Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Isaiah 65:4

Who sit among graves and spend the night in secret places; Who eat swine's flesh, And the broth of unclean meat is in their pots.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Broth;   Burial;   Church;   Condescension of God;   Idolatry;   Self-Righteousness;   Swine;   Thompson Chain Reference - Animals;   Swine;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Burial;   Jews, the;   Swine;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Sepulchre;   Swine;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Flesh;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Boar;   Swine;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Boar;   Divination;   Manasseh (2);   Holman Bible Dictionary - Ancestors;   Animals;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Abomination;   Idolatry;   Magic, Divination, and Sorcery;   Micah, Book of;   Monument;   Righteousness;   Servant of the Lord;   Swine;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Animals;   Strangled ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Swine;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Broth;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Sleep;   Swine;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Abomination;   Broth;   Divide;   Monument;   Salvation;   Swine;   Vault;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Boar;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Abomination;   Astarte Worship among the Hebrews;   Cemetery;   Church Fathers;   High Place;   Necromancy;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Which remain among the graves - "For the purpose of evoking the dead. They lodged in desert places that demons might appear to them; for demons do appear in such places, to those who do believe in them." - Kimchi.

In the monuments "In the caverns" - בנצורים bannetsurim, a word of doubtful signification. An ancient MS. has בצורים batstsurim, another בצרים batstsurim, "in the rocks;" and Le Clec thinks the Septuagint had it so in their copy. They render it by εν τοις στηλαιοις, "in the caves."

Which eat swine's flesh - This was expressly forbidden by the law, Leviticus 11:7, but among the heathen was in principal request in their sacrifices and feasts. Antiochus Epiphanes compelled the Jews to eat swine's flesh, as a full proof of their renouncing their religion, 2 Maccabees 6:18 and 7:1. "And the broth of abominable meats," for lustrations, magical arts, and other superstitious and abominable practices.

In their vessels - For כליהם keleyhem, a MS. had at first בכליהם bichleyhem . So the Vulgate and Chaldee, (and the preposition seems necessary to the sense), "in their vessels."

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/isaiah-65.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Which remain among the graves - That is, evidently for purposes of necromancy and divination. They do it to appear to hold converse with the dead, and to receive communications from them. The idea in necromancy was, that departed spirits must be acquainted with future events, or at least with the secret things of the invisible world where they dwelt, and that certain persons, by various arts, could become intimate with them, or ‹familiar‘ with them, and, by obtaining their secrets, be able to communicate important truths to the living. It seems to have been supposed that this acquaintance might be increased by lodging in the tombs and among the monuments, that they might thus be near to the dead, and have more intimate communion with them (compare the notes at Isaiah 8:19-20). It is to be recollected, that tombs among the ancients, and especially in Oriental countries, were commonly excavations from the sides of hills, or frequently were large caves. Such places would furnish spacious lodgings for those who chose to reside there, and were, in fact, often resorted to by those who had no houses, and by robbers (see Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:3).

And lodge in the monuments - Evidently for some purpose of superstition and idolatry. There is, however, some considerable variety in the exposition of the word rendered here ‹monuments,‘ as well as in regard to the whole passage. The word rendered ‹lodge‘ (ילינוּ yâliynû ), means properly to pass the night, and refers not to a permanent dwelling in any place, but to remaining over night; and the probability is, that they went to the places referred to, to sleep - in order that they might receive communications in their dreams from idols, by being near them, or in order that they might have communication with departed spirits. The word rendered ‹monuments‘ (נצוּרים netsûrı̂ym ) is derived from נצר nâtsar to watch, to guard, to keep; then to keep from view, to hide - and means properly hidden recesses; and dark and obscure retreats. It may be applied either to the adyta or secret places of pagan temples where their oracles were consulted and many of their rites were performed; or it may be applied to sepulchral caverns, the dark and hidden places where the dead were buried. The Septuagint renders it, ‹They sleep in tombs and in caves ( ἐν τοῖς σπηλαίοις en tois spēlaiois ) for the purpose of dreaming‘ ( διὰ ἐνύπνια dia enupnia ); in allusion to the custom of sleeping in the temples, or near the oracles of their gods, for the purpose of obtaining from them communications by dreams. This custom is not unfrequently alluded to by the ancient writers. An instance of this kind occurs in Virgil:

- huc dona sacerdos

Cum tulit, et caesarum ovium sub nocte silenti

Pellibus incubuit stratis, somnosque petivit:

Multa modis simulacra videt volitantia miris,

Et varias audit voces, fruiturque Deorum,

Colloquio, atque imis Acheronta affatur Avernis.

