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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Isaiah 45:3

"I will give you the treasures of darkness And hidden wealth of secret places, So that you may know that it is I, The Lord , the God of Israel, who calls you by your name.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Nave's Topical Bible - Call;   Cyrus;   Isaiah;   Persia;   Thompson Chain Reference - Knowledge;   Knowledge-Ignorance;   The Topic Concordance - Calling;   Election;   God;   Israel/jews;   Servants;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Medo-Persian Kingdom;  
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Cyrus;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Nation;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Persia;   Prophet;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Isaiah;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Election;   Micah, Book of;   Righteousness;   Servant of the Lord;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Call, Calling;   Messiah;   Quotations;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Election,;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Cyrus;   Hidden;   Medes;   Persia;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Cyrus;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Isa'iah, Book of;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Rich (and forms);  
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Kingdom of Judah;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Name;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Ahasuerus;   Darkness;   Memra;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Verse Isaiah 45:3. I will gave thee the treasures of darkness — Sardes and Babylon, when taken by Cyrus, were the wealthiest cities in the world. Croesus, celebrated beyond all the kings of that age for his riches, gave up his treasures to Cyrus, with an exact account in writing of the whole, containing the particulars with which each wagon was loaded when they were carried away; and they were delivered to Cyrus at the palace of Babylon. - Xenoph. Cyrop. lib. vii. p. 503, 515, 540.

Pliny gives the following account of the wealth taken by Cyrus in Asia. Jam Cyrus devicta Asia, pondo xxxiv. millia auri invenerat; praeter vasa aurea, aurumque factum, et in eo folia, ac platanum, vitemque. Qua victoria argenti quingenta millia talentorum reportavit; et craterem Semiramidis, cuius pondus quindecim talents colligebat. Talentum autem AEgyptium pondo lxxx. patere l. capere Varro tradit. - Nat. Hist. xxxiii. 15. "When Cyrus conquered Asia, he found thirty-four thousand pounds weight of gold, besides golden vessels and articles in gold; and leaves, (folia, perhaps solia, bathing vessels, Hol.,) a plane, and vine tree, (of gold.) By which victory he carried away fifteen thousand talents of silver; and the cup of Semiramis, the weight of which was fifteen talents. The Egyptian talent, according to Varro, was eighty pounds." This cup was the crater, or large vessel, out of which they filled the drinking cups at great entertainments. Evidently it could not be a drinking vessel, which, according to what Varro and Pliny say, must have weighed 1,200 pounds!

The gold and silver estimated by weight in this account, being converted into pounds sterling, amount to one hundred and twenty-six millions two hundred and twenty-four thousand pounds. - Brerewood, De Ponderibus, cap. x.

Treasures of darkness may refer to the custom of burying their jewels and money under the ground in their house floors, fearing robbers.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:3". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". 1832.

Bridgeway Bible Commentary

God uses Cyrus (45:1-19)

Cyrus’s many victories, and the power and wealth he gained through them, were all planned by God. God was preparing the way so that Cyrus could conquer Babylon and release the Jews. Throughout these events, Cyrus did not know God and was unaware that God was using him to carry out his purposes for Israel (45:1-4).
To Cyrus, his release of the captive Jews was a relatively minor event in his long and glorious career, but in the eyes of God it was the purpose for which he had risen to international power. When people recognize this as God’s doing, they will praise him as the only true God (5-7). Israel, meanwhile, will enter a new era of divine blessing (8).
Some Israelites may have questioned God’s wisdom in using a heathen king to bring about their restoration. God replies that they have no right to argue with him or question the way he deals with his children (9-11). God is the creator and controller of the universe. He has used Cyrus to give the Jews their freedom and the chance to rebuild Jerusalem, and the Jews have not needed to do anything. For this they should be thankful to God (12-13).
In addition, people of other foreign nations will give their assistance to Israel. They will forsake their idol-gods for the God who cannot be seen, the God of Israel (14-17). God always works to a plan, whether in creation or in the history of Israel. The chaos that resulted from Babylon’s destruction of Jerusalem is no cause for Jews to turn away from God in disappointment. They must not think that he has lost control of events or that he has some new mysterious plan for them. He will be true to his word and do for his people what he has purposed for them (18-19).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:3". "Brideway Bible Commentary". 2005.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And I will give thee the treasures of darkness - The treasures which kings have amassed, and which they have laid up in dark and secure places. The word ‘darkness,’ here, means that which was hidden, unknown, secret (compare Job 12:22). The treasures of the kings of the East were usually hidden in some obscure and strong place, and were not to be touched except in cases of pressing necessity. Alexander found vast quantities of treasure thus hidden among the Persians; and it was by taking such treasures that the rapacity of the soldiers who followed a conqueror was satisfied, and in fact by a division of the spoils thus taken that they were paid. There can be no doubt that large quantities of treasure in this manner would be found in Babylon. The following observations from Harmer (Obs. pp. 111, 511-513), will show that it was common to conceal treasures in this manner in the East; ‘We are told by travelers in the East, that they have met with great difficulties, very often from a notion universally disseminated among them, that all Europeans are magicians, and that their visits to those eastern countries are not to satisfy curiosity, but to find out, and get possession of those vast treasures they believe to be buried there in great quantities.

