Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 13:2

During supper, the devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, to betray Him,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Eucharist (the Lord's Supp;   Heart;   Jesus, the Christ;   Jesus Continued;   Judas (Jude);   Satan;   Simon;   Traitor;   Thompson Chain Reference - Adversary;   Satan;   Satan's;   Satan-Evil Spirits;   Serpent;   Simon;   Tempter;   Work, Satan's;   The Topic Concordance - Jesus Christ;   Judas Iscariot;   Knowledge;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Heart, Character of the Unrenewed;   Temptation;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Simon;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Judas;   Satan;   Simon;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Follow, Follower;   Humility;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Judas;   Simon;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - John, the Gospel According to;   Judas Iscariot;   Laver;   Passover;   Simeon;   Synagogue;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Hour;   John, the Gospel of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Devil;   Foot;   Simon;   Trinity;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Complacency;   Death of Christ;   Dominion (2);   Endurance;   Heart;   Humility;   Imagination;   Judas Iscariot (2);   Last Supper;   Lord's Supper. (I.);   Preparation ;   Purity (2);   Sacrifice (2);   Satan (2);   Service;   Simon;   Supper ;   Upper Room (2);   Water (2);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Judas Iscariot ;   Shoes;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Judas;   Passover;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Ju'das Iscar'iot;   Si'mon;   Synagogue;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - End;   Judas Iscariot;   Lord's Supper (Eucharist);   Peter, Simon;   Satan;   Simon (2);   Washing of Feet;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - New Testament;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for November 17;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

And supper being ended - Rather, δειπνου γενομενου, while supper was preparing. To support this new translation of the words, it may be remarked that, from John 13:26, John 13:30, it appears that the supper was not then ended: nay, it is probable that it was not then begun; because the washing of feet ( John 13:5;) was usually practised by the Jews before they entered upon their meals, as may be gathered from Luke 7:44, and from the reason of the custom. I think that John wrote, not γενομενου, but γινομενου, as in BL. Cant. and Origen, which latter reading is approved by several eminent critics, and should be translated as above. By the supper I suppose to be meant, not only the eating of it, but the preparing and dressing of it, and doing all things necessary previously to the eating of it. The devil had, before this time of the supper, put it into Judas's heart to betray his Master. See Matthew 26:14, etc.; Mark 14:10, Mark 14:11; and Luke 22:3, etc. See also Bishop Pearce, from whose judicious commentary the preceding notes are principally taken.

Calmet observes that John, designing only to supply what was omitted by the other evangelists, passes over all the transactions of the Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, before the passion, and at once goes from Monday evening to Thursday evening. It is remarkable that St. John says nothing about the institution of the holy sacrament, which Matthew, Matthew 26:26, etc., Mark, Mark 14:22, etc., and Luke, Luke 22:19, etc., describe so particularly. No other reason can be assigned for this than that he found it completely done by the others, and that he only designed to supply their defects.

The devil having now put it into the heart - Judas formed his plot six days before this, on occasion of what happened at the house of Simon the leper: see Matthew 26:14. Calmet.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 13:2". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-13.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Supper being ended - This translation expresses too much. The original means while they were at supper; and that this is the meaning is clear from the fact that we find them still eating after this. The Arabic and Persic translations give it this meaning. The Latin Vulgate renders it like the English.

The devil - The leader or prince of evil spirits.

Having now put it into the heart - Literally, having cast it into the heart. Compare Ephesians 6:16; “The fiery darts of the wicked.” See Acts 5:3; Luke 22:3. The meaning of this passage is that Satan inclined the mind of Judas to do this, or he tempted him to betray his Master. We know not precisely how this was done, but we know that it was by means of his avarice. Satan could tempt no one unless there was some inclination of the mind, some natural or depraved propensity that he could make use of. He presents objects in alluring forms fitted to that propensity, and under the influence of a strong or a corrupt inclination the soul yields to sin. In the case of Judas it was the love of money; and it was necessary to present to him only the possibility of obtaining money, and it found him ready for any crime.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/john-13.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And during supper, the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him.

The devil ... The great protagonist of evil on earth is a person, called here the devil, and identified as Satan throughout the Bible. He is a being of supernatural power but is himself a creature and does not share control of the universe with God. Satan has the power to suggest and motivate evil deeds, as here; but this power is effective only in those souls who have consented to evil domination. Judas had already consented to sin and readily became the instrument of Satan through an act of his own volition. See my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 4:2; 8:26,32; 112:29; 28:11,15.

Judas Iscariot, Simon's son ...

CONCERNING JUDAS ISCARIOT

Judas was named one of the Twelve by Jesus and, along with the others, was commissioned to "heal the sick and raise the dead" (Matthew 10:7); and it must therefore be inferred that at the time of his call Judas was not evil. However, by the time of the great defection recorded in John 6, Judas had fallen. "One of you is a devil" (John 6:70), Jesus said, which is sometimes amended to read, "a devil from the beginning," which of course is not true. A deduction from the events recorded in John 6 indicates that Judas, like so many of his countrymen, expected a temporal Messiah; and the knowledge that Jesus would never be that kind of Messiah turned his heart away from the Lord. In any case, he became unsympathetic to the ideals of the Master, used the common treasury, which he carried, for his own purposes, and drifted more and more into rebellion and defiance, even betraying the Lord, at last, for thirty pieces of silver.