AEaeid, vii. 86-91.

‹Here in distress the Italian nations come,

Anxious to clear their doubts and earn their doom;

First on the fleeces of the slaughter‘d sheep,

By night the sacred priest dissolves in sleep;

When in a train before his slumbering eye,

Their airy forms and wondrous visions fly:

He calls the powers who guard the infernal floods,

And talks inspired familiar with the gods.‘

Pitt

In the temples of Serapis and AEsculapius, it was common for the sick and infirm who came there to be cured, to sleep there, with the belief that the proper remedy would be communicated by dreams. ‹The following places may also be referred to as illustrating this custom: Pausan. Phoc. 31; Cic. Divin. i. 43; Strabo vi. 3,9; S. H. Meibom. De incubatione in fanta Deorum olim facta. Helmst. 1659,4. Lowth and Noyes render it, ‹In caverns.‘ The Chaldee renders it, ‹Who dwelt in houses which are built of the dust of sepulchres, and abide with the dead bodies of dead people.‘ There can be no doubt that the prophet here alludes to some such custom of sleeping in the tombs, for the alleged purpose of conversing with the dead, or in temples for the purpose of communion with the idols by dreams, or with the expectation that they would receive responses by dreams (compare the notes at Isaiah 14:9)

Which eat swine‘s flesh - This was expressly forbidden by the Jewish law Leviticus 11:7, and is held in abomination by the Jews now. Yet the flesh of the swine was freely eaten by the pagan; and when the Jews conformed to their customs in other respects, they doubtless forgot also the law commanding a distinction to be made in meats. Antiochus Epiphanes compelled the Jews to eat swine‘s flesh as a token of their submission, and of their renouncing their religion. The case of Eleazer, who chose to die as a martyr, rather than give such a proof that he had renounced his religion, and who preferred death rather than to dissemble, is recorded in 2 Maccabees 6:19-31. See also the affecting case of the mother and her seven sons, who all died in a similar manner, in 2 Maccabees 7. Yet it seems that, in the time of Isaiah, they had no such devotedness to their national religion. They freely conformed to the nations around them, and thus gave public demonstration that they disregarded the commands of Yahweh. It is also to be observed, that swine were often sacrificed by the pagan, and were eaten in their feasts in honor of idols. The crime here referred to, therefore, was not merely that of partaking of the flesh, but it was that of joining with the pagan in idolatrous sacrifices. Thus Ovid says:

Prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae,

Ulta suas merita caede nocentis opes.

Fastor, i. 349

So Horace:

- immolet aequis

Hic porcum Laribus -

Serm. ii. 164

Thus, Varro (De Re Rustic. ii. 4), says ‹The swine is called in Greek ὗς hus (formerly θῦς thus ), and was so called from the word which signifies to sacrifice ( θύειν thuein ), for the swine seem first to have been used in sacrifices. Of this custom we have vestiges in the fact, that the first sacrifices to Ceres are of the swine; and that in the beginning of peace, when a treaty is made, a hog is sacrificed; and that in the beginning of marriage contracts in Etruria, the new wife and the new husband first sacrifice a hog. The primitive Latins, and also the Greeks in Italy, seem to have done the same thing.‘ Spencer (De Leg. Heb i. 7) supposes that this was done often in caves and dark recesses, and that the prophet refers to this custom here. If this view be correct, then the offence consisted not merely in eating swine‘s flesh, but in eating it in connection with sacrifices, or joining with the pagan in their idolatrous worship.

And broth of abominable things - Margin, ‹Pieces.‘ Lowth says that this was for ‹lustrations, magical arts, and other superstitious and abominable practices.‘ The word rendered here ‹broth,‘ and in the margin ‹pieces‘ (פרק pârâq ), is derived from the verb פרק pâraq to break (whence the Latin frango; the Goth. brikan; the Germ. breoken; and the English break ), and means that which is broken, or a fragment; and hence, broth or soup, from the fragments or crumbs of bread over which the broth is poured. The Septuagint renders this, ‹And all their vessels are polluted.‘ It is not improbable that the broth or soup used here was in some way employed in arts of incantation or necromancy. Compare Shakespeare‘s account of the witches in Macbeth:

1. Witch: Where hast thou been, sister?

2. Witch: Killing swine.

Act i. Sc. 3.

Hec: Your vessels and your spells provide,

Your charms, and everything beside.

Act iii. Sc. 5.

