Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 2:24

But Jesus, on His part, was not entrusting Himself to them, for He knew all men,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Jesus, the Christ;   Jesus Continued;   Scofield Reference Index - Resurrection;   Thompson Chain Reference - Divine;   Omniscience;   Wisdom-Folly;   The Topic Concordance - Knowledge;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Christ Is God;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Nicodemus;   Signs;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Marriage;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Nicodemus;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Marriage;   Mary;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Attributes of Christ;   Ave Maria;   Claim;   Dates (2);   Dispersion ;   Divinity of Christ;   Foresight;   Heart;   Kenosis;   Perfection (of Jesus);   Popularity;   Prophet;   Wisdom of Christ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - John, the Gospel by;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Cana;   Passover;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Judas Iscariot;   Kenosis;  
Devotionals:
Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for May 25;   Every Day Light - Devotion for June 2;   Today's Word from Skip Moen - Devotion for December 1;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

He knew all men - Instead of παντας all men, EGH, and about thirty others, read παντα, every man, or all things; and this I am inclined to believe is the true reading. Jesus knew all things; and why? Because he made all things, John 1:3, and because he was the all-wise God, John 1:1; and he knew all men, because he alone searches the heart, and tries the reins. He knows who are sincere, and who are hypocritical: he knows those in whom he can confide, and those to whom he can neither trust himself nor his gifts. Reader, he also knows thee: thy cares, fears, perplexities, temptations, afflictions, desires, and hopes; thy helps and hinderances; the progress thou hast made in the Divine life, or thy declension from it. If he know thee to be hypocritical or iniquitous, he looks upon thee with abhorrence: if he know thee to be of a meek and broken spirit, he looks on thee with pity, complacency, and delight. Take courage - thou canst say, Lord, thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I do love thee, and mourn because I love and serve thee so little: then expect him to come in unto thee, and make his abode with thee: while thy eye and heart are simple, he will love thee, and thy whole soul shall be full of light. To him be glory and dominion for ever!

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 2:24". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-2.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Did not commit himself - The word translated “commit” here is the same which in John 2:23 is translated “believed.” It means to put “trust” or “confidence in.” Jesus did not put “trust” or “reliance” in them. He did not leave himself in their hands. He acted cautiously and prudently. The proper time for him to die had not come, and he secured his own safety. The reason why he did not commit himself to them is “that he knew all men.” He knew the “inconstancy” and “fickleness” of the multitude. He knew how easily they might be turned against him by the Jewish leaders, and how unsafe he would be if they should be moved to sedition and tumult.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/john-2.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

But Jesus did not trust himself unto them, for that he knew all men.

The sudden wave of popularity had not deceived Jesus who well knew the fickle and unreliable nature of public opinion. For more on this subject, see my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 27:20-21.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-2.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

But Jesus did not commit himself unto them,.... The sense according to some of the ancients is, that he did not commit the whole of the Gospel to them; he did not make known to them all his mind and will; this he only did to the twelve apostles, his special disciples and friends; nor was the time come, that he would make known, or have made known, the things concerning his person, office, obedience, sufferings, death, and resurrection from the dead: but rather the meaning is, that he did not trust himself with these persons, who believed in him, on the basis of his miracles; he did not take them into the number of his associates; he did not admit them to intimacy with him; nor did he freely converse with them, or make any long stay among them; but soon withdrew himself from hence, and went into other parts of Judea, and into Galilee:

because he knew all men: good and bad: all openly profane sinners, and all their actions; not only their more public ones, but those that are done in the dark, and which are the most secretly devised, and levelled against the saints; and he so knew them, as to bring them into judgment: and all good men, true believers; he knows their persons, as they are his Father's choice, his gift of them to him, his own purchase, and as called by his grace; and so as to distinguish them at the last day, and give up the full account of every one of them to his Father: he knows the worst of them, the sin that dwells in them, their daily infirmities, their secret personal sins; their family sins, both of omission and commission; and their church sins, or which are committed in the house of God; and takes notice of them, so as to resent them, and chastise them for them; he knows the best of them, their graces, their faith, hope, love, patience, humility, self-denial, &c; he knows their good works, and all their weaknesses and their wants: and he knows all nominal professors, on what basis they take up their profession, and what trust they place in it; he can distinguish between grace and mere profession, and discern the secret lusts which such indulge, and the springs and progress of their apostasy: he knew all these men, that upon seeing his miracles, professed at this time to believe in him; he knew the hypocrisy and dissimulation of some of them; and he knew the notions they had of a temporal Messiah, and the temporal views they had in believing in him; and their design to set him up as a temporal prince, as some afterwards would have done: knew the flashy affections of others, who were like John's hearers, that were pleased for a while; he knew what sort of faith it was they believed in him with, that it would not hold long, nor they continue with him; for he knew not only all persons, but παντα, "all things", as some copies read here; see John 21:17.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 2:24". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-2.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