Judas, like all people, had freedom of the will and might have elected a more honorable course, but chose instead to betray the Lord. The thesis so often advocated that people "are not responsible for what they do,"[1] and that society is to blame for the vicious acts of criminals is negated by the record of Judas. Wherein did Jesus fail the traitor? See my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 26:49.

That Judas was truly an apostle at first is verified by the sacred record that he "by transgression fell" (Acts 1:25 KJV). It is axiomatic that one cannot fall from an eminence that he does not have. Some have sought to extenuate Judas' sin on the grounds that he probably expected Jesus to extricate himself by some supernatural act, or upon the theory that he "atoned" for his misdeed by returning the money and committing suicide. All sins can be rationalized, and Judas might indeed have rationalized the betrayal; but all such rationalizations of criminal behavior are futile. The deed of betrayal itself was one of unique shame and ugliness.

The death of Judas and the disposition of the returned money are discussed in my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 27:10, where particular attention is given to the alleged contradiction in the two accounts of Judas' death.

ENDNOTE:

[1] Clarence Darrow, Autobiography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1932), p. 76.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-13.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And supper being ended,.... Or rather "supper being", or it "being supper time", for it was not ended; not the paschal supper, nor the Lord's supper, but the supper in Simon's house at Bethany, two days before the passover. There is no mention made in this whole chapter of the passover supper, or of any of its rites: the washing of the disciples' feet was a peculiar action of our Lord's, and had no manner of regard to any usage among the Jews at such a time; nor was it ever usual with them, at the passover, to wash the feet of those that ate of it; there is not the least trace of any such custom in any of their writings: besides, it is said in so many words, in John 13:1, that this was "before the feast of the passover"; and by comparing it with Matthew 26:2, it appears to be two days before it; and so much time seems necessary to be allowed, for Judas to do what he did after this supper, in which he was first instigated to it: and that the feast of the passover was yet to come, when this supper was ended, and Judas had taken the sop, and was bid to do quickly what he did, is manifest from the sense the disciples put upon those words of Christ, who thought he ordered him to get the necessaries for the feast, John 13:29, which can be understood of no other than the feast of the passover, which was at hand, and for which many things were to be got ready; to which may be added, that Satan's entering into Judas, and putting it into his heart to betray his master, and his covenanting with the high priests to do it for such a sum, were before the passover supper, as is clear from Luke 22:1. Nor is it reasonable to suppose that Judas could meet that night, after the supper, with the chief priests, captains, and all the council, the great sanhedrim, who could not be together; since by the law of the passover, every head of a family was to be with his respective family: and if this could be supposed, yet there seems to be some time between this agreement, and the execution of it, in which he sought for a proper opportunity, Matthew 26:16. Nor can it be thought there was time enough to do all he did, as to covenant with the chief priests, form his scheme for apprehending Christ, and get such a number of men together for that purpose, between the supper, and the time of night in which Christ was betrayed. Besides, certain it is, that Christ and his disciples arose from the place where he ate his supper, and went from thence elsewhere, John 14:31, which cannot be understood very well of any other departure than his going from Bethany to Jerusalem, and not of his going from Jerusalem to the garden, which is afterwards spoken of as a distinct thing, John 18:1. And to say no more, there is not in this chapter the least hint of the institution of the Lord's supper, which all the other evangelists make mention of, when they relate the last passover of our Lord. The reader may be more fully satisfied of the truth of this by consulting Dr. Lightfoot on Matthew 26:6.

The devil having now put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him; the person Satan influenced and acted upon, for his purpose, was Judas iscariot, Simon's son: whether this was Simon the Pharisee, or Simon the leper, in whose house Christ and his disciples were, or who he was, is not certain: was there any reason to think it might be Simon the tanner that was the father of Judas, or that either he or his father were tanners, I would venture to add one conjecture more to what has been made on Matthew 10:4, concerning Judas's surname, Iscariot, as that it may come from "Iscortia", which signifies a tanner's coat: for so it is said in theF17T. Bab. Nedarim, fol. 55. 2. Vid. Maimon. & Bartenora in Misn. Celim. c. 16. sect. 4. & Oholot, c. 8. sect. 1. Talmud,