1. Witch: Round about the caldron go,

In the poison‘d entrails throw,

Toad that under the cold stone,

Days and nights hath thirty-one,

Fillet of a finny snake,

In the caldron boil and bake,

Eye of newt, and toe of frog,

Wool of bat, and tongue of dog,

Adder‘s fork, and blind worm‘s sting,

Lizard‘s leg, and howlet‘s wing,

For a charm of powerful trouble,

Like a hell-broth boil and bubble.

Act iv. Sc. 1.

It seems probable that some such magical incantations were used in the time of Isaiah. Such things are known to have been practiced in regions of idolatry (see Marco Polo, De Region. Orient., iii. 24). ‹When the priests of the idol,‘ says he, ‹wish to engage in sacred things, they call the consecrated girls, and with them, in the presence of the idols, they engage in the dance, and sing aloud. These girls bear with them vessels of food, which they place on the table before the idols, and they entreat the gods to eat of the food, and particularly they pour out broth made of flesh before them, that they may appease them.‘ The whole scene here described by the prophet is one connected with idolatry and magical incantations; and the prophet means to rebuke them for having forsaken God and fallen into all the abominable and stupid arts of idolaters. It was not merely that they had eaten the flesh of swine, or that they had made broth of unclean meats - which would have been minor, though real offences - it was that they had fallen into all the abominable practices connected with idolatry and necromancy.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/isaiah-65.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Which remain among the graves,.... In order to practise necromancy, to consult the dead, where they imagined demons and departed spirits haunted, and of whom they fancied they might get knowledge of future things:

and lodge in the monuments: whole nights for the same purposes. The Vulgate Latin version is, "that sleep in the temples of idols"; after the manner of the Heathens, who used to sleep there in order to obtain dreams, whereby they might be able to foretell things to come, as they did in the temple of Aesculapius; or, "in desolate places"F11"In desertis locis", Munster, Pagninus. , as Kimchi and Ben Melech interpret it; where they expected to meet with demons and noxious spirits, to give them knowledge of things to come. The Targum paraphrases both clauses thus,

"who dwell in houses built of the dust of graves, and lodge with the corpse of the children of men;'

so corpse, according to Jarchi, are expressed by this word, which signifies "kept", or "preserved"F12בנצורים "apud custodita", Junius & Tremellius; "custoditos", Piscator. , as in Isaiah 49:6, because they are put in a strait place, from whence they cannot get out; though some think idols are meant, called so by way of derision, because kept for fear of being stolen, or because they cannot keep themselves, nor their votaries:

which eat swine's flesh; forbidden by the law, Leviticus 11:7,

and broth of abominable things is in their vessels; or "pots": broth made of swine's flesh, and of other sorts of flesh which were unclean by the law. Our version follows the marginalF13מרק "jusculum". reading; as do the Targum, Aben Ezra, Jarchi, and Kimchi; but the written text is, "a fragment"F14פרק "fragmentum". , or piece, or pieces, of abominable things; both may be retained in the sense of the passage; slices of flesh unclean, and so abominable by the law, were put into their pots and stewed, and made broth of, which they drank. SpencerF15De Legibus Hebr. I. 2. c. 8. sect. 2. p. 275. thinks the milk in which kids were boiled is meant, which the Zabians kept in vessels, and sprinkled on the trees in their gardens, to make them more fruitful; hence mention is made of idolatrous practices in gardens, in the preceding verse.

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Gill, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/isaiah-65.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Which remain among the f graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat g swine's flesh, and broth of abominable [things is in] their vessels;

(f) To consult with spirits, and to conjure devils, which was forbidden.

(g) Which was contrary to God's commandment, (Leviticus 11:7) ; (Deuteronomy 14:8).

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/isaiah-65.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

graves — namely, for purposes of necromancy, as if to hold converse with the dead (Isaiah 8:19, Isaiah 8:20; compare Mark 5:3); or, for the sake of purifications, usually performed at night among sepulchres, to appease the manes [Maurer].

monumentsHebrew, “pass the night in hidden recesses,” either the idol‘s inmost shrines (“consecrated precincts”) [Horsley], where they used to sleep, in order to have divine communications in dreams [Jerome]; or better, on account of the parallel “graves,” sepulchral caves [Maurer].

eat swine‘s flesh — To eat it at all was contrary to God‘s law (Leviticus 11:7), but it much increased their guilt that they ate it in idolatrous sacrifices (compare Isaiah 66:17). Varro (On Agriculture, 2.4) says that swine were first used in sacrifices; the Latins sacrificed a pig to Ceres; it was also offered on occasion of treaties and marriages.

broth — so called from the “pieces” (Margin) or fragments of bread over which the broth was poured [Gesenius]; such broth, made of swine‘s flesh, offered in sacrifice, was thought to be especially acceptable to the idol and was used in magic rites. Or, “fragments (pieces) of abominable foods,” etc. This fourth clause explains more fully the third, as the second does the first [Maurer].

