even to the adding of the words λέγει κύριος, which are neither in the Heb. nor the LXX. Two solutions of this are possible: 1. that the expression had become a common saying in the Church; 2. that our Writer takes it from St. Paul’s citation. A third alternative is of course open; that it is St. Paul himself, who quotes here as there. For a solution, see Prolegg. on the authorship of this Epistle): and again, The Lord will judge His people (no doubt quoted primarily from the passage where it primarily occurs, in ref. Deut. The κρινεῖ there expresses another function of the judge from that which is adduced here. There, He will judge for rescue and for defence: here, for punishment and for condemnation. But the office of Judge, generally asserted by κρινεῖ, involves all that belongs to a judge: and if there it induces the comforting of those whom He εἶδεν παραλελυμένους, κ. ἐκλελοιπότας ἐν ἐπαγωγῇ, κ. παρειμένους, here the same general office of judgment also induces the punishment of the wilful sinner and apostate).

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/hebrews-10.html. 1863-1878.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Hebrews 10:30. The χείρονος ἀξιωθήσεται τιμωρίας, Hebrews 10:29, is a matter for the most serious consideration. This the declarations of God Himself in the Scriptures prove.

οἴδαμεν γὰρ τὸν εἰπόντα] for we know Him who hath spoken, i.e. we know what it means when God makes predictions like those which follow.

The first utterance is without doubt from Deuteronomy 32:35. It deviates from the Hebrew original ( לִי נָקָם וְשִׁלֵּם), but still more from the LXX. ( ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐκδικήσεως ἀνταποδώσω); on the other hand, it agrees to so great an extent with Paul’s mode of citing the same in Romans 12:19, that even the λέγει κύριος, which is wanting in Deuteronomy, is found in both these places. This agreement arises, according to Bleek, de Wette, Delitzsch, and Reiche, Comm. Crit. p. 97 (comp. also Böhme), from a deriving of the citation from the Epistle to the Romans; while according to Meyer (at Rom. xii. 19, 2, 3, and 4 Aufl.) the identical words: ἐγὼ ἀνταποδώσω, are to be traced back to the paraphrase of Onkelos ( וַאֲנִא אֲשַׁלֵּם) as the common source employed by Paul and the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. Yet with much greater probability is the coincidence to be explained by the supposition that the utterance, in the form adopted here as with Paul, had become proverbial. This was also the later view of Meyer (see Meyer on Rom. xii. 19, 5 Aufl. p. 551 f.).

The second utterance: κρινεῖ κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ, attached by means of καὶ πάλιν (Hebrews 1:5, Hebrews 2:13), is found in like form, Deuteronomy 32:36 and Psalms 135:14. This κρίνειν τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ has, in the mind of the author of the epistle, the general signification of the holding of judgment upon His people, so that the recreant members among the same will not be able to escape punishment. Different is the sense of the original: He shall do justice for His people. Delitzsch, it is true, who is followed therein by Maier, Kluge, Moll, and Hofmann, will not acknowledge such diversity of the sense. But he is able to remove such diversity only, in that—manifestly led thereto in the interest of a mistaken harmonistic method—he foists upon the author of the epistle the statement: “the Lord will do justice for His church, and punish its betrayers and blasphemers;” a statement of which the first half—as opposed to the grammatical meaning of κρίνειν, as well as to the connection with Hebrews 10:26, since this latter leads of necessity not to the idea of rendering justice to any one, but exclusively to the idea of punitive judgment—is only arbitrarily imported.

At Hebrews 10:31 the whole train of thought, Hebrews 10:26-30, is briefly summed up, and with this the warning brought to a close. Fearful is it to fall into the hands of the living God, i.e. to fall a victim to the divine punitive judgment. Comp. Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:4-5.

ἐμπίπτειν εἰς χεῖρας κυρίου occurs also with the LXX. 2 Samuel 24:14, 1 Chronicles 21:13, Sirach 2:18, but is there used in the mild sense, in that it is opposed to falling into the hands of men. Bengel: Bonum est incidere cum fide; temere terribile.

θεοῦ ζῶντος] see at Hebrews 3:12.

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/hebrews-10.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Hebrews 10:30. τὸν εἰπόντα, Him, who hath said) GOD, who does not threaten in vain.— ἐμοὶ, to me) See Romans 12:19, note, from Deuteronomy 32:35.— πάλιν, again) after a few words intervening in the same song of Moses.— κύριος κρινεῖ τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ, the Lord will judge His people) Deuteronomy 32:36, LXX., κρινεῖ κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ. This epistle has very often a reference to the song of Moses and to Deuteronomy, a book which is well explained by it. He will judge, in grace and in anger, according as He shall find each individual.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/hebrews-10.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

For we know him that hath said: For brings in the proof of the soreness of God’s punishment to be inflicted on apostates, from God’s own testimony about it; which we, who are conversant with the Scriptures, are well acquainted with; we know what God hath spoken, and by whom he hath spoken it, John 9:29. Their knowledge of it was clear and certain, it being spoken to them by Moses, and written for them, Deuteronomy 32:35,36.

Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense; to me is vengeance and recompence; which are the words of the Hebrew text. To me, the sovereign Being, the supreme and universal Lawgiver and Judge, doth belong the universal right and power of vindictive justice. It is his propriety, as he will avenge all injuries against his people, he will much more avenge the sins and injuries against his Son; and will actually return to evil-doers, as a recompence for their sins, the evil of punishment. He is not only just and powerful, but actually manifesting both in his retribution on them, Deuteronomy 32:41,43 Psa 94:1 Romans 12:19 2 Thessalonians 1:8.

Saith the Lord; Jehovah saith it, who is faithful and true, powerful, and constant to his threatenings, as well as his promises. This he saith to, and threatens apostate Jeshurun with, who revolted from God, and served idols, Deuteronomy 32:15-17.

And again, The Lord shall judge his people: a further testimony is urged from God’s vindication of his people, when he hath punished apostates, taken from Deuteronomy 32:6, and Psalms 135:14. The sovereign Being of righteousness, the same Jehovah as before, will rule, justify, save, deliver, and vindicate his covenant people from the contempt and vilifying of his Son and them, by punishing severely such who, by their apostacy from him and them, are guilty of it. He will certainly take vengeance on them, and thereby clear the innocency, truth, and goodness of his, who are trampled on by them.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/hebrews-10.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Цитата из Втор. 32:35, 36 (ср. Пс. 134:4; Рим. 12:19).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/hebrews-10.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

That hath said; Deuteronomy 32:35-36.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/hebrews-10.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Hebrews 10:30. For. This punishment is certain, and is fulfilled and executed by God Himself. The first quotation in this verse follows neither the Hebrew nor the Greek text, but is the exact rendering adopted by Paul in Romans 12:19. The second is taken from Deuteronomy 32:36, and from the Psalms. The Hebrew of the word ‘judge’ has two meanings—to exercise judgment in punishing others, and to exercise judgment on behalf of others. The second sense may be seen in Psalms 82:3-4 (compare margin), Psalms 43:1, 1 Samuel 24:12; 1 Samuel 24:15, and is appropriate to the passage in Deuteronomy 32:35-36, as well as here. He will execute judgment on behalf of His people, and against those who become traitors and blasphemers. God is Judge, is the first truth; and His judgment will be executed, is the second.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/hebrews-10.html. 1879-90.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

know. Greek. oida. App-132.

hath. Omit.

Vengeance. Greek. ekdikesis. See Acts 7:24.

unto = to.

judge. Greek. krino. App-122. These quotations are from Deuteronomy 32:35, Deuteronomy 32:36. Compare Romans 12:19.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/hebrews-10.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people.

Him - who utters no empty threats.

Vengeance belongeth unto me - `To me belongeth vengeance:' exactly according with Paul's quotation, Romans 12:19.

Lord shall judge his people - in grace, or else anger, as each deserves: here, "judge" so as to punish the reprobate; there (Deuteronomy 32:35-36), "judge" so as to interpose in behalf of His people.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/hebrews-10.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(30) Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense.—This quotation from Deuteronomy 32:35 completely preserves the sense of the original words, “To me belongeth vengeance, and recompence,” whilst departing from their form. The LXX. shows still wider divergence, neglecting entirely the emphasis which rests on the words “to Me” It is therefore very remarkable that this quotation is given, in exactly the same form, in Romans 12:19. As, however, the words “I will recompense” are found in the most ancient of the Targums (that of Onkelos) it is very possible that St. Paul may have there adopted a form already current amongst the Jews. (See Note on Romans 12:19.) If so, there is no difficulty in accounting for the coincidence in this place. But, even if this supposition is. without foundation, and the saying in this form was first used in Romans 12:19, is there any real cause for wonder if a disciple of St. Paul in a single instance reproduces the Apostle’s words? It should be observed that the words “saith the Lord” must be omitted from the text, according to the best authorities.

The Lord shall judge his people.—This, again, is a quotation, and from the same chapter (Deuteronomy 32:36). If the context of the original passage be examined, there will be no doubt as to the meaning of the words. As in Psalms 43:1; Psalms 135:14, “to judge,” as here used, signifies to maintain the right of one who is exposed to wrong. “The Lord shall judge His people” (see Hebrews 10:27) when He shall appear to establish their cause by taking vengeance on His enemies and theirs. With what impressive force would the quotations in this section (Hebrews 10:27-28; Hebrews 10:30)—differing widely in form, but presenting a very striking agreement in their meaning—fall on the ears of readers familiar from childhood with the ideas and language of the Old Testament Scriptures!