"what is איסקורטיא, "Iscortia?" says Rabba bar Chanah, it is כיתונא דצלא, "a tanner's coat":'

a sort of a leathern garment, as the gloss says, which tanners put over their clothes. However, this man was an apostle of Christ's whom Satan tempted to betray him; so that we see that the highest office, and greatest gifts, cannot secure men from the temptations of Satan: the manner in which he tempted him was, he "put", or "cast it into his heart"; it was a dart, and a fiery one, he threw into him, into his very heart; which shows the access Satan has into, and the influence he has upon the minds of men: his end in this temptation was to work upon him "to betray" Christ, his Lord and master, who had chosen him to be an apostle of his, and had invested him with this high office, into the hands of his enemies, in order to be put to death. This was an affair determined by God, known by Christ, and which he foretold to his disciples; yet all this did not in the least excuse the malice of Satan, and the wickedness of Judas: it was an action devilish indeed, and which, one would think, could never have entered into his heart, had not the devil put it there; and this was at supper time, whilst they were at table together, that this thought was darted into his mind; which is mentioned to show, that no place and company can preserve persons from the evil suggestions of the devil, and to aggravate the sin of Judas, who when, and while he was eating bread with Christ, first thought of, and determined to lift up his heel against him: moreover, it was when the ointment was poured on the head of Christ, and whilst Judas was fretting at it, that Satan took the opportunity of his choler and wrath, to stir him up to so vile an action. This account is prefaced to Christ's washing the feet of his disciples, to show the great composure of mind Christ was in, though he knew what was doing; and his wonderful condescension in washing the feet of so vile a creature, into whose heart Satan had already put it to betray him; and also his care of, and love to the rest of the disciples, when Satan had got possession of one of them.

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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 13:2". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-13.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

supper being ended — rather, “being prepared,” “being served,” or, “going on”; for that it was not “ended” is plain from John 13:26.

the devil having now — or, “already.”

put into the heart of Judas  …  to betray him — referring to the agreement he had already made with the chief priests (Luke 22:3-6).

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/john-13.html. 1871-8.

John Lightfoot's Commentary on the Gospels

2. And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him;

[And supper being ended.] I acknowledge the aorist, and yet do not believe the supper was now ended. We have the very same word in the story of the same supper, Matthew 26:6; and Jesus being in Bethany: which in St. Mark is and being in Bethany, chapter 14:3: so that supper being ended is no more than 'being' supper.

Let us join the full story together. While Jesus was at supper in the house of Simon the leper two days before the Passover, a woman comes and pours very precious ointment upon his head. When some murmured at the profuseness of the expense, he defends the woman and the action by an apology: and having finished his apology, he rises immediately from the table, as it were, in the very midst of supper, and girds himself to wash his disciples' feet: so that while they are grumbling at the anointing of his head, he does not disdain to wash their feet.

The reason of this extraordinary action of his we may in some measure spell out from those little prefaces the evangelist uses before he tells the story.

I. "When Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world, &c." [There is an expression not unlike this in Bemidbar Rabba; "Abraham said, 'I am flesh and blood, tomorrow I shall go out of this world.'"]

It had a little rubbed up the memory of his departure out of this world, that the woman had as it were anointed him for his funeral: and therefore he riseth immediately from the table, that he might give them some farewell token of his humility and charity, and leave them an example for the practice of these virtues one amongst another.

II. "The devil having now put into the heart of Judas to betray him," it was but seasonable for him to shew his disciples that he would strengthen and vindicate them against the wolf who had now stolen, I will not say a sheep, but a goat, and that out of his own flock. It must not pass unobserved, that 'his disciples' murmured at the lavish use of the ointment, Matthew 26:8; as if the murmuring humour was crept in amongst others also as well as Judas; which perhaps moved Christ the more earnestly to meet the beginnings of that distemper by this action.

III. "Knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands," verse 3, he gave the traitor over to Satan, and confirms the rest to himself: signifying, by the external washing, that his should be secured from the devil by the washing of Christ. Whosoever shall attempt the determination, whether he washed the feet of Judas or not, let him see how he will free himself of this dilemma:

If he washed Judas' feet, why had not he his part in Christ, as well as the rest of his disciples? For supposing that true, "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me," why should not this be so too, "If I do wash thee, thou hast a part with me?"

If he did not wash Judas with the rest, but left him out, how could the rest be ignorant who was the unclean person? verse 10, which they were altogether ignorant of.

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Lightfoot, John. "Commentary on John 13:2". "John Lightfoot Commentary on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jlc/john-13.html. 1675.

People's New Testament

Supper being ended. The Revision says, "During the Supper." It is likely that Christ arose near the beginning of the feast, washed the feet, and then sat down again to the feast. See John 13:12.

The devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, etc. The devil planted the seed, but the soil of his heart was ready. The devil has no power except where there is preparation for him. The covetous disposition of Judas had prepared the way.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Original work done by Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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Johnson, Barton W. "Commentary on John 13:2". "People's New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pnt/john-13.html. 1891.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

During supper (δειπνου γινομενουdeipnou ginomenou). Correct text, present middle participle of γινομαιginomai (not γενομενουgenomenou second aorist middle participle, “being ended”) genitive absolute. John 13:4 shows plainly that the meal was still going on.

The devil having already put (του διαβολου ηδη βεβληκοτοςtou diabolou ēdē beblēkotos). Another genitive absolute without a connective (asyndeton), perfect active participle of βαλλωballō to cast, to put. Luke (Luke 22:3) says that Satan entered Judas when he offered to betray Jesus. Hence John‘s “already” (ηδηēdē) is pertinent. John repeats his statement in John 13:27. In John 6:70 Jesus a year ago had seen that Judas was a devil.