is in — rather, literally, “is their vessels,” that is, constitute their vessels‘ contents. The Jews, in our Lord‘s days, and ever since the return from Babylon, have been free from idolatry; still the imagery from idolatrous abominations, as being the sin most loathsome in God‘s eyes and that most prevalent in Isaiah‘s time, is employed to describe the foul sin of Israel in all ages, culminating in their killing Messiah, and still rejecting Him.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/isaiah-65.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

Remain — They remained among the graves, there consulting with devils, who were thought to delight in such places; or to practice necromancy, all which were forbidden, Deuteronomy 18:11; Isaiah 8:19.

Monuments — Some interpret it of idol temples, some of caves and dens, in which the Heathens used to worship their idols.

Broth of abominable things — Of such flesh as was to the Jews unclean by the law.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/isaiah-65.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Isaiah 65:4 Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat swine’s flesh, and broth of abominable [things is in] their vessels;

Ver. 4. Which remain among the graves.] Which use necromancy and consult with devils - as Saul did, and died for it - contrary to Deuteronomy 18:11. See Isaiah 8:19, Mark 5:5. {See Trapp on "Isaiah 8:19"} {See Trapp on "Mark 5:5"} This they had learned from the heathens, with whom it was common, as Tertullian teacheth.

And lodge in the monuments.] As believing that there they should dream dreams divinatory, or have revelations in the night. By such ill arts as these, Timotheus Herulus made himself bishop of Alexandria, A.D. 467; and Boniface VIII duped Celestine V of the Popedom, A.D. 1295. Some (a) render it, that lodge with the kept ones, i.e., with their idols, which they were fain to keep, for fear they should be stolen.

That eat swine’s flesh.] Which was flatly forbidden; [Leviticus 11:7] and which those martyrs in the Maccabees would rather die than do. But these belly gods, who, like swine, had their souls only to keep their bodies from putrifying, securely violated this plain law - gratifying their lusts, and making their gut their god.

And broth of abominable things is in their vessels.] They had animos in patinis, catinis, calicibus, &c. Therein they kept the broth of their swine’s flesh, (b) which they offered, and in offering eat of. But what saith one from this text? Men must not only abhor the devil’s beef, but his broth too; all occasions, appearances.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/isaiah-65.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

They remained among the graves, either there expecting revelations by dreams, or there consulting with devils, who were thought to delight in such places; or to practise necromancy, all which were forbidden, Deuteronomy 18:11 Isaiah 8:19. And they

lodged in the monuments; the Hebrew word here used gives advantage to interpreters to vary in their senses. The word signifies only places kept or observed; some interpret it of idol temples; some of caves and dens, in which the heathens used to worship their idols; some of tombs or monuments for dead persons: besides the idolatry of the thing, there was in it a sinful imitation of the heathens, and a swerving from the rule which God had given them. They also ate

swine’s flesh, contrary to the Divine law, Leviticus 11:7 Deuteronomy 14:8; and they endured in their vessels

broth of abominable things; so the word is used, Jude 6 19,23: others read it, parts or pieces of abominable things; that is, broth, or pieces of such flesh as was to the Jews unclean by the law, Le 11. Every creature of God is good, but God’s prohibition had made the flesh of divers creatures an abominable thing to the Jews, they might not touch their flesh, Leviticus 11:28; but they, taking the measures of their duty from their appetite, or from their reason, concluding from natural principles, made no conscience of the positive law of God. This was their iniquity, which is further aggravated in the next verse.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/isaiah-65.html. 1685.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The Israelites also engaged in pagan practices that rendered them unclean, and they were not careful to avoid the defilement caused by disregard for God"s will. God"s standards of discipline and holiness were of no concern to them (cf. Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:15).

"Sitting in the tombs and lodging between the rocks appear to be rituals of the cult of the dead, that Isaiah, necromancy in which one contacts the spirits of the dead by spending the night in the cemeteries." [Note: Ibid, p343.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/isaiah-65.html. 2012.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Idols: to have dreams, (Strabo xvi.) and commit impurities. --- Broth of swine's flesh, which was prohibited, Leviticus xi. 7.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/isaiah-65.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

graves = tombs. Hebrew. keber. App-35.

monuments = secret places. Probably in heathen temples.

eat swine"s flesh. Reference to Pentateuch, where this was forbidden (Leviticus 11:7. Deuteronomy 14:8). App-92. Bones of swine were found at Gezer. See note on 1 Kings 9:15.

broth. The reference is to a sacrificial feast of unclean food.

abominable things. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 7:18; Leviticus 19:7). The Hebrew word (piggul) is found only in Ezekiel 4:14, beside these passages. App-92.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/isaiah-65.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

Which remain among the graves - namely, for purposes of necromancy, as if to hold converse with the dead (Isaiah 8:19-20 : cf. Mark 5:3); or, for the sake of purifications, usually performed at night among sepulchres, to appease the manes (Maurer).