6 But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all [men],

(6) It is not good giving credit to those who trust only because of miracles.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on John 2:24". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/john-2.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

did not commit — “entrust,” or let Himself down familiarly to them, as to His genuine disciples.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/john-2.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

But Jesus did not trust himself to them (αυτος δε Ιησους ουκ επιστευεν αυτον αυτοιςautos de Iēsous ouk episteuen hauton autois). “But Jesus himself kept on refusing (negative imperfect) to trust himself to them.” The double use of πιστευωpisteuō here is shown by Acts 8:13 where Simon Magus “believed” (επιστευσενepisteusen) and was baptized, but was unsaved. He merely believed that he wanted what Philip had.

For that he knew all men (δια το αυτον γινωσκειν πανταςdia to auton ginōskein pantas). Causal use of διαdia and the accusative case of the articular infinitive το γινωσκεινto ginōskein (because of the knowing) with the object of the infinitive (πανταςpantas all men) and the accusative of general reference (αυτονauton as to himself).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

But Jesus ( αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Ἱησοῦς )

The αὐτὸς , which does not appear in translation, has the force of on His part, marking the contrast with those just mentioned.

Did not commit ( οὐκ ἐπίστευτεν )

Rev., trust. There is a kind of word-play between this and ἐπίστευσαν , believed, in the preceding verse. Wyc. reproduces it: “Jesus himself believed not himself to them.” He did not trust His person to them. Tynd., put not himself in their hands. “He had no faith in their faith” (Godet).

Because He knew ( διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν γινώσκειν )

Literally, on account of the fact of His knowing. John describes the Lord's knowledge by two words which it is important to distinguish. Γινώσκειν , as here, implies acquired knowledge; knowledge which is the result of discernment and which may be enlarged. This knowledge may be drawn from external facts (John 5:6; John 6:15) or from spiritual sympathy (John 10:14, John 10:27; John 17:25). Εἰδέναι (John 1:26) implies absolute knowledge: the knowledge of intuition and of satisfied conviction. Hence it is used of Christ's knowledge of divine things (John 3:11; John 5:32; John 7:29), Of the facts of His own being (John 6:6; John 8:14; John 13:1), and of external facts (John 6:61, John 6:64; John 13:11). In John 21:17the two words appear together. Peter says to Jesus, appealing to His absolute knowledge, “Thou knowest ( οἶδας ) all things:” appealing to his discernment, “Thou knowest or perceivest ( γινώσκεις ) that I love Thee.”

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-2.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,

He did not trust himself to them — Let us learn hence not rashly to put ourselves into the power of others. Let us study a wise and happy medium between universal suspiciousness and that easiness which would make us the property of every pretender to kindness and respect.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on John 2:24". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/john-2.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