To betray him
(ινα παραδοι αυτονhina paradoi auton). Cf. Acts 5:3. Purpose clause with ιναhina and second aorist active subjunctive of παραδιδωμιparadidōmi (form in -οιoi as in Mark 14:10 rather than the usual -ωιōi in Luke 22:4). Satan had an open door by now into the heart of Judas.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-13.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Supper being ended ( δείπνου γενομένου )

The most approved reading is γινομένου , the present participle, denoting while a supper was in progress. Hence Rev., rightly, during supper. The A.V. is wrong, even if the reading of the Received Text be retained; for in John 13:12Jesus reclined again, and in John 13:26, the supper is still in progress. It should be, supper having begun, or having been served. It is important to note the absence of the definite article: a supper, as distinguished from the feast, which also is designated by a different word.

Having now put ( ἤδη βεβληκότος )

Rev., better, already. Put, is literally, thrown or cast.

Into the heart of Judas

Meyer, strangely, refers the heart, not to Judas, but to the Devil himself; rendering, the Devil having already formed the design that Judas should deliver Him up. Godet does not speak too strongly when he says that “this meaning is insufferable.”

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-13.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him;

Having now — Probably now first.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on John 13:2". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/john-13.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

And during supper1, the devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's [son], to betray him2,

  1. And during supper. This was the paschal supper proper. It accords with the supplementary nature of John's Gospel to this mention it as a meal thoroughly familiar to his readers.

  2. Judas Iscariot, Simon's [son], to betray him. See .

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 13:2". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-13.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

И во время вечери. Полностью о намерении Христа в омовении ног учеников и о результате этого омовения мы расскажем в другом месте. Теперь же будем следовать контексту евангельских слов. Иоанн говорит, что это произошло, когда Иуда уже возымел намерение предать Христа. Это не только показывает чудесное терпение Христово, Который омыл ноги столь преступному и вероломному предателю, но и показывает, как умело воспользовался Христос отпущенным Ему временем, дабы совершить Свой последний в жизни поступок. Говоря, что намерение предать возникло у Иуды по наущению дьявола, Евангелист хочет подчеркнуть тяжесть сего преступления. Ибо действие это, в котором сатана явил свою хитрость, было воистину ужасным и более чем трагичным. Истинно, что всякое зло, которое совершают люди, они делают по наущению сатаны. Но чем более жутко и ужасно преступление, тем более заметна в нем дьявольская ярость, бросающая в разные стороны покинувших Бога людей. Кроме того, даже если похоть человека подстегивается сатаной, он не перестает сам быть печью, содержащей внутри возженное в ней пламя и жадно принимающей всякое искушение. Так что нечестивым нет оснований оправдываться.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-13.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

devil diabolos. (See Scofield "Revelation 20:10").

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on John 13:2". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/john-13.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him;

Ver. 2. The devil having now put] He is likely at one end of every temptation to sin; as the hand of Joab was in the tale of the woman of Tekoah. He rubs the firebrand of evil concupiscence, and makes it send out sparkles.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 13:2". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-13.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

John 13:2. And supper being ended, &c.— And being at supper. See John 13:4; John 13:26. Byour version an English reader would be led to apprehend, that the paschal supper was over, before the subsequent act of condescension was performed by our Saviour; and that the clause in the parenthesis is referred to the devil's tempting Judas during its celebration. But the translation above given is perfectly agreeable to the original, and to the context; and as it was the custom with the Jews to wash themselves before they began to eat, it is on every account right to interpret the expression in that sense. And, with regard to the words in the parenthesis, the participle βεβληκοτος, rendered having put, is of the perfect tense, and denotes an action done at some past time; and the particle ηδη, rendered now, often signifies already, or before: so that what Christ says here concerning Judas, may refer to what had passed between him and the chief priests, after the reproof given him at the supper in Bethany; and therefore when John says afterwards, John 13:27 that, after the supper, Satan entered into Judas, the meaning must be, that he was then again incited by the devil to execute the treachery which he had before resolved upon, by a like instigation ofthe same evil spirit: see John 13:27.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on John 13:2". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/john-13.html. 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

2. δείπ. γεν.] Not as E. V. ‘supper being ended,’ for (John 13:12) He reclined again, and in John 13:26, the supper is still going on:—but, supper having begun, or having been served—see ἰησ. γενομένου ἐν βηθ. Matthew 26:6, ‘When Jesus had arrived at B.;’—and πρωΐας γενομένης, ‘when it had become morning,’ ch. John 21:4. Cf. also γενομένου σαββάτου, Mark 6:2.

τοῦ δ. ἤδη βεβ.] The construction of the text, according to the true reading, is involved and difficult. But its meaning will be immediately perceived, if we render βεβληκότος εἰς τὴν καρδίαν, suggested,proposed, viz. to the mind of Judas. The devil having by this time suggested (to Judas) that Judas Iscariot the son of Simon (i.e. that he) should betray Him. The interpretation of βεβλ. εἰς τ. κ., “having conceived in his (the devil’s) mind” (Meyer), is wholly unworthy of a scholar, and simply absurd. Judas had before this covenanted with the Sanhedrim to betray Him, Matthew 26:14 and (174), which must here be meant by the devil having put it into his heart:—the thorough self-abandonment to Satan which led to the actual deed, being designated John 13:27.