And lodge in the monuments - Hebrew, 'pass the night in hidden recesses' ( ban

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/isaiah-65.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(4) Which remain among the graves.—Probably the rock graves of Palestine, which, although they were ceremonially unclean, were not unfrequently used as dwellings (Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:3). The charge may be one merely of neglecting the precepts of the Law, but possibly also may imply that the graves were frequented, as in Isaiah 8:19; Isaiah 29:4, for necromantic purposes.

Lodge in the monuments . . .—Here, again, the words probably point to practices more or less idolatrous, and common among the heathen of the time. Jerome (in loc.) notes the fact that men went to sleep in the crypts of the Temple of Æsculapius, in the hope of gaining visions of the future, and translates in delubris idolorum.

Which eat swine’s flesh.—The flesh of swine was apparently forbidden, not on sanitary grounds only or chiefly, but because that animal was sacrificed in the festivals of Thammuz (Ezekiel 8:14), or Adonis. (Comp. Isaiah 66:17.) It may be noted, as against the view that the verse points to the practices of the Babylonian exiles, that no reference to swine has been found in any cuneiform inscriptions. In Egypt, as in Palestine, it was looked upon as unclean (Herod. ii. 47, 48). On the worship of Thammuz, see an article by the Rev. A. H. Sayce, in the Contemporary Review for September, 1883.

Broth of abominable things.—The words indicate, as before, a sacrificial feast of unclean meats, and therefore connected with a violation of the Mosaic law, possibly with some form of heathen mysteries or divination from the viscera of slaughtered animals. The word occurs here and in Isaiah 66:3, once in Deuteronomy (Isaiah 29:17), and frequently in Leviticus (Leviticus 11:11; Leviticus 11:13; Leviticus 18:26; Leviticus 18:30).

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/isaiah-65.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;
remain
Numbers 19:11,16-20; Deuteronomy 18:11; Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:2-5; Luke 8:27
which eat
66:3,17; Leviticus 11:7; Deuteronomy 14:8
broth
or, pieces.
Exodus 23:19; 34:26; Deuteronomy 14:3,21; Ezekiel 4:14
Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:18 - an abomination;  Leviticus 14:41 - into an unclean place;  Leviticus 19:7 - abominable;  1 Kings 14:22 - they provoked;  1 Kings 21:26 - very abominably;  2 Kings 16:4 - on the hills;  2 Chronicles 15:8 - abominable idols;  Ezekiel 6:13 - upon;  Matthew 8:30 - an;  Mark 5:3 - GeneralMark 5:11 - herd;  Luke 8:32 - there an;  1 Peter 4:3 - and

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/isaiah-65.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

4.Who dwell in the graves. He enumerates other kinds of superstitions; and although, in consequence of its brevity, the description is obscure, yet we may easily learn from other passages what was the nature of them. For as necromancy was generally practiced among heathen nations, the Jews also consulted demons “in graves and deserts,” instead of consulting God alone, which they ought to have done; and, as if they were seeking answers from the dead, they took pleasure in being deceived by the illusions of demons. (200) How solemnly the Lord had forbidden it, appears very clearly from Deuteronomy 18:10, and other passages; and we have seen something of this kind in a former part of this book, (Isaiah 8:19.) In general we are taught that God demands nothing more than obedience, which he prefers to slain beasts and sacrifices. (1 Samuel 15:22.)

Who eat swine’s flesh. Formerly he complained that the worship of God was polluted by strange inventions; and now he adds that they set aside every distinction, so that they do not distinguish between the clean and the unclean; and he brings forward a single instance, that they do not abstain from “swine’s flesh.” But it may be thought that this was a small matter. Very far from it; for we ought not to judge from our own opinion, but from that of the legislator, how heinous a sin it is; and nothing which the Lord has forbidden ought to be reckoned trivial. (Leviticus 11:7; Deuteronomy 14:8.) This related to the external profession of. faith, by which the Jews were in duty bound to testify how widely they differed from the pollution of the Gentiles. From that rule, therefore, which the Lord enjoins upon us, we must not swerve even a hair’s breadth. (201)

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 65:4". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/isaiah-65.html. 1840-57.