But Jesus did not trust himself unto them, for that he knew all men1,

  1. But Jesus did not trust himself unto them, for that he knew all men. The Greek word "pisteuo," here translated "trust," is the same as that translated "believe" in John 2:23. They trusted him, but he did not trust them, for he knew them. He did not tell them anything of his plans and purposes, and the conversion with Nicodemus which follows is a sample of this reticence.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 2:24". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-2.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Сам Иисус не вверял. Некоторые толкуют так: Христос скрывал Себя от этих людей, поелику Он знал, что они не верны и вероломны. Но мне не кажется, что Евангелист хотел сказать именно это. Также не уместен смысл, приписываемый этому отрывку Августином в проповеди о катехуменах. По моему мнению Евангелист просто имеет в виду, что Христос не считал этих людей подлинными учениками, презирая их глупость и легковесность. Надобно тщательно отметить данное место, потому что не все, исповедующие себя христианами, являются таковыми в глазах Христа. Однако следует принять во внимание причину этого. Она в том, что Христос знает всех. Нет ничего опаснее лицемерия: по многим причинам, но в том числе из-за большой распространенности этого порока. Нет никого, кто не был бы так или иначе доволен собой. Когда же мы обманываем себя пустой лестью, то думаем, что Бог слеп подобно нам. Здесь же нас учат, насколько Его суд отстоит от нашего. Ведь Он видит то, что убегает от нашего взора. Он из скрытого источника, то есть – из внутреннего сердечного чувства, оценивает то, что ослепляет нам глаза притворным блеском. Об этом и говорит Соломон (Прит.21:2): Бог на весах Своих взвесил сердца человеков, поелику они льстят себе на путях своих. Итак, будем помнить, что лишь те – истинные ученики Христа, кто одобрен Им Самим. Потому что Христос – единственный подходящий в этом вопросе судья.

Теперь можно спросить: Евангелист, говоря, что Христос знал всех, имел ли в виду весь человеческий род, или лишь тех, о которых тогда шла речь? Многие относят эту фразу к общей для всех человеческой природе и думают, что здесь весь мир осуждается в нечестии и вероломном притворстве. Действительно правда, что в людях нельзя найти ничего, что побудило бы Христа считать их Своими, но я не думаю, что это толкование соответствует контексту. Итак, я отношу фразу лишь к тем, о ком тогда велась речь. Но поскольку можно было усомниться и спросить – откуда Христос это знал, Евангелист, упреждая сей вопрос, отвечает: Христу было открыто в человеке все, сокрытое от нас, дабы Он по праву мог различать между людьми. Итак,

Христос, будучи сердцеведцем, знал людей, не имея нужды во внешнем свидетельстве. Он знал их склад ума и душевный настрой. И люди оказались такими, что Христос справедливо счел их чуждыми Себе.

Некоторые спрашивают: не должны ли и мы, по примеру Христа, подозревать тех, кто не дал свидетельства своей искренности? Но этот вопрос не имеет отношения к делу. Ибо наше познание отлично от познания Христа. Христос видит самые корни деревьев, мы же только по плодам узнаем, каково то или иное дерево. Далее, поскольку любви, по словам Павла (1Кор.13:4) не свойственно подозревать, не подобает без причины плохо думать о неизвестных нам людях. Впрочем, дабы нас не обманывали лицемеры, и Церковь не страдала чрезмерно от притворства злых, Христос также учит нас духу различения.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-2.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

24 But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,

Ver. 24. Did not commit himself unto them] Who yet would needs obtrude upon him. None are so impudent as hypocrites; they deceive themselves, they would do others; God, too. I read not (saith one) in Scripture of a hypocrite’s conversion; and what wonder? for whereas, after sin, conversion is left as a means to cure all other sinners; what means to recover him, who hath converted conversion itseff into sin?

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 2:24". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-2.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

John 2:24. Jesus did not commit himself unto them, Did not discover himself to be the Messiah. He did not trust to those who believed merely on account of his miracles.—Because he knew all men. He had perfect knowledge of their dispositions, and was assured, on the present occasion, that the belief of many was not yet grown up to a full conviction; and foresaw that they would quickly fall off, when they found that he was rejected by the great men, and did not erect a secular empire. From the caution which Jesus used, we may learn, not rashly to put ourselves and our usefulness into the power of others; but to study a wise and happy medium between that universal prejudice and suspicion, which, while it wrongs the best and most worthy characters, would deprive us of all the pleasures of an intimate friendship; and an undistinguishing easiness and openness of temper, which might make us the property of every hypocritical pretender to kindness and respect.

Inferences drawn from the marriage in Cana, John 2:1-11. Was this then the first public miracle, O Saviour, that thou wroughtest? And could there be a greater miracle than this, that, having been thirty years upon earth, thou didst no miracle till now? That thy Divinity did hide itself thus long in flesh? That so long thou wouldst lie obscure in a corner of Galilee, unknown to that world which thou camest to redeem? That so long thou wouldst strain the patient expectation of those, who ever since the appearance of thy star waited for the revelation of a Messiah? We, silly creatures, if we have but a grain of virtue, are ready to set it out to the best appearance. Thou who receivedst not the Spirit by measure, wouldst content thyself with a willing obscurity, and concealedst that power which made the world—under the roof of a human breast, in a cottage of Nazareth! O Saviour, no one of thy miracles is more worthy of astonishment than thy not doing of miracles!