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/hebrews-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people.
Vengeance
Deuteronomy 32:35; Psalms 94:1; Isaiah 59:17; 61:2; 63:4; Nahum 1:2; Romans 12:19; 13:4
The Lord shall
Deuteronomy 32:36; Psalms 50:4; 96:13; 98:9; 135:14; Ezekiel 18:30; 34:17; 2 Corinthians 5:10
Reciprocal: Genesis 50:19 - for am I;  Numbers 31:2 - Avenge;  Deuteronomy 28:58 - fear this glorious;  2 Kings 9:7 - I may avenge;  Isaiah 47:3 - I will take;  Jeremiah 51:36 - take;  Ezekiel 7:4 - but;  Ezekiel 9:10 - but;  Ezekiel 25:14 - and they shall know;  Malachi 3:5 - I will come;  2 Thessalonians 1:8 - taking

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/hebrews-10.html.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews

For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people.

For we know him... This is a quotation from Deuteronomy 32:35. In this prophetic Song of Solomon, given out by Moses at the close of his ministry, the peculiar kindness of God toward his people Israel is celebrated, together with their ungrateful returns and the consequent vengeance which he would inflict upon them. Here, as elsewhere, He claimeth vengeance as His peculiar prerogative. We are not to avenge ourselves, Romans 12:19; and it appears that when Joseph's brethren, after their father's death, besought him to forgive them, the question he put, "Am I in the place of God?" Genesis 50:19, was intended to intimate that vengeance belongs to him alone. This prerogative, however, Isaiah, in a certain degree, delegated to the civil magistrate. "As the servant of God be is an avenger, to execute wrath on him that doeth evil." Romans 13:4.

In Israel he that despised Moses's law died without mercy; but no power is given to civil magistrates to punish irreligion; on the contrary, while we are commanded to be subject to every ordinance of men, to obey magistrates, and taught that in resisting "the power we resist the ordinance of God," the Lord expressly prohibits our acknowledging any civil authority in religion. Here we have but one Master, even Christ. Matthew 23:8-10. This is repeated in order to enforce it more powerfully, and thus a broad line of distinction is drawn between civil and religious obedience. The former we are commanded to render, under pain of the vengeance which God has delegated to the civil magistrate; the latter is absolutely prohibited. In Christ's kingdom He is the blessed and only potentate. It is the duty of believers to warn and to admonish each other, and the highest penalty which they are authorized to inflict for false doctrine, or a violation of the laws of Christ, is to turn away from the offender. "My kingdom," says Christ, " is not of this world," and therefore he commits to his servants no carnal weapons.

And again the Lord shall judge his people; the word judge is ambiguous, it signifies either to plead the cause of his people by delivering or defending them, Psalm 43:1, or taking vengeance on the disobedient, Genesis 15:14, 2 Chronicles 20:12, Ezekiel 7:3. From the connexion, the words quoted by the Apostle appear to bear the former sense: "For the Lord shall judge his people, and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth that their power is gone, and there is none shut up, or left." As applied in the passage before us they refer to the punishment of apostates: "Vengeance belongeth to me, I will recompense saith the Lord and again, "The Lord will judge his people." Perhaps the lesson inculcated by the Apostle Isaiah, that while sin is that bitter thing which God's soul hateth, Hebrews, to whom vengeance belongeth, will visit with stripes the shortcomings of His people; but although He cause grief yet He will have compassion, according to the multitude of His mercies. Lamentations 3:32.

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Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/hebrews-10.html. 1835.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

30.How terrible this punishment we can realize when we realize who is its denouncer and author—God. We who have read truly know the speaker.

Vengeance’ me—An allusion to, but not exact quotation from, Deuteronomy 32:35: “To me belongeth vengeance and recompense.”

But the words agree exactly with Romans 12:19, an indication that either our author very minutely quotes Paul or is himself Paul: for the notion that the passage is a proverbial phrase then in use is arbitrary.

AgainDeuteronomy 32:36.

Judge—Either to avenge or punish his people or Church.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/hebrews-10.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Hebrews 10:30. .’ “For we know Him who said, vengeance is mine, I will repay.” The certainty of the punishment spoken of is based upon the righteousness of God. “We know who it is that said”; it is the living God (Hebrews 10:31). The quotation is from Deuteronomy 32:35 not as in the LXX but as given in Romans 12:19 where it is used as an argument for the surrender of private vengeance. In Deut. LXX the words are . The second quotation, ’ is from the following verse where the words intimate God’s protecting care of His people, using in the sense common in O.T. Delitzsch thinks that sense may be retained here, but this is less relevant and consistent with the passage. Cf.Sirach 27:28 . and Sirach 28:1. .’ “It is dreadful to fall into the hands of the living God”. Where David (2 Samuel 24:14) prefers to do so [ ] it is because he knows his chastisement will be measured and that no unjust advantage will be taken. The dreadfulness of the impenitent’s doom arises from the same certainty that absolute justice will be done. As Judge, God is “the living God,” who sees and has power to execute just judgment, cf.Hebrews 3:12, Hebrews 12:22, cf.Hebrews 12:29.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/hebrews-10.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

30. For we know who said. Since God is the real source of the New Covenant, any who renounce it and despise it must expect Him to take vengeance on them. The quotations are from Deuteronomy 32:35-36.