Luke (Luke 22:3) expresses the steps of his treasonable purpose otherwise,—meaning the same. The fact is here stated, to enhance the love which Jesus shewed in the following action.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 13:2". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-13.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

John 13:2. δείπνου, supper) Indefinitely. That was the day before the Passover supper.— γενομένου, when it was being made [but Engl. Vers., “supper being ended”]) Therefore the washing of feet was about the beginning of supper. Comp. the words, He riseth from, John 13:4, and lying down again [“after He was set down again”], John 13:12. Also the general custom of the Jews is in accordance with this view.— ἤδη, now) Chrysost. Æth. Arab. Lat, in some MSS., Pers. and Sy(331). versions, omit the particle; but it ought to be retained. The τότε, then, John 13:27, answers to it.(332)βεβληκότος, when he had [having] put into) There is great force in this. The words διαβόλου [Th. βάλλω] and βεβληκότος are conjugates.— καρδίαν, the heart) The purpose of Judas was as yet hidden.— ἰούδα, of Judas) Precaution was taken by the washing of feet, that the impurity of Judas should not infect the hearts of the rest. Comp. John 13:11, “He knew who should betray Him; therefore said He, Ye are not all clean.”— ἰσκαριώτου, Iscariot) This is the surname, not of Simon, but of Judas; ch. John 6:71, John 14:22, “Judas—not Iscariot.”

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 13:2". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-13.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

And supper being ended; possibly it were better translated, while they were at supper, or in supper time, Greek, deipnou genomenou, but the great question is, What supper is here intended? Our most learned Lightfoot is very confident this was not the paschal supper. The most interpreters, ancient and modern, seem to be of another mind. Or it may be rather a common supper, which they ate before the passover: for whereas some think this supper was that in the house of Simon the leper, mentioned Matthew 26:6, it seemeth no way probable, no circumstance inclining us to believe any such thing; and the evangelist having told us that it was after that supper that Christ rode into Jerusalem and again went from thence, and hid himself, John 12:36, and then reporting this as a thing subsequent to it in this chapter; it seemeth very clear to me, that it could not be the supper in the house of Simon the leper. Concerning the influence of the devil upon Judas, to put it into his heart to betray his Master, see Luke 22:3,4.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 13:2". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-13.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

вечери Это был пасхальный ужин в четверг вечером после захода солнца. См. во Введении: Проблемы толкования.

диаволв сердце Иуде Это не снимает бремя вины с Иуды, потому что его порочное сердце желало точно того же, чего желал диавол, – смерти Иисуса. Диавол и Иуда были в согласии.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on John 13:2". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/john-13.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Supper being ended; rather, supper having come; for after he had washed his disciples’ feet, he reclined again, verse John 13:12, and the supper went on, verse John 13:26.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/john-13.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

2.Supper being ended—It is plain from 25-28 that the supper was not ended. The present phrase, as the best scholars now agree, should be rendered the supper having arrived, or being in process. It appears from Luke’s account, that as they took their reclining couches at the table, a strife arose for precedency; and by this is explained the ablution of the apostles’ feet by Jesus now performed; namely, as an acted reproof of their emulation, and a lesson of humility and peace.

The devil’ unto the heart of Judas—The Evangelist intimates by this parenthesis, that while Jesus is dispensing his lessons of love, Satan is instigating Judas’ plans of treason.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/john-13.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And during the supper, the Devil having already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him.’

‘And during the supper.’ John will, from this point, deliberately play down the fact that it is the Passover meal, even to the extent that he does not describe the instituting of the Lord’s Supper (Holy Communion). That this is deliberate is clear. He was well aware that the early church was very familiar with the facts of that Supper. He thus wanted to concentrate on the fact of Jesus’ preparation of His disciples for their witness to the world. He wanted the time to be seen as the time when Jesus revealed inner truths about the future, something of which the early church was less aware. But all are aware of the shadow that lies behind it.

The Lord’s Supper was well established by this time and constantly celebrated. Through it the truth about His sacrificial death constantly came out. The history of it would have been imbedded in the minds of all Christians. So, as always through his Gospel, John wants rather to bring out spiritual truths rather than physical enactments. He is concerned to stress the spiritual benefits arising from His death. This event clearly occurred late on in the Supper, probably after the Passover meal had been eaten. Certainly Judas would not have left unless the meal was over. (The alternative reading ‘after supper’ is equally strongly attested).

‘ The Devil having already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him’. (Compare Luke 22:3) To ‘have a devil’ was constantly used in various mouths to signify the Devil’s influence in men’s speech and behaviour (Matthew 11:18; Luke 7:33; John 7:20; John 8:40; John 8:49; John 8:52; John 10:20-21), and Jesus had earlier said of Judas (incognito) that he ‘was a devil’ i.e. was submissive to the Devil’s control (John 6:70). Thus here the idea of the Devil’s control over Judas continues.