Thy first public miracle graceth a marriage. It is an antient and laudable institution. That the rites of matrimony should not want a solemn celebration, the Son of the Virgin, and the mother of that Son are both at the wedding. He that made the first marriage in Paradise, bestows his first miracle upon a Galilean marriage. He that was the author of matrimony, and sanctifies it, doth, by his holy presence, honour the resemblance of his eternal union with his church of the faithful. How boldly may be contemned all the impure adversaries of wedlock, when the Son of God pleases thus to honour it!

Happy is that wedding, where Christ is a guest! O Saviour, there is no holy marriage whereat thou art not; however invisible, yet truly present by thy Spirit and gracious benediction. Thou who hast betrothed thy believing people to thyself in truth and righteousness, do thou consummate that happy marriage of ours in the highest heavens.

It was no rich or sumptuous bridal to which Christ, and his mother, and his disciples, vouchsafed to come. We find him not at the magnificent feasts or triumphs of the great. The proud pomp of the world did not agree with the state of a servant: this Galilean bridegroom, before the expiration of his festival, wants drink for the accommodation of his guests.

The blessed Virgin feels a charitable compassion; and, from a friendly desire to maintain the decency of a hospitable entertainment, inquires into the wants of her host, pities them, and seeks anxiously to redress them. How well does it become the eyes of piety and Christian love to look into the necessities of others!

To whom should we complain of any want, but to the Maker and Giver of all things? When they wanted wine, The mother of Jesus said unto him, They have no wine. The blessed Virgin certainly, in some degree, knew to whom she sued. It would have been hard if some of the neighbour-guests, when duly solicited, had not been able to furnish the bridegroom with so much wine as might suffice for the remainder of the feast: but Mary evidently thought it best not to lade at the shallow channel, but rather to go to the fountain-head, where she might dip and fill the firkins at once with ease. It may be she saw that the train of Christ might help forward that defect; and therefore she justly solicits Jesus for a supply. Whether we want bread, or water, or wine, necessaries or comforts, whither should we run, O Saviour, but to that infinite munificence of thine, which neither denieth nor upbraideth? We cannot want if we cleave to thee: we cannot abound but from thee: give us what thou wilt, so thou give us contentment with what thou givest.

But what is this we hear?—A sharp answer to the suit of a mother.—Woman, what have I to do with thee? He, whose sweet mildness and mercy never sent away any supplicant discontented,—doth he only frown upon her who bare him?—He that commands us to honour father and mother, doth he disdain her, whose flesh he assumed? God forbid! But love and duty do not exempt parents from due admonition: she solicited Christ as a mother; he answers her as a woman: if she was the mother of his flesh, his Deity was eternal. She might not so remember herself to be a mother, that she should forget she was a woman; nor so look upon him as a son, that she should not regard him as a God: he was so obedient to her as a mother, that withal she might obey him as her God. Neither is it for us, in the holy affairs of God, to know any faces; yea, if we have known Christ heretofore according to the flesh, henceforth know we him so no more; much less do we substitute a woman as a mediator between God and man.

Yet even in this rough answer, as it may seem, doth the blessed Virgin descry cause of hope. If his hour was not yet come, it was therefore coming: when the expectation of the guests and the necessity of the occasion have made fit room for the miracle, it shall come forth and challenge their wonder. Faithfully therefore and observantly does she turn her speech from Jesus to the attendants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it.

However, she that had said of herself, Be it unto me according to thy word, now humbly says to others, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. This is the way to have miracles wrought for us, and in us,—obedience to his word. The power of Christ did not depend on the officiousness of these servants: he could have wrought wonders equally without their contribution; but their perverse refusal of his commands might have rendered them incapable of the favour of a miraculous exertion.

This scanty house was yet furnished with many and large vessels for outward purification, as if iniquity had dwelt upon the skin. Alas! it is the soul which needs scouring; and nothing can wash that, but the Blood which they desperately wished upon themselves and their children, for guilt, not for expiation. Purge thou us, O Lord, with hyssop, and we shall be clean; wash us, and we shall be whiter than snow.