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/hebrews-10.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

30.For we know him that hath said, etc. Both the passages are taken from Deuteronomy 32:35. But as Moses there promises that God would take vengeance for the wrongs done to his people, it seems that the words are improperly and constrainedly applied to the vengeance referred to here; for what does the Apostle speak of? Even that the impiety of those who despised God would not be unpunished. Paul also in Romans 12:19, knowing the true sense of the passage, accommodates it to another purpose; for having in view to exhort us to patience, he bids us to give place to God to take vengeance, because this office belongs to him; and this he proves by the testimony of Moses. But there is no reason why we should not turn a special declaration to a universal truth. Though then the design of Moses was to console the faithful, as they would have God as the avenger of wrongs done to them; yet we may always conclude from his words that it is the peculiar office of God to take vengeance on the ungodly. Nor does he pervert his testimony who hence proves that the contempt of God will not be unpunished; for he is a righteous judge who claims to himself the office of taking vengeance.

At the same time the Apostle might here also reason from the less to the greater, and in this manner: “God says that he will not suffer his people to be injured with impunity, and declares that he will surely be their avenger: If he suffers not wrongs done to men to be unpunished, will he not avenge his own? Has he so little or no care and concern for his own glory, as to connive at and pass by indignities offered to him?” But the former view is more simple and natural, — that the Apostle only shows that God will not be mocked with impunity, since it is his peculiar office to render to the ungodly what they have deserved. (187)

The Lord shall judge his people. Here another and a greater difficulty arises; for the meaning of Moses seems not to agree with what here intended. The Apostle seems to have quoted this passage as though Moses had used the word punish, and not judge; but as it immediately follows by way of explanation, “He will be merciful to his saints,” it appears evident that to judge here is to act as a governor, according to its frequent meaning in the Hebrew; but this seems to have little to do with the present subject. Nevertheless he who weighs well all things will find that this passage is fitly and suitably adduced here; for God cannot govern the Church without purifying it, and without restoring to order the confusion that may be in it. Therefore this governing ought justly to be dreaded by hypocrites, who will then be punished for usurping a place among the faithful, and for perfidiously using the sacred name of God, when the master of the family undertakes himself the care of setting in order his own house. It is in this sense that God is said to arise to judge his people, that is, when he separates the truly godly from hypocrites, (Psalms 1:4;) and in Psalms 125:5, (188) where the Prophet speaks of exterminating hypocrites, that they might no more dare to boast that they were of the Church, because God bore with them; he promises peace to Israel after having executed his judgment.

It was not then unreasonably that the apostle reminded them that God presided over his Church and omitted nothing necessary for its rightful government, in order that they might all learn carefully to keep themselves under his power, and remember that they had to render an account to their judge. (189)

He hence concludes that it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. A mortal man, however incensed he may be, cannot carry his vengeance beyond death; but God’s power is not bounded by so narrow limits; besides, we often escape from men, but we cannot escape from God’s judgment. Who soever then considers that he has to do with God, must (except he be extremely stupid) really tremble and quake; nay, such an apprehension of God must necessarily absorb the whole man, so that no sorrows, or torments can be compared with it. In short, whenever our flesh allures us or we flatter ourselves by any means in our sins, this admonition alone ought to be sufficient to arouse us, that “it is a fearful thing to fall into to hands of the living God;” for his wrath is furnished with dreadful punishments which are to be forever.

However, the saying of David, when he exclaimed, that it was better to fall into Gods hands than into the hands of men, (2 Samuel 24:14,) seems to be inconsistent with what is said here. But this apparent inconsistency vanishes, when we consider that David, relying confidently on God’s mercy, chose him as his Judge rather than men; for though he knew that God was displeased with him, yet he felt confident that he would be reconciled to him; in himself, indeed, he was prostrate on the ground, but yet he was raised up by the promise of grace. As then he believed God not to be inexorable, there is no wonder that he dreaded his wrath less, than that of men; but the Apostle here speaks of God’s wrath as being dreadful to the reprobate, who being destitute of the hope of pardon, expect nothing but extreme severity, as they have already closed up against themselves the door of grace. And we know that God is set forth in various ways according to the character of those whom he addresses; and this is what David means when he says, “With the merciful thou wilt be merciful, and with the froward thou wilt be froward.” (Psalms 18:25.) (190)

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 10:30". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/hebrews-10.html. 1840-57.