Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, November 29th, 2023
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Bible Commentaries
John 2

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


1 ) "And the third day," (kai te hemera te trite) "And on the third day," after the call of Nathanael, John 1:45-51.

2) "There was a marriage in Cana of Galilee”;- (gamos egeneto en Kana tes Galilaias) "There was a wedding in Cana of Galilee;- a village or town of Galilee, some five miles northeast of Nazareth. It was also the home of Nathanael, John 21:2. The name Cana means "reedy." It is a community that entertained a prominent wedding of an unknown bride and groom.

3) "And the mother of Jesus was there:”- (kai en he meter tou lesou ekei) "And the mother of Jesus was out there," or out and away from her residence, or former residence in Nazareth, for the festive social occasion, in another village, town or community. Joseph is not mentioned, either here or later, at the crucifixion of Jesus, and is therefore believed to have been dead already. It is also possible that Mary had now moved to Cana, as only the sisters of Jesus seemed to remain in Nazareth, Mark 6:3.

Verse 2

1) "And both Jesus was called," (eklethe de kai ho lesous) "Then both Jesus was invited," to the wedding in Cana, to dignify and sanctify the occasion, an occasion that honored the oldest social institution among men, ordained of God in Eden, to be perpetuated till the end of time, for moral and social purposes among men, as a basis of establishing and maintaining the home, Genesis 3:22-24; Hebrews 13:4.

2) "And his disciples, to the marriage." (kai hoi mathetai autou eis ton gamon) "And his disciples to the wedding," the New Covenant fellowship of church disciples He had so recently called, following His baptism, Matthew 3:15-17, and His temptation, Luke 4:16-24; Matthew 4:17-22; John 1:35-51. It is believed that some of the disciples were relatives of those who were being married and perhaps relatives of even the family of Jesus, or Nathanael who lived in Cana, John 21:2; and had recently become a disciple of Jesus.

Verse 3

1) "And when they wanted wine," (kai husteresantos oinou) "And when wine was lacking," had run out, or been consumed; When they needed wine to continue the wedding feast, to its traditional end of seven to fourteen days of celebration.

2) "The mother of Jesus saith unto him," (legei he meter tou lesou pros auton) "The mother of Jesus says to him;- Apparently approached Him in semi-privacy, but overheard by this disciple John, who is the only writer to recount this eventful occasion. She perhaps spoke words long hid in her heart, Luke 2:19-51.

3) "They have no wine." (oinon ouk echousin) "They have no wine," or there is no wine to meet the expec­tant needs of the people at this high hour of festive cele­bration. Jewish wedding feasts traditionally lasted seven to fourteen days, and apparently the need of the guests exceeded the expectancy of the hosts, Genesis 29:27-28.

Verse 4

1) "Jesus saith unto her," (kai legei aute ho lesous) "And Jesus said to her," directly, firmly, even apparently chiding her for something she had pressed upon Him, about revealing His power as the Messiah. His hour of miracle working had not come, but was now approaching.

2) "Woman, what have I to do with thee?" (ti emoi kai soi gunai) "Woman, what (business is it) to you and to me?" He spoke firmly but with respect, intimating that as a mature man (legally) a public teacher and speaker, above 30 years of age, a requirement of age for both Jewish and Roman teachers and leaders, He now had a higher rule of conduct to follow than the wish of His mother, that He go out and help find the needed wine, see Numbers 4:3; Numbers 4:23; Numbers 4:40; Numbers 4:35; Numbers 4:39; Numbers 4:43; Numbers 4:47.

3) "Mine hour is not yet come." (oupo hekei he hora mou) "My hour not yet is or exists." This seems to indicate that Jesus and His mother Mary had conferred regarding His being the Son of God, with creative powers, things it appears that Mary had long held in her heart, Luke 2:49. But the time for His beginning this demonstration of His power and glory was to be one of His own choice, not that of His mother’s natural wish, as a woman no longer making His decisions, see John 19:26; John 20:13-15. How long it was, before He did this miracle thereafter, is not known.

Verse 5

1) "His mother saith unto the servants," (legei he meter autou tois diakonois) "His mother (then) said directly to the servants," waiting at the table of the wedding arrangements, of the care of the feast. These were perhaps younger servants that were accustomed to do what they were told by a more mature person who took charge in a moment of need or uncertainty.

2) "Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it." (ho ti an lege humin poiesate) "Whatever he tells you (to do) do it." Mary was neither humbled nor discouraged at what Jesus had said to her, but went directly to the servants and directed them to look to and obey Jesus, in whatever He might tell them to do. He came to their rescue in an hour of need, shame, and embarrassment. Obedience to Christ will always be man’s duty, whether or not he understands it. Pharaoh gave similar instructions to his servants concerning Joseph, Genesis 41:55.