The waiters could not but think so unseasonable a command, as we read in John 2:7.—Fill the water-pots with water, to be very strange. "It is wine that we want; why do we go to fetch water? If there be no other remedy, we could have sought this supply unbidden:" and yet so far has the command prevailed, that instead of talking of carrying flaggons of wine to the table, they go to fetch water in their vessels from their cisterns. There is no pleading of improbabilities against the command of an Almighty power.

How liberal are the provisions of Christ! If he had but turned the water in one of those vessels into wine, it had been a just proof of his power. But the abundance magnifies at once both his power and mercy. The munificent hand of God regards not our wants only, but our honest affluence; it is our sin and our shame if we turn his favours into wantonness.

There must be first a filling, ere there can be a drawing out. Thus in our vessels, the first care must be of our receipt, the next of our expence: God would have us to be first cisterns, and then channels. Our Saviour would not be his own taster, but he sends the first draught to the governor of the feast. He knew his own power, they did not; neither would he bear witness of himself, but draw it out of the mouths of others. They who knew not the original of that wine, yet praised the taste, John 2:10. Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine, &c. but thou hast kept the good wine until now. The same bounty which expressed itself in the quantity of the wine, shews itself no less in the excellence: nothing can fall from that Divine hand which is not exquisite: that liberality would not provide mean accommodation for its guests. It was fit that the miraculous effects of Christ, which came from his immediate hand, should be more perfect than the natural. O blessed Saviour, how delicate is that new wine which we shall one day drink with thee in thy Father's kingdom! Yes, gracious Lord, thou shalt turn this water of our earthly afflictions into that wine of gladness, wherewith our souls shall be richly replenished for ever and ever! Make haste, my beloved; and be thou like to a roe, or to a young hart upon the mountains of spices.

REFLECTIONS.—1st, The first miracle of Jesus was wrought at a marriage-feast in Cana of Galilee. It was probably a marriage of some near relation of his mother Mary's, who seemed not to be there merely as a guest, but as one of the family. Christ was invited, and refused not the invitation given him on this occasion, but went with his disciples to grace the bridal feast with his presence and company, and put an honour upon the institution. Note; (1.) Our marriages can only then be expected to issue happily, when Jesus with his benediction crowns the indissoluble union. (2.) Religion teaches none to be unsocial or uncivil, but commands us to rejoice with those that rejoice. We are told,

1. The concern expressed by the mother of Jesus to her Son on account of the deficiency of the wine at this entertainment. The number of the guests, perhaps more than were expected, consumed the small quantity which these persons, who were probably in mean circumstances, had provided, and they might not be able to afford more. It seems she expected that he would soon begin to display his glorious power, and intimated that the present necessity afforded an opportunity for his miraculous assistance. Note; A genuine Christian interests himself in the distresses of his friends; and, when he can do no more to relieve them, fails not to commend their case to the kind Saviour's notice.

2. Our Lord gives her a reprimand for interfering in matters which did not belong to her. Though he was her son after the flesh, yet in the exercise of his miraculous powers he acted as the Son of God, and owed her no obedience. What a direct condemnation of the horrid idolatry of that church, which prays to the mother to command her Son! Besides, he adds, My hour is not yet come: the time for the public manifestation of his glory, by his openly performing miracles, was not yet come.

3. Though his mother silently submitted to his pleasure, she entertained hopes that he would grant her request, and take the matter into his consideration; and therefore privately bade the servants obey whatever orders he should give them. Note; (1.) We must not be discouraged in our faith, if our prayers are not immediately answered. (2.) Christ's commands are implicitly to be obeyed, without reasoning or hesitation.