The idea of a supernatural lord of evil (the Devil, Satan, the Evil One) was widespread among the Jews, and it was he who, according to Jesus, had put Him to the test at the commencement of His ministry ( ‘the Devil’ and ‘Satan’ Matthew 4:1-11; ‘Satan’ Mark 1:13; ‘the Devil’ and ‘Satan’ Luke 4:1-13), whilst Jesus Himself testified to the power of ‘Satan’ when He pointed out that He had come to break his power (Matthew 12:24-29; Mark 3:22-27; Luke 11:15-22 - ‘Satan’ in all cases). Compare also how in Matthew 13:39 the weeds were the sons of the Evil One, and the one who sowed them was the Devil.

In Matthew 13:19 ‘the Evil One’ snatched away the seed sown by the sower, while in Mark it was ‘Satan’ (Mark 4:15). When Peter tried to deny the need for the Messiah to suffer Jesus addressed him as ‘Satan’, i.e. as being used as Satan’s tool (Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33). So the working of a powerful supernatural lord of evil was widely acknowledged, and confirmed by Jesus Himself, seen often as working through his minions, described as ‘evil spirits, devils, or demons’ (e.g. Luke 13:11 with 16). Scripture elsewhere depicts Satan as presenting himself as ‘an angel of light’ (2 Corinthians 11:14) and there is nowhere any idea of horns or forked tails. Such ideas are false and dangerous as belittling the idea. Thus Satan, the Devil, was at work throughout Jesus’ ministry and was now seeking to have Him destroyed.

However, it should be noted that what now happens does indicate that Satan did not understand what God was doing, and was, without realising it, conniving in his own destruction. There is something ironic about his haste to get Jesus to the cross which would turn out to be the cause of his own defeat. So it is clear that while he was aware of Who Jesus really was, he was not aware of the means that He would use to save men. While he must have been aware of what Jesus had taught he clearly could not conceive of such divine self-giving. It was totally outside his understanding and beyond his comprehension. Thus he was prompting Judas to betray Jesus to the authorities, thinking thereby to foil His purpose, only for it in the end to be revealed as bringing about God’s purposes. We must not think of Satan as all-knowing, or as omnipresent, although he does have many agents.

‘Judas Iscariot’ - Jesus knew from the beginning that Judas was the weak link among the Apostles (John 6:70-71). But we must remember that Judas, at least to begin with, was his own master, and that Jesus gave him every chance to think again. What he did was of his own choosing. In the end, however, money turned out to be more important to him than his belief in Jesus, and this should be a grim warning to us all. There may also have been in Judas’ mind the thought that he could spur Jesus into Messianic action, but the fact that he took money for his betrayal is against such an idea. Any Messiah would hardly be expected to look well on someone who had taken money in such a fashion, and who had done it in order to betray Him.

Later he genuinely regretted his action. The paying back of the money to the Temple treasury, where it would then be held separately to be repaid to the contractee, and if not claimed would be used for public works, was a recognised means of cancelling a contract when the other party refused to accept the money back (Matthew 27:5), and it is quite possible that at that stage he could have repented and been forgiven. But his remorse was such that instead he took his own life.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/john-13.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The supper (Gr. deipnon) in view was the evening meal ( John 13:30). It was a Passover meal. Jesus evidently washed the disciples" feet just after the meal had been served ( John 13:4; John 13:26). The fact that Jesus washed Judas" feet after Judas had determined to betray Him shows the greatness of His love ( John 13:1). John"s reference to Satan"s role in Judas" decision heightens the point even further.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/john-13.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 13:2. And a supper being begun, the devil having already put it into his heart that Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, should betray him. It is important to notice the exact parallelism of this verse to the preceding, both in the note of time, and in the circumstances of the scene.

(1) The chronological notice, ‘a supper being begun.’ It was during the course of the supper, not after it was ended, that the events to be spoken of took place. That this ‘supper’ was not the ‘feast’ properly so called appears from the name ‘a supper,’ not ‘the feast,’ from John 13:29, where the ‘feast’ is not yet or only just begun, and from the absence of the article, which could hardly have been wanting had the word ‘supper’ taken up again the ‘feast’ of John 13:1. It was the preliminary meal at the close of which the ‘feast’ was celebrated.

(2) The circumstances of the other side of the scene, three in number. First, the devil, who had ‘already’ plotted the destruction of Jesus, and had fixed on Judas as the instrument. Second, Judas Iscariot, the victim of the devil’s wiles. Third, the feelings of the devil’s heart,—treachery, hatred, at the point of intensity when what had been long determined on shall be fulfilled. The three particulars are in the sharpest contrast with those in John 13:1,—the devil with Jesus, Judas with ‘His own,’ treachery with love. Darkness is over against light, earth over against heaven, the lie over against the truth; and between these Jesus takes His way. What has been said ought to remove the objection felt by many to the translation which we have given of this verse. None will deny that it is the correct translation of the best established Greek text, but it is thought to be impossible to speak of the heart of Satan. The expression, it will be seen, springs from the Evangelist’s mode of thought, as he seeks a contrast to the heart of Jesus (comp. the marginal rendering of Job 1:8; Job 2:3 : ‘Hast thou set thy heart on?’).