These representations are very common; but Sir John Chardin gives us a more particular and amusing account of affairs of this kind: “It is common in the Indies, for those sorcerers that accompany conquerors, everywhere to point out the place where treasures are bid. Thus, at Surat, when Siragi came thither, there were people who, with a stick striking on the ground or against walls, found out those that had been hollowed or dug up, and ordered such places to be opened.” He then intimates that something of this nature had happened to him in Mingrelia. Among the various contradictions that agitate the human breast, this appears to be a remarkable one; they firmly believe the power of magicians to discover bidden treasures, and yet they continue to hide them. Dr. Perry has given us all account of some mighty treasures hidden in the ground by some of the principal people of the Turkish empire, which, upon a revolution, were discovered by domestics privy to the secret.

D’Herbelot has given us accounts of treasures concealed in the same manner, some of them of great princes, discovered by accidents extremely remarkable: but this account of Chardin’s, of conquerors pretending to find out hidden treasures by means of sorcerers, is very extraordinary. As, however, people of this cast have made great pretences to mighty things, in all ages, and were not unfrequently confided in by princes, there is reason to believe they pretended sometimes, by their art, to discover treasures, anciently, to princes, of which they had gained intelligence by other methods; and, as God opposed his prophets, at various times, to pretended sorcerers, it is not unlikely that the prophet Isaiah points at some such prophetic discoveries, in those remarkable words Isaiah 45:3 : “And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I the Lord, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel.” I will give them, by enabling some prophet of mine to tell thee where they are concealed.

Such a supposition throws a great energy into those words.’ The belief that the ruins of cities abound with treasures that were deposited there long since, prevails in the East, and the inhabitants of those countries regard all travelers who come there, Burckhardt informs us, as coming to find treasures, and as having power to remove them by enchantment. ‘It is very unfortunate,’ says he, ‘for European travelers, that the idea of treasures being hidden in ancient edifices is so strongly rooted in the minds of the Arabs and Turks; they believe that it is sufficient for a true magician to have seen and observed the spot where treasures are hidden (of which be is supposed to be already informed by the old books of the infidels who lived on the spot), in order to be able afterward at his ease to command the guardian of the treasure to set the whole before him. It was of no avail to tell them to follow me and see whether I searched for money.

Their reply was, “Of course you will not dare to take it out before us, but we know that if you are a skillful magician you will order it to follow you through the air to whatever place you please.” If the traveler takes the dimensions of a building or a column, they are persuaded it is a magical proceeding.’ (Travels in Syria, pp. 428, 429. Ed. Lond. 4to, 1822.) Laborde, in his account of a visit to Petra, or Sela, has given an account of a splendid temple cut in the solid rock, which is called the Khasne, or ‘treasury of Pharaoh.’ It is sculptured out of an enormous block of freestone, and is one of the most splendid remains of antiquity. It is believed by the Arabs to have been the place where Pharaoh, supposed to have been the founder of the costly edifices of Petra, had deposited his wealth. ‘After having searched in vain,’ says Laborde, ‘all the coffins and funeral monuments, to find his wealth, they supposed it must be in the urn which surmounted the Khasne. But, unhappily, being out of their reach, it has only served the more to kindle their desires.

Hence, whenever they pass through the ravine, they stop for a moment, charge their guns, aim at the urn, and endeavor by firing at it, to break off some fragments, with a view to demolish it altogether, and get at the treasure which it is supposed to contain.’ (Laborde’s Sinai and Petra, p. 170. Ed. Lond. 1836.) The treasures which Cyrus obtained in his conquests are known to have been immense. Sardis, the capital of Croesus, king of Lydia, the most wealthy monarch of his time, was, according to Herodotus (i. 84), given up to be plundered; and his hoarded wealth became the spoil of the victor (see also Xen. Cyr. vii.) That Babylon abounded in treasures is expressly declared by Jeremiah Jeremiah 51:13 : ‘O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in treasures.’ These treasures also, according to Jeremiah Jeremiah 50:37, became the spoil of the conqueror of the city. Pithy also has given a description of the wealth which Cyrus obtained in his conquests, which strikingly confirms what Isaiah here declares: ‘Cyrus, in the conquest of Asia, obtained thirty-four thousand pounds weight of gold, besides golden vases, and gold that was made with leaves, and the palm-tree, and the vine.