4. Christ performs the miracle; and with circumstances which eminently displayed his glory. Six water-pots of stone were placed there, containing about two or three firkins each (see the annotations.). These water-pots Christ bids the servants fill with water to the brim, that there might be no suspicion of fraud in the miracle. They obeyed, and instantly the strange conversion was wrought. He orders them hereupon to draw out and carry this liquor to the governor of the feast, the person who was master of the ceremonies, or sat in the most honourable place on that occasion. No sooner had he tasted the wine which had been water, than he was struck with the delicious flavour, and, unacquainted whence it came, he observed to the bridegroom with surprize his unusual method of procedure. Others usually produced their best wine first, and afterwards, when men had well drank, that which was worse; but he had kept the good wine to the last, as the grace-cup, to conclude the entertainment. Note; (1.) God's creatures, and wine among the rest, are given for the good of man, and may be used with moderation; only we must be very careful that we do not, by intemperance, abuse our mercies and turn our blessings into curses by excess. (2.) Feasts need a governor to restrain the irregularities of those, who else perhaps, to their shame, would have no government over themselves. (3.) Whatever consolations believers here enjoy, the greatest are reserved for them at last, when, at the marriage-supper of the Lamb, they shall drink the new wine in the kingdom of God.

5. At the conclusion of this miracle the evangelist observes, that this was the first which Jesus performed after his entrance on his ministry; wherein he manifested forth his glory in such displays of his power and grace, wrought by his authoritative word, as exalted his own great name, and proved his own eternal Godhead and glory; and his disciples believed on him, confirmed in their assurance of the truth of that high character which he assumed. Note; The more we become acquainted with Christ in his word, the more shall we be convinced that this is he who should come, and shall be engaged to rest our souls on him for life and salvation.

2nd, Capernaum was the place where Christ usually resided, Matthew 4:13. Hither he came with his mother, brethren, and disciples, who, struck with what they had seen, attended him to observe the further manifestations of his divine power and glory which he should make. His abode at this time at Capernaum was not many days, the Passover being at hand, which called him up to Jerusalem. Where we find him,

1. Purging the temple of those intruders who had defiled that holy place. Under pretence of accommodating with sacrifices, and change of money, those who came up to worship, a market was kept in the temple by the connivance of the priests, who probably made some considerable advantage by permitting such a profanation. But Christ, beholding with indignation such corruptions in the house of God, immediately began to vindicate the honour of that sacred inclosure, and, having made a scourge of cords, he drove out the traders with their beasts, overturned the tables of the money-changers, and bade those who sold doves to take them away; remonstrating with them on the wickedness of their conduct, Make not my Father's house an house of merchandise. Note; (1.) The love of filthy lucre is generally at the root of the corruptions which creep into the church of God. (2.) If God is our Father, we cannot but be grieved to see him dishonoured, and should zealously appear in his cause. (3.) They who are bold and faithful for God, will often see that one can chase a thousand; and that, if we dare stand up in his name, the consciences of sinners will cover them with confusion.

2. The disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up. And this still more confirmed their faith, as they observed the scripture prophesies accomplished in him.

3. Being questioned by the Jews concerning the authority on which he acted, and required to give a sign in proof of the mission to which he pretended, He answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. Since they refused to be convinced by other miracles, he refers them to the last sign which should be wrought, even his resurrection from the dead by his own divine power, after they had destroyed the temple of his body. As he had now cleansed his house from their profanations, so would he raise his own body which they should slay, and not suffer it to see corruption. They understood him as if he meant the material temple where he then was, which had now been forty-fix years building and beautifying (see the annotations): and they looked upon it as the most absurd of pretensions, for a mere man, as they presumed him to be, to assert that he could do that in three days, which had employed thousands of workmen so many years. Thus they ridiculed his assertion, though it appears they understood not his meaning. Note; (1.) It is just with God to give those up to their vain imaginations, who have no love of the truth, but have pleasure in unrighteousness. (2.) The grossest mistakes have been entertained by understanding literally what the scriptures have spoken figuratively, as in the doctrine of transubstantiation, drawn from the words of Christ, This is my body. (3.) The body of Jesus was the true temple, in which the fulness of the Godhead dwelt; and of him the temple at Jerusalem was but the type and figure. (4.) As the temple was the medium of worship, and they who prayed turned their faces thitherward, so is it through Christ Jesus alone that we can have access to and acceptance with God.

4. His disciples, though they, no more than the Jews, understood his meaning at that time, yet afterwards, when the events verified the prediction, and the Spirit poured out from on high opened their minds to understand the scriptures, reflected on this prophesy, and seeing the accomplishment of it in his resurrection, were the more deeply confirmed in their faith of the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said. Note; The truths of scripture which we learn in younger years, though not understood at that time, yet are frequently of singular use when, at any future period, our souls are converted, and the eyes of our minds are opened, through the grace of God.