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-13.html. 1879-90.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

John 13:2. And supper being ended — Or, as δειπνου γενομενου should rather be translated, supper, or supper-time, being come, or, while they were at supper, as Dr. Campbell renders it. Thus, John 21:4, πρωιας γενομενης, when morning was come. Acts 12:18; Acts 16:35, ημερας γενομενης, when day was come; and Acts 21:40, σιγης λενομενης, when silence was made: in all which places, and in many more, which might easily be collected from the Greek writers, it would be absurd to translate the word, ended. “When γενομενης,” says Dr. Campbell, “is joined with πρωιας, οψιας, ημερας, or with any term denoting a precise portion of time, it invariably signifies that the period denoted by the noun is begun, not ended.” Of this he produces several incontrovertible examples. “That this was the passover-supper, may be proved by four arguments: 1st, In John’s history of this supper we are told, when Jesus had washed the disciples’ feet he sat down again at table, and explained the meaning of the action, John 13:12; and then declared that one of them should betray him, John 13:18-21. This occasioned the beloved disciple first, and after him the other disciples, to inquire which of them should do the horrid deed, John 13:23. But, by the consent of all the evangelists, that declaration and inquiry were first made while they were eating the last passover. 2d, At this supper, mentioned by John, Jesus declared that Peter should deny him, John 13:38; and the words of his declaration are not, The cock shall not crow the next, the third, or the fourth day, but, The cock shall not crow till thou hast denied me thrice: therefore the declaration must have been made on the night of the denial; and consequently the supper, at which it was made, must have been the paschal-supper, for all the evangelists agree that Peter denied his Master the night in which that supper was celebrated. 3d, The connection in which John’s supper stands with the subsequent facts mentioned by him shows plainly that it was the paschal-supper. For the discourse, (John 14,) being intended to give the disciples consolation, was delivered by Christ immediately after he had foretold Peter’s denial, and the cowardice of the rest. Having ended that discourse, Jesus went out of the house, (John 14:31,) and delivered the allegorical sermon, (John 15.,) which, from the subject of it, seems to have been preached in a place where there were many vines growing, probably on the mount of Olives, whither, as the other evangelists inform us, he retired after the paschal-supper. Immediately after the allegorical sermon, he spake that which is contained in the 16th and 17th chapters, and then went with his disciples over the brook Cedron, into the garden of Gethsemane, where he was apprehended. From this series of facts it appears, that the supper was the paschal-supper, because, between it and Jesus’s crucifixion, there is not the least chasm in John’s history, where the passover can be brought in. 4th, We are told, (chap. John 13:27-30,) that after Jesus had ordered Judas to do quickly what he was about to do, he went out; upon which Jesus mentioned the near prospect he had of being glorified, to intimate that he knew Judas was gone out to betray him. From this time forth there is nothing said of Judas by John till he appeared with the armed band. Nevertheless, by the accounts of the other evangelists, Judas was present at the institution of the sacrament of the supper, after the passover. Wherefore the passover being celebrated before Judas went out, the supper mentioned by John must have been that solemnity.” — Macknight. The devil having now put it into the heart of Judas to betray him — By this version the English reader would be led to apprehend, that it was at this paschal-supper that the devil first tempted Judas to betray Christ: but the original expression may be properly rendered, the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas, &c., for the participle βεβληκοτος is of the perfect tense, and denotes an action done at some time past, and the particle ηδη, rendered now, often signifies already, or before: so that what Christ says here concerning Judas, may refer to what had passed between him and the chief priests, after the reproof given him in the supper at Bethany. And therefore when John says afterward, (John 13:27,) that after the sop was given him, Satan entered into Judas, the meaning must be, that he was then again incited by the devil to execute the treachery which he had before resolved upon, by a like instigation of the same evil spirit.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on John 13:2". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/john-13.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

And when supper was done. By this we must not understand, that the supper was over; for we afterwards find the Jesus again sat down, and gave bread to the traitor. But these words only mean, that all had partook of refreshment, and might be therefore said to have supped. (St. Augustine, tract. 55. in Joan.) --- He knew that he went out from God, and would return to God; but at the same time, he did not leave God, when he went out from him, nor us, when he returns to him. (St. Augustine, as above.) --- And though he went out from God, and returns to him, yet here he condescends to perform the office, not of the Lord God of the universe, but of a man and a slave; (St. Augustine) and this, says St. John Chrysostom, (hom. lxix. in Joan.) that he might tread all pride under foot: doing every thing himself on this occasion, to teach us with what eagerness we ought to perform the duties of humility.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on John 13:2". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/john-13.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

supper. The last supper recorded. See App-157.

being ended. In view of John 13:26, Alford"s translation, "supper having been served, "is preferable to Authorized Version and Revised Version renderings. It means "supper being laid". Washing would naturally precede the meal Compare Luke 7:44.

the devil. See notes on Matthew 4:1-11. Luke 4:1-18, and App-19and App-116.

now = already.

into. Greek. eis. App-104.