In which victory also he obtained five hundred thousand talents of silver, and the goblet of Semiramis, which weighed fifteen talents.’ (Nat. Hist. 33. 3.) Brerewood has estimated that this gold and silver amounted to one hundred and twenty-six million, and two hundred and twenty-four thousand pounds sterling. (De Pon. et Men. 10.) Babylon was the center of an immense traffic that was carried on between the eastern parts of Asia and the western parts of Asia and Europe. For a description of this commerce, see an article in the Bib. Rep. vol. vii. pp. 364-390. Babylonian garments, it will be remembered, of great value, had made their way to Palestine in the time of Joshua Joshua 7:21. Tapestries embroidered with figures of griffons and other monsters of eastern imagination were articles of export (Isaac Vossius, Observatio). Carpets were made there of the finest materials and workmanship, and formed an article of extensive exportation. They were of high repute in the times of Cyrus; whose tomb at Pasargada was adorned with them (Arrian, Exped. Alex. vi. 29). Great quantities of gold were used in Babylon. The vast image of gold erected by Nebuchadnezzar in the plain of Dura is proof enough of this fact. The image was sixty cubits high and six broad Daniel 3:1. Herodotus (i. 183) informs us that the Chaldeans used a thousand talents of frankincense annually in the temple of Jupiter.

That thou mayest know - That from these signal successes, and these favors of heaven, you may learn that Yahweh is the true God. This he would learn because he would see that he owed it to heaven (see the note at Isaiah 45:2); and because the prediction which God had made of his success would convince him that he was the true and only God. That it had this effect on Cyrus is apparent from his own proclamation (see Ezra 1:2). God took this method of making himself known to the monarch of the most mighty kingdom of the earth, in order, as he repeatedly declares, that through his dealings with kingdoms and people he may be acknowledged.

Which call thee by thy name - (See the notes at Isaiah 43:1). That thou mayest know that I, who so long before designated thee by name, am the true God. The argument is, that none but God could have foretold the name of him who should be the deliverer of his people.

Am the God of Israel - That the God of Israel was the true and only God. The point to be made known was not that he was the God of Israel, but that the God of Israel was Yahweh the true God.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:3". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". 1870.

Chuck Smith Bible Commentary

Chapter 45

Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have held, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings ( Isaiah 45:1 ),

You remember I told you he prophesied that Nebuchadnezzar's knees will be smited together. "His loins were loose," the Bible says, "his knees smote one against another" ( Daniel 5:6 ). And God here predicted, "I'm going to loose the loins of the kings." It happened to be Belshazzar.

to open before him the two-leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut ( Isaiah 45:1 );

Now, in the city of Babylon, which, of course, was considered to be impregnable against his enemies, had walls 300 feet high, eighty feet thick, that encircled the city fifteen miles square, the outer wall, the moats, the river Euphrates flowing through the midst of the city, the big wide thoroughfares going from one end of the city to the other, blocking it off into the fifteen major square mile areas. And where the walls, where the river Euphrates flowed through, they built walls along the upper bank of the river Euphrates. And they had at these fifteen major intersections where these roads crossed the river Euphrates, they had built these bridges across the river Euphrates and they had these great gates in the wall that they would open for the concourse of the people through the streets of Babylon. But at night, the gates would be shut and barred.

Now when Cyrus came with the Medo-Persian army and began his siege of Babylon, Belshazzar felt so secure within the city that in more or less defiance against Cyrus and the Medo-Persian army, he ordered this great feast, where for months they were feasting, drinking, partying because they felt so secure within this great fortress of the city of Babylon. Now Cyrus in studying the situation realized that there was no way that they could assault the walls, 300 feet high. No way could these walls be assaulted. So he devised upon a scheme of building diversion channels for the river Euphrates. And they went upriver to divert the channels or divert the river Euphrates into these channels. And then on this particular night, which so happened to be the night that Belshazzar ordered the golden vessels that his grandfather Nebuchadnezzar had taken from the temple in Jerusalem, on this night they turned the river Euphrates into the channels and the soldiers came through on the banks of the river under the wall. But then they had the problem of these great gates and the wall that was there along the river Euphrates. But for some reason, probably because the soldiers were so drunk from the parties, they had not locked the gates to these walls that night. And so the troops of Cyrus were able to come through these gates that were open and were able, of course, to conquer the city of Babylon that evening.

Now, again, notice what God said concerning Cyrus, "I will loose the loins of the kings to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut." That was 200 years or not quite, a hundred and eighty years, hundred and ninety years before the event took place, God speaks of it, naming Cyrus as the king that would be involved. Calling him by his name.

I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass, I will cut in sunder the bars of iron: And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places ( Isaiah 45:2-3 ),

Of course, he gained the tremendous wealth of the Babylonian Empire.

that thou mayest know that I, the LORD, which call thee by thy name ( Isaiah 45:3 ),

Now God's bragging a little bit. "I've called you by your name."

am the God of Israel. For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though you have not known me ( Isaiah 45:3-4 ).