3rdly, During the seven days of the feast Christ preached openly the doctrines of his kingdom, and wrought mighty miracles in confirmation of the truths that he taught. In consequence of which,

1. Many believed in his name; at least, for the time, they were so struck with his miracles as to give their assent to his doctrine, and own him as the Messiah. But,

2. Jesus did not commit himself unto them, did not trust himself with them, or repose any confidence upon them; because he knew all men; the wickedness of some who would play the hypocrite in order to betray him; and the weakness of others, who in a time of danger might, through timidity, be tempted to desert him, or, through mistake and indiscretion, raise some disturbance through their vain imaginations that his kingdom was temporal, and his throne to be established by arms. And, being thus all-wise, he needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man, was acquainted with his inmost thoughts, yea, knew them before they were formed. Note; (1.) We should be cautious in whom we confide, and try before we trust. (2.) Christ knows the secrets of all hearts; he sees the devices of his subtle enemies, and the faults of his pretended friends; and he will bring every sinner to judgment, and every secret thing, whether it be good or whether it be evil.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on John 2:24". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/john-2.html. 1801-1803.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

John 2:24. αὐτός) Himself.— οὐκ ἐπίστευεν ἑαυτόν, He did not commit Himself) He did not descend to too great familiarity with them (Septuag., Job 29:24, εἰ ἐγέλων πρὸς αὐτοὺς, οὐκ ἐπίστευον, “If I laughed on them, they believed it not):” He did not reveal to them the things which it was not yet the full time for revealing. [In fact, He left the city, when the passover feast was either not yet, or scarcely, finished, for this reason, because those men were already meditating with themselves the plots, which broke out more openly, ch. John 5:16; John 5:18, “The Jews sought to slay Him, because He had done these things on the Sabbath day:” and also “said that God was His Father, making Himself equal with God;” John 7:1, “He would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill Him:” for it was not then as yet the time for His submitting Himself to encounter their hatred. Without doubt it was, as having a secret surmise of these things, that Nicodemus had the interview with Him by night.—Harm., p. 163.]—The antithesis to οὐκ ἐπίστευεν ἑαυτόν is ἐπίστευσαν, many believed, John 2:23.— αὐτόν) Himself, of Himself, knew all men.— γινώσκειν, knew) Often John so uses the word γινώσκειν, to know, of Jesus having cognizance of all things, without information given Him by man: ch. John 4:1, “The Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made—more disciples than John;” John 5:6, “When Jesus knew that he (the impotent man) had now been a long time in that case,” etc.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 2:24". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-2.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Christ did not take all these seeming believers into his bosom, nor call them after him, nor maintain any familiar fellowship and communion with them; but made haste again into Galilee, till his time was come, knowing that in so public a place of danger they were not to be trusted; for being God blessed for ever, he had knowledge of the hearts of all men.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 2:24". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-2.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Did not commit himself unto them; did not trust himself in their power.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/john-2.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Trust himself to them. The Fathers generally understand these words, to them, to refer to those who believed in him, mentioned in the preceding verse. Though they believed in him, he did not trust himself to them, because he knew them. He knew their weaknesses, their inconstancy, their unsteadiness. He knew they would abandon him on the first occasion; and that his passion, his cross, his doctrines, would be a subject of scandal. St. Augustine compares these first believers to catechumens. They believe in Christ, confess his name, and sign their foreheads with his cross: but Jesus Christ does not trust himself to them; he does not trust to them the knowledge of his mysteries; he does not reveal to them the secrets of his religion. (Calmet) --- The catechumens were not allowed to be present at the holy mysteries of the sacrifice of the mass, but went out after the instruction of the gospel; whence the first part of the mass was frequently called the mass of the catechumens.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on John 2:24". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/john-2.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

But Jesus: i.e. But Jesus [for His part].

commit = trust. Same word as "believed "in John 2:23, but not the same tense. Here it denotes a continual action or habit. Greek pisteuo. App-150. See note on John 1:7.

because. Greek. dia. App-104. John 2:2.