Judas. See John 6:71.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 13:2". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-13.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him;

And supper being ended, [ genomenou (Greek #1096)]. In this rendering our translators have followed Luther and Beza, but unfortunately, since from John 13:26 it seems plain that the supper was not even then ended. The meaning either is, 'And supper being prepared,' or 'And supper going on.' So the same word is used, as Alford notices, in Matthew 26:6 "While Jesus was in Bethany" [ genomenou (Greek #1096)], and in John 21:4, "when it was morning" [ prooias (Greek #4405) genomenees (Greek #1096)]. [Of course, this must be the meaning if the reading ginomenou (Greek #1096) - in the present tense-be adopted, with Tischendorf and Tregelles. But the authority for it is scarcely so strong, we judge, as for the received reading, to which Lachmann adheres, and in which Alford concurs.]

(The devi having now [ eedee (Greek #2235), or rather 'already'] put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him)}] - referring to the compact he had already made with the chief priests (see the notes at Mark 14:10-11).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-13.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

2. Were at supper. The supper has just been served, and they are ready to begin eating. The Expositor’s Greek Testament says: “Feet-washing, pleasant and customary before a meal, would have been disagreeable and out of place in the course of it.” Jesus rose from the table, washed the feet, then sat down again to the supper. [Supper = feast, banquet, main meal.] The Devil had already decided. But Judas had volunteered for the job.

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on John 13:2". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/john-13.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(2) And supper being ended.—The reading here is uncertain, but neither reading justifies our translation. It should probably be, “And it now becoming supper time.” As a matter of fact, the supper was not ended (John 13:12; John 13:26); but they had already reclined, and were, as we say, ready for supper.

The devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot.—The better reading is, The devil having now put it into the heart, that Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, should betray Him. But the sense must be that of our version, “The heart of Judas” (the devil having suggested). The alternative interpretation, “the heart of the devil” (the devil having conceived) is opposed to all scriptural analogy. For the fact, comp. Notes on Matthew 26:14, and Luke 22:3.

For “Judas Iscariot,” comp. Notes on Matthew 10:4; Matthew 26:14. The name is given here in the sad fulness of this mournful record. The fact is recorded hero to explain the references to Judas which follow in our Lord’s words (John 13:10; John 13:18; John 13:21; John 13:26-27; John 13:30).

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-13.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him;
supper
4,26
the devil
27; 6:70; Luke 22:3,31; Acts 5:3; Ephesians 2:3
put
Ezra 7:27; Nehemiah 2:12; 2 Corinthians 8:16; James 1:13-17; Revelation 17:17
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 5:20 - Gehazi;  2 Kings 5:25 - stood before;  1 Chronicles 21:1 - Satan;  Psalm 55:21 - war;  Psalm 109:6 - and let;  Psalm 139:3 - and art acquainted;  Ecclesiastes 7:1 - precious;  Ezekiel 38:10 - that at;  Zechariah 11:12 - give;  Matthew 10:4 - and;  Matthew 12:44 - he findeth;  Matthew 24:48 - say;  Matthew 26:2 - betrayed;  Matthew 26:14 - one;  Matthew 27:3 - Judas;  Mark 3:19 - Judas;  Mark 14:10 - Judas;  Mark 14:41 - the Son;  Luke 11:39 - but;  Luke 16:10 - he that is unjust;  John 12:4 - Judas Iscariot;  John 13:21 - one;  John 18:3 - Judas;  2 Corinthians 2:11 - GeneralEphesians 2:2 - the spirit;  2 Timothy 2:26 - at;  Revelation 2:10 - the devil

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 13:2". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-13.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

2.After supper. (39) We shall afterwards take into consideration, at the proper place, the whole of Christ’s design in washing the feet of his disciples, and the advantage to be derived from this narrative. Let us now attend to the connection of the words. The Evangelist says that this was done, while Judas already resolved to betray Christ, not only to show the wonderful patience of Christ, who could endure to wash the feet of such a wicked and detestable traitor; but also that he purposely selected the time when he was near death, for performing what may be regarded as the last act of his life.

The devil having already put it into the heart of Judas. When the Evangelist says that Judas had been impelled by the devil to form the design of betraying Christ, this tends to show the enormity of the crime; for it was dreadful and most atrocious wickedness, in which the efficacy of Satan was openly displayed. There is no wickedness, indeed, that is perpetrated by men, to which Satan does not excite them, but the more hideous and execrable any crime is, the more ought we to view in it the rage of the devil, who drives about, in all possible directions, (40) men who have been forsaken by God. But though the lust of men is kindled into a fiercer flame by Satan’s fan, still it does not cease to be a furnace; it contains the flame kindled within itself, it receives with avidity the agitation of the fan, so that no excuse is left for wicked men.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 13:2". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-13.html. 1840-57.