Interesting indeed that God names the king who will give the decree for the rebuilding of the city of Jerusalem after their Babylonian captivity. God calls him, "My shepherd." And, "You're the one that is going to release My people from their captivity. I've subdued the nations before you. I will open the gates, the leaved gates," and so forth. And God calls him by name and gives out the detail. That's why God said, "Hey, if you're gods, tell us something before it happens so that when it happens we'll really know that you may know that I am God. There is none like me; I am the Lord. I frustrate the tokens and so forth. I confirm the word. And I say of Cyrus, 'He is My shepherd and will perform My pleasure."

No way, no way could this be written except by divine inspiration of God. No way Isaiah could know this. No way Isaiah could call the guy by his name except God who dwells outside of our time domain, looking into the time domain, speaks to a man within the time domain because He knows outside of the time domain the things that are going to be. He is able to tell him what is going to be the names of the people and the events and how they are going to transpire. And so we have here a message from an extraterrestrial source that is outside of our time domain. God speaking to man. The eternal God declaring things before they happen that we might know that He is God when we see them happen. Marvelous prophecy.

And, of course, the Bible critics when they get again something like this they just say, "Well, there were two Isaiahs and this one was written after the event. Quite obvious."

I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though you have not known me: That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the LORD, and there is none else. I form the light, I create darkness: I make peace, I create evil ( Isaiah 45:5-7 ):

Now this verse has caused a lot of problems to people where God said, "I create evil." And the problem is caused probably in the translation of the Greek of the Hebrew word ra, which word in Hebrew means sorrow or wretchedness or adversity or calamities or afflictions. Now it was unfortunately translated evil, but we know that God did not create evil. But He did create the calamities and the afflictions that would come upon those who did evil. So it's just an unfortunate translation. The Hebrew word is ra, which means sorrow or wretchedness or calamity or adversity or affliction. It has never been translated sin.

I the LORD do all these things. Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness: let the earth open, and let them bring forth salvation, and let righteousness spring up together; I the LORD have created it. Woe unto him who strives with his Maker! ( Isaiah 45:7-9 )

Now, God has told us all that He has done, all that He is. And then He says, "Woe." Isaiah says, "Woe unto the man who strives with his Maker." Man, to strive with God has to be the height of folly. Woe unto the man who is striving with God. And yet, how many people do strive with God. They fight with God. They run against God. They try to run away from God. "Woe unto him who strives with his Maker."

Why would a man strive with God? Because he has the wrong concept of God. That's the only reason I can conceive a man striving with God, because he has the wrong concept of God. If you had a true concept of God, you wouldn't want to strive with Him because you know that what God has for your life is the very best that could ever happen to you. Why fight it? God said, "My purposes towards thee are good, not evil" ( Jeremiah 29:11 ). Why fight it? But woe unto him who is fighting with God, because he is fighting against his own good. And there are people who do strive with God. But if they win, then they've really lost. God says, "My Spirit will not always strive with man" ( Genesis 6:3 ). But people strive against the Spirit of God and the work of God's Spirit in our hearts, in the rejecting and the refusing of Jesus Christ. "Woe unto that man who strives with his Maker." The woe of God's judgment will come upon the man who wins in that strife. If you refuse God, if you refuse to submit your life to God, oh, what judgment and woe is destined upon your life. But how foolish it is to fight with God. "Woe to him who strives with his Maker."

Let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth. Shall the clay say to him that fashioneth it, What are you making? or to thy work, He has no hands? ( Isaiah 45:9 )

Here's a bit of clay on the table and it's spinning. The potter's getting ready to shape it. And so he begins to mold and the clay begins to, "Hey, what are you making out of me?" You see, the clay has no power over its own destiny. It's in the hand of the potter what the clay is to be. And in the same token, we really have no power over our destiny. Our lives are as clay in the hand of God. He has the capacity to form of us whatever He wants. But woe unto the man who strives with his Maker, who begins to challenge the work of God in his life. "I don't want to be that. I don't want to do that. Why are You doing that?" You see, God has a purpose and a plan for you that you can only discover by yielding to God. The potter has in his mind that which he wants this bit of clay to become. The clay of itself is pretty worthless. It's so common, one of the most common elements in the earth today-clay. But the clay has the capacity for infinite value according to the ability of the potter.

Now if the potter is capable, he can take a worthless bit of clay and make it into something of great worth and great value. Now who can deny the ability of God, the Master Potter, to take our lives which are so common, and yet to make something uncommon of us. Something of great value and worth as He makes me a vessel that He might use for His purpose. So God has in mind that which He wants my life to be. I can only discover what God has in His mind by yielding my life to God. But He shows the folly of the clay objecting to the potter or trying to direct the potter.

Woe unto him that saith unto his father, What have you begotten? or to the woman, What have you brought forth? Thus saith the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker, Ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me. For I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded. I have raised him up in righteousness [talking of Cyrus], and I will direct all his ways: he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for a price or for a reward, saith the LORD of hosts ( Isaiah 45:10-13 ).