He = He Himself.

knew. Greek. ginosko. App-182. See note on John 1:10.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 2:24". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-2.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,

But Jesus, [ Autos (Greek #846) de (Greek #1161) ho (Greek #3588) Ieesous (Greek #2424)] - 'But Jesus Himself,' or 'Jesus, for His part,'

Did not commit (or 'trust') himself unto them, [ ouk (Greek #3756) episteuen (Greek #4100) auton (Greek #846) autois (Greek #846)]. Though they confided in Him, He did not confide in them, or let Himself down to them familiarly, as He did to His genuine disciples.

Because he knew all men. He saw through them, as He did through all men, and, perceiving the superficial character of the trust they reposed in Him, He reposed none in them.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-2.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

24. But Jesus did not trust himself to them. He knew only too well what their real character was, and what some of them would do to him.

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on John 2:24". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/john-2.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(24) But beneath this shallow surface there is the unbroken ledge of rock. They are easily moved just because they are not deeply moved. The eye which looked at, looked into, others (comp. John 1:47 et seq.), saw to the very depth of their hearts too, and knew all. It saw in that depth that the true inner man did not believe, did not commit itself to Him; it found not the spiritual receptivity, and there could not therefore be the spiritual revelation. He, on His part, did not commit Himself unto them. (Comp. John 8:31, Note.) Our version gives the correct sense, but it should be noted that “believed” in John 2:23, and “commit” here, represent the same Greek word.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-2.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,
did
6:15; Matthew 10:16,17
because
1:42,46,47; 5:42; 6:64; 16:30; 21:17; 1 Samuel 16:7; 1 Chronicles 28:9; 29:17; Jeremiah 17:9; Matthew 9:4; Mark 2:8; Acts 1:24; Hebrews 4:13; Revelation 2:23
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 31:21 - I know;  Joshua 22:22 - he knoweth;  Judges 3:1 - prove;  1 Samuel 24:22 - David and;  Job 10:6 - GeneralJob 11:11 - he knoweth;  Job 42:2 - no;  Psalm 139:2 - understandest;  Proverbs 15:11 - the hearts;  Proverbs 21:2 - the Lord;  Ezekiel 11:5 - for;  Matthew 12:25 - Jesus;  Matthew 16:8 - when;  Mark 8:17 - knew;  Mark 12:15 - knowing;  Mark 14:15 - he will;  Luke 20:23 - he;  John 4:16 - Go;  John 6:61 - GeneralJohn 7:31 - believed;  John 16:19 - Jesus;  Acts 15:8 - which;  2 Corinthians 11:11 - God;  1 Thessalonians 2:4 - but God;  1 John 3:20 - and

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 2:24". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-2.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

24.But Christ did not rely on them. Those who explain the meaning to be, that Christ was on his guard against them, because he knew that they were not upright and faithful, do not appear to me to express sufficiently well the meaning of the Evangelist. Still less do I agree with what Augustine says about recent converts. The Evangelist rather means, in my opinion, that Christ did not reckon them to be genuine disciples, but despised them as volatile and unsteady. It is a passage which ought to be carefully observed, that not all who profess to be Christ’s followers are such in his estimation. But we ought also to add the reason which immediately follows:

Because he knew them all. Nothing is more dangerous than hypocrisy, for this reason among others, that it is an exceedingly common fault. There is scarcely any man who is not pleased with himself; and while we deceive ourselves by empty flatteries, we imagine that God is blind like ourselves. But here we are reminded how widely his judgment differs from ours; for he sees clearly those things which we cannot perceive, because they are concealed by some disguise; and he estimates according to their hidden source, that is, according to the most secret feeling of the heart, those things which dazzle our eyes by false luster. This is what Solomon says, that

God weighs in his balance the hearts of men, while they flatter themselves in their ways, (Proverbs 21:2.)

Let us remember, therefore, that none are the true disciples of Christ but those whom He approves, because in such a matter He alone is competent to decide and to judge.

A question now arises: when the Evangelist says that Christ knew them all, does he mean those only of whom he had lately spoken, or does the expression refer to the whole human race? Some extend it to the universal nature of man, and think that the whole world is here condemned for wicked and perfidious hypocrisy. And, certainly, it is a true statement, that Christ can find in men no reason why he should deign to place them in the number of his followers; but I do not see that this agrees with the context, and therefore I limit it to those who had been formerly mentioned.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 2:24". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-2.html. 1840-57.