He's going to do it. Not for a price, not for reward, not for bribery, but I've raised him up for that purpose. God formed him for that purpose.

Now the Lord in verse Isaiah 45:11 challenges us to ask Him concerning things to come. "Command ye the work of My hands, concerning the work of My hands, command ye Me." Now this doesn't mean as it has been interpreted by men today that we have the power to command God to do things that we want done upon the earth, that through prayer we can command God to perform certain things. To consider God as a glorified Santa Claus in the sky is a wrong concept of God completely. And to think of prayer as an agency to get my will done is the wrong concept of prayer completely. The real purpose and thrust of prayer is to get God's will done. You see, if I use prayer to get my will done, then I would be governing the universe. I would be guiding and directing the affairs of my life and the lives of men around me. I would be in control. The clay would be determining its own destiny. That's not what it's all about. The real purpose of prayer is to get God's will done and to submit my life to God and to come into harmony with His purposes for me, because His plans for me are far wiser than mine could ever be. His knowledge of the situation is far greater than mine. And it would be sheer folly for me to try to command God to do things as I see and as I think they ought to be done. I could botch up this whole world in ten minutes with that kind of prayer. Not to get my will done, to do the work of the Father.

So God declares to Cyrus, "I've raised him up."

Thus saith the LORD, The labor of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabaeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, saying, Surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God [beside yours]. Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself, O God of Israel, the Saviour. They shall be ashamed, and also confounded, all of them: they shall go into confusion together that are makers of idols. But Israel shall be saved in the LORD with an everlasting salvation: ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end ( Isaiah 45:14-17 ).

God going to cast off Israel? Never! World without end God is going to be dealing with them. The everlasting work of God and salvation of God to these people. You say, "But I don't like the Jews." That's tough. God does. And God has promised to work with them.

For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else ( Isaiah 45:18 ).

Now there are some who use this particular scripture to support what is known as the gap theory. That is, that between verses Isaiah 45:1 , and Isaiah 45:2 of Genesis, there does exist a gap of an indeterminate period of time. "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." Now between that statement and the next, which declares, "And the earth was without form, and void," there are many Bible scholars who believe that there is an indeterminate period of time between those two verses. In that indefinite period of time, God created the angels, including Satan, and during that period of time Satan rebelled against God and against the authority of God. So that in verse Isaiah 45:1 of Genesis, you have the original creation declared, "In the beginning God created (bara), the heavens and the earth." They would translate verse Isaiah 45:2 , "But the earth became wasted, and desolate; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved or brooded over the face of the waters."

By seeing this indefinite period of time between verses Isaiah 45:1 , and Isaiah 45:2 of Genesis, they can then rationalize all of the fossils that are dated back to several million years. Makes no difference because of this indefinite time period that they see existing between verse Isa 45:1-2 of Genesis. And this is one of the verses that they use to prove this idea. There are many verses, this being one of them as God declares concerning His creation of the earth, "I created it not in vain." Or, "I did not create it without form and void." Now for God to create something without form and void does seem to be inconsistent with the creation of God, because God looked upon the days of His creation and He saw that it was good.

And so for God to create something without form and void would be inconsistent with the nature of God's creation which is good. And God saw all of the things that He created and they were good. So when God created the earth, they believed that in the original creation, that He created the earth to be inhabited and that it was inhabited by what we would call prehistoric beings. That Adam became the first of man after man in the present form. But it is quite possible that prior to Genesis, and these recreative acts of God, that there were other beings that inhabited the earth in prehistoric times. And that as the result of perhaps Satan's fall, for they do theorize that it is possible that Satan actually was the ruler over the earth in this period of indefinite time between verse Isaiah 45:1-2. As God, and we will get to it in Ezekiel, said concerning Satan, "I have set thee in Eden," or "I have set thee in Eden. Yes, I have set thee in Eden, the garden of God. Every precious... I have set thee in the garden of God. Every precious stone was for thy covering, the onyx, the carbuncle, sardius and so forth. And thou was perfect in wisdom, perfect in all of thy ways until the day that iniquity was found in thee" ( Ezekiel 28:13 , Ezekiel 28:15 ). And then he speaks of his being cast out, cast down and so forth. So this is one of the verses. God said, "I didn't create the earth vain. I didn't create it without form. I created it to be inhabited." And thus the argument for the gap between verses Isaiah 45:1 , and Isaiah 45:2 of Genesis.

There are... Pember's Earth's Earliest Ages is probably one of the best presentations of the gap theory. And he presents quite an argument in his book, Earth's Earliest Ages by Pember. There are others such as Dr. Morris in his book, The Genesis Record, which does not believe that a gap does exist between verse Isa 45:1-2 of Genesis. He has difficulty determining when the angels were created and when Satan fell. Because it wasn't long after man was in the Garden of Eden that Satan in his fallen form came and tempted him. So if Morris' theory is correct that it all happened just 7,000 or 6,000 years ago, and that within this short span of time everything was created, and Satan has fallen and everything else, then there are difficulties with Morris' theory even as there are difficulties with the gap theory.

But either one of them in my mind are credible. You say, "But if we were only created 7,000 years ago, how do you explain all the fossils and all this kind of stuff that we've carbon dated?" Well, there could be a mistake in carbon dating, or how old was Adam when God created him? Day that God created Adam and breathed His breath of life into Adam, how old was Adam? He must have been one day old. But if he was one day old, he had the skeletal form of an adult. He no doubt had teeth and he had muscle coordination. So when God created Adam, He would have to create him as an adult, which means that he would already have age-dating factors built in. You look at his teeth and you say, "He's got the teeth of a thirty-year old." There would be the age-dating factors that were built in, though he was one day old. There were age-dating factors built in. God could very well have created the earth with age-dating factors built into the thing. All of the fossils, He could have just created them all just to confuse men. How big is your God? If He created man with age-dating factors, then He could very well have created the earth with age-dating factors. The universe with age-dating factors. So we'll leave that for the more learned men to worry about.

I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth: I said not unto the seed of Jacob, Seek ye me in vain: I the LORD speak righteousness, I declare the things that are right. Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ye that are escaped of the nations: they have no knowledge that set up the wood of their graven image, and pray unto a god that cannot save ( Isaiah 45:19-20 ).

People are ignorant that do these things.

Tell ye, and bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together: who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath told it from that time? have not I the LORD? and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; and there is none beside me ( Isaiah 45:21 ).

Now, the Bible is a revelation of God. Men may develop their concepts of God, but they're wrong. Because men in developing his concept of God makes a god after his own image, after his own likeness. He has an anthropomorphic concept of God. But God has declared Himself, God has revealed Himself and the Bible is God's revelation. And here we have this glorious, awesome description of God as He declares Himself to us. He said, "Look unto Me," for He said, "I'm a Savior; there is none like Me. I'm a just God."

Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else. I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and it shall not return ( Isaiah 45:22-23 ).

God said I have sworn this, the word is gone out, it's not going to return. It's going to happen. Why?

every knee is going to bow, every tongue shall swear ( Isaiah 45:23 ).

Now Paul tells us in Philippians, "Let this mind be also in you, which was in Christ Jesus: who, being in the form of God, and thought it not something to be grasped to be equal with God, humbled Himself or emptied Himself and took on the form of a man and came in likeness as His servant. Was obedient even unto death, the death of the cross. Wherefore God has also highly exalted Him, and given Him a name that is above every name. That at the name of Jesus every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is the Lord, to the glory of God the Father" ( Philippians 2:5-11 ). God said, "I have declared it. I've sworn by Myself."

Now in Hebrews it says because God can't swear by any higher; He has to swear by Himself. Now, he says when a man takes an oath he takes an oath by something greater. But when God takes an oath, God wants to declare a truth, He can't swear by anything greater so He has to swear by Himself. But in order that it might be confirmed by an oath that shall not be broken, God does swear by Himself. And whenever you get this in the scripture, you know you're getting into something that is more positive than anything else in life or in the world. It shall be. It cannot be broken. It shall come to pass. The day will come when every knee shall bow and every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is the Lord to the glory of God the Father. But for many, that day will be too late for their own salvation, tragically. They may curse Him now. They may swear by His name now in a profane way, but the day will come when every knee shall bow. God said, "I have sworn it."

Surely shall one say, In the LORD have I righteousness and strength: even to him shall men come; and all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed ( Isaiah 45:24 ).

Oh, what a shame for those who have spoken against Jesus Christ in that day. Heavy, heavy.

In the LORD shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory ( Isaiah 45:25 ).

Powerful, powerful, powerful stuff.

Father, we thank You for the certainty of Your Word. We stand in awe before Thee, O God, the Creator of the heaven and the earth and everything that is in them. Who have declared the former things and also have declared to us the things that shall yet come to pass. Lord, we bow our knee before Thee tonight and we confess that Thou alone art God. There is none beside Thee. Who is like Thee, O God? Great and majesty and in power and in glory. Truly Lord, honor and dominion are Yours. Praise and worship is to be given unto Thee. O God, open our lips that we might praise Thy name. Open our hearts that we might, Lord, just worship Thee in spirit and in truth. And help us, O Lord, to yield ourselves unto Thee as unto the Master Potter, knowing that Your ways are best for us. And thus, may we yield our lives to the touch of Your Spirit that You might make of us that which You would have us to be. Vessels, Lord, that are for Thy glory. Bringing praise and glory unto Thy name. O Lord, Thou art God. We worship Thee. In Jesus' name. "

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Bibliographical Information
Smith, Charles Ward. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:3". "Chuck Smith Bible Commentary". 2014.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

God’s promise to Cyrus 45:1-8

The promise to Cyrus was, of course, for the benefit of the Israelites who wondered how God would restore them to the land as He promised.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:3". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". 2012.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The instrument of redemption 45:1-13

This section begins with God’s promise to Cyrus (Isaiah 45:1-8; cf. Psalms 2; Psalms 110) and concludes with a vindication of God’s right to use whom He will (Isaiah 45:9-13).

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Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

God would precede and prepare the way for His conqueror. He would find it relatively easy to overcome his enemies, Lydia and Babylon, and to take even their hidden treasures, those kept in secret vaults. One reason God would do this was so Cyrus would learn that Yahweh, the God of Israel, had blessed him. This is not a promise that Cyrus would become a believer in Yahweh but that he would know that Yahweh was behind what had happened to him (cf. the Pharaoh of the Exodus). On the famous Cyrus Cylinder, Cyrus credited Marduk, a Babylonian idol, for his victories. [Note: See Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near . . ., pp. 315-16.] Yet, in 2 Chronicles 36:23 and Ezra 1:2, he gave Yahweh some credit. Probably Cyrus, being a polytheist, honored many gods-including Yahweh-for his victories.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:3". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". 2012.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And I will give thee treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places,.... What had been laid up in private places, and had not seen the light for many years. The Jewish Rabbins say f, that Nebuchadnezzar having amassed together all the riches of the world, when he drew near his end, considered with himself to whom he should leave it; and being unwilling to leave it to Evilmerodach, he ordered ships of brass to be built, and filled them with it, and dug a place in Euphrates, and hid them in it, and turned the river upon them; and that day that Cyrus ordered the temple to be built, the Lord revealed them to him: the riches of Croesus king of Lydia, taken by Cyrus, are meant; especially what he found in Babylon, which abounded in riches,

Jeremiah 51:13. Pliny g says, when he conquered Asia, he brought away thirty four thousand pounds of gold, besides golden vessels, and five hundred thousand talents of silver, and the cup of Semiramis, which weighed fifteen talents. Xenophon h makes mention of great riches and treasures which Cyrus received from Armenius, Gobryas, and Croesus:

that thou mayest know that I the Lord, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel; to call him by name two hundred years, or near it, before he was born, was a proof that he was God omniscient, and knew things before they were, and could call things that were not, as though they were; and this Cyrus was made acquainted with; for, as Josephus i says, he read this prophecy in Isaiah concerning him; and all this being exactly fulfilled in him, obliged him to acknowledge him the Lord, to be the Lord God of heaven, and the Lord God of Israel, Ezra 1:2.

f Vide Abendana in Miclol Yophi in Ioc. g Nat. Hist. l. 33. c. 3. h Cyropaedia, l. 3. c. 3. l. 5. c. 4. l. 7. c. 14. i Antiqu. l. 11. c. 1. sect. 2.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:3". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". 1999.

Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible

Prophecies Concerning Cyrus. B. C. 708.

      1 Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut;   2 I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron:   3 And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I, the LORD, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel.   4 For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me.

      Cyrus was a Mede, descended (as some say) from Astyages king of Media. The pagan writers are not agreed in their accounts of his origin. Some tell us that in his infancy he was an outcast, left exposed, and was saved from perishing by a herdsman's wife. However, it is agreed that, being a man of an active genius, he soon made himself very considerable, especially when Crœsus king of Lydia made a descent upon his country, which he not only repulsed, but revenged, prosecuting the advantages he had gained against Crœsus with such vigour that in a little time he took Sardis and made himself master of the rich kingdom of Lydia and the many provinces that then belonged to it. This made him very great (for Crœsus was rich to a proverb) and enabled him to pursue his victories in many countries; but it was nearly ten years afterwards that, in conjunction with his uncle Darius and with the forces of Persia, he made this famous attack upon Babylon, which is here foretold, and which we have the history of Dan. 5. Babylon had now grown exorbitantly rich and strong. It was forty-five miles in compass (some say more): the walls were thirty-two feet thick and 100 cubits high. Some say, They were so thick that six chariots might drive abreast upon them; others say, They were fifty cubits thick and 200 high. Cyrus seems to have had a great ambition to make himself master of this place, and to have projected it long; and at last he performed it. Now here, 210 years before it came to pass, we are told,

      I. What great things God would do for him, that he might put it into his power to release his people. In order to this he shall be a mighty conqueror and a wealthy monarch and nations shall become tributaries to him and help him both with men and money. Now that which God here promised to do for Cyrus he could have done for Zerubbabel, or some of the Jews themselves; but the wealth and power of this world God has seldom seen fit to entrust his own people with much of, so many are the snares and temptations that attend them; but if here has been occasion, for the god of the church, to make use of them, God has been pleased rather to put them into the hands of others, to be employed for them, than to venture them in their own hands. Cyrus is here called God's anointed, because he was both designed and qualified for this great service by the counsel of God, and was to be herein a type of the Messiah. God engages to hold his right hand, not only to strengthen and sustain him, but to direct his motions and intentions, as Elisha put his hands upon the king's hands when he was to shoot his arrow against Syria, 2 Kings 13:16. Being under such direction,

      1. He shall extend his conquests very far and shall make nothing of the opposition that will be given him. Babylon is too strong a place for a young hero to begin with; and therefore, that he may be able to deal with that, great additions shall be made to his strength by other conquests. (1.) Populous kingdoms shall yield to him. God will subdue nations before him; when he is in the full career of his successes he shall make nothing of a nation's being born to him at once: yet it is not he that subdues them; it is God that subdues them for him; the battle is his, and therefore his is the victory. (2.) Potent kings shall fall before him: I will loose the loins of kings, either the girdle of their loins (divesting them of their power and dignity) or the strength of their loins, and then it was literally fulfilled in Belshazzar, for, when he was terrified by the handwriting on the wall, the joints of his loins were loosed,Daniel 5:6. (3.) Great cities shall surrender themselves into his hands, without giving him or themselves any trouble. God will incline the keepers of the city to open before him the two-leaved gates, not treacherously nor timorously, but from a full conviction that it is to no purpose to contend with him; and therefore the gates shall not be shut to keep him out as an enemy, but thrown open to admit him as a friend. (4.) The longest and most dangerous marches shall be made easy and ready to him: I will go before thee, to clear the way, and to conduct thee in it, and then the crooked places, shall be made straight; or, as some read it, the hilly places shall be levelled and made even. Those will find a ready road that have God going before them. (5.) No opposition shall stand before him. He that gives him his commission will break in pieces the gates of brass that are shut against him, and cut asunder the bars of iron wherewith they are fastened. This was fulfilled in the letter, if that be true which Herodotus reports, that the city of Babylon had 100 gates all of brass, with posts and hooks of the same metal.

      2. He shall replenish his coffers very much (Isaiah 45:3; Isaiah 45:3): I will give thee the treasures of darkness, treasures of gold and silver, that have been long kept close under lock and key and had not seen the light of many years, or had been buried under ground by the inhabitants, in their fright, upon the taking of the city. The riches of many nations had been brought to Babylon, and Cyrus seized all together. The hidden riches of secret places, which belonged either to the crown or to private persons, shall all be a prey to Cyrus. Thus God, designing him to do a piece of service to his church, paid him richly for it beforehand; and Cyrus very honestly owned God's goodness to him, and, in consideration of that, released the captives. Ezra 1:2, God has given me all the kingdoms of the earth and thereby has obliged me to build him a house at Jerusalem.

      II. We are here told what God designed in doing all this for Cyrus. What Cyrus aimed at in undertaking his wars we may easily guess; but what God aimed at in giving him such wonderful success in his wars we are here told.

      1. It was that the God of Israel might be glorified: "That thou mayest know by all this that I the Lord am the God of Israel; for I have called thee by thy name long before thou wast born." When Cyrus should have this prophecy of Isaiah shown to him, and should there find his own name and his own achievements particularly described so long before, he should thereby be brought to acknowledge that the God of Israel was the Lord, Jehovah, the only living and true God, and that he continued to own his Israel though now in captivity. It is well when thus men's prosperity brings them to the knowledge of God, for too often it makes them forget him.

      2. It was that the Israel of God might be released, Isaiah 45:4; Isaiah 45:4. Cyrus knew not God as the God of Israel. Having been trained up in the worship of idols, the true God was to him an unknown God. But, though he knew not God, God not only knew him when he came into being, but foreknew him, and bespoke him for his shepherd. He called him by his name, Cyrus, nay, which was yet great honour, he surnamed him and called him his anointed. And why did God do all this for Cyrus? Not for his own sake, be it known to him; whether he was a man of virtue or no is questioned. Xenophon indeed, when he would describe the heroic virtues of an excellent prince, made use of Cyrus's name, and many of the particulars of his story, in his Cyropædia; but other historians represent him as haughty, cruel, and bloodthirsty. The reason why God preferred him was for Jacob his servant's sake. Note, (1.) In all the revolutions of states and kingdoms, the sudden falls of the great and strong, and the surprising advancements of the weak and obscure, God is designing the good of his church. (2.) It is therefore the wisdom of those to whom God has given wealth and power to use them for his glory, by showing kindness to his people. Cyrus is preferred that Israel may be released. He shall have a kingdom, only that God's people may have their liberty; for their kingdom is not of this world, it is yet to come. In all this Cyrus was a type of Christ, who was made victorious over principalities and powers, and entrusted with unsearchable riches, for the use and benefit of God's servants, his elect. When he ascended on high he led captivity captive, took those captives that had taken others captives, and opened the prison to those that were bound.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Henry, Matthew. "Complete Commentary on Isaiah 45:3". "Matthew Henry Complete Commentary on the Whole Bible". 1706.