Verse 6

1) "And there were set there six waterpots of stone," (esan He ekei lithinai hudriai heks) "Now there were set­ting there six stone water pots." It was believed that stone waterpots kept the water’s purity better than other kinds of containers. Containers of this kind were kept in Jewish homes for purposes of meticulous physical cleansing, washing before meals, and the washing of household vessels, Luke 11:39-40.

2) "After the manner of the purifying of the Jews," (kata ton katharismon ton loudaion keimenai) "Lying according to the purifying of the Jews," or for the sake of the purifying of the Jews, as they used such containers of water for the washing of their hands, cups, tables, and vessels of brass, Matthew 15:2; Mark 7:1-5.

3) "Containing two or three firkins apiece." (chorousai ana metretas duo e treis) "Such containing two or three measures." A firkin was about eight and one half gallons. The six containers would have held 100 to 135 gallons, indicating preparation for the care perhaps of at least one hundred guests at the wedding.

Verse 7

1) "Jesus saith unto them," (legei autois ho lesous) "Jesus instructed or directed them," as His mother had indicated He would do John 2:5.

2) "Fill the waterpots with water." (gemisate tas hudrias hudatos) "You all fill the water-pots with water." They had therefore been emptied already, for the purifying of those of the party at the feast, friends of the bridegroom, who desired to act in harmony with the will of the Pharisee order or customs of cleansing.

3) "And they filled them up to the brim." (kai egemisan autas heos ano) "And they filled them up td the top," as Jesus had directed. The servants did as they were told, did their part, obediently, as they filled each of the six jars (Gk. a no) ’’up" to the brim, with water, exactly as the Lord had directed, neither partially filling the jars nor running them over to do harm to the residence, a lesson in obedience for every servant of God, Joshua 1:7-8; Proverbs 30:6.

Verse 8

1) "And he saith unto them," (kai legei autois) "And he said to them," to the servants who had responded respectfully to both Mary’s advice and Jesus’ command, John 2:5; John 2:7, a second mandate or command He gave to these ideal, respectful, obedient, and exemplary servants.

2) "Draw out not," (antlesate nun) "You all draw now," and keep on drawing as long as there is a need. The Gk. “nun" indicates a progressive drawing, begin to draw or take what is needed and keep it up until the last need is met, Philippians 4:19. He did not say draw the "water" or 11 wine," He simply said, "draw out" and let others tell the story of what had happened, John 2:10.

3) "And bear unto the governor of the feast." (kai pherete to architriklino) "And carry to the master of the feast," the chief servant presiding over the arrangement of the feast. He was the master of ceremonies. Our Lord therefore taught the servants and His disciple’s respect for authority, in the function and administrative affairs of organizational activities, as He became a servant of all, Mark 10:44.

4) "And they bare it." (hoi de enegkan) "And they carried it," to him, to the presiding officer, the master of ceremonies, as Jesus directed them to do and as His mother had advised them, "whatsoever he saith unto you, do it," John 2:5. They carried a sample of what they had drawn from the fresh-filled pots of water for the "Maitre-D’s" judgement of its use. They were perhaps fearful, in con­sternation, gripped with uncertainty, much as Israel was when called to "go forward" into the Red Sea, or as the paralytic was when Jesus said "arise, take up thy bed and walk," Exodus 14:15; Exodus 14:21-22; Mark 2:11.

Verse 9

1) "When the ruler of the feast had tasted," (hos de egeusato ho architiklinos) "Then when the master of the feast had tasted," as a qualified, trusted, experienced presiding officer, governor, or master of ceremonies for such festive, formal occasions. The water had now become wine.

2) "The water that had become wine," (to hudor oinon genenemenon) "The water that had become wine;- At what time our Lord turned the water into wine (the fruit of the vine) is not known, perhaps for Divine reasons, but that it was done is here certified, attested by this writer John, and the governor of the feast that day.

3) "And knew not whence it was:”- (kai ouk edei pothen estin) "And did not know its source;" He did not know that it had been drawn from cleansed waterpots of fresh water. Therefore there was no guile, collusion, trickery, or deceit between him and Jesus.

4) “(But the servants which drew the water knew;)" (hoi de diakonoi dedisan hoi entlekotes to hudor) "Yet the waiters, attendants, or servants who had drawn the water knew." They knew that they had filled the cleansed stone water pots with pure water, then drawn out from what they had put into the pots, for his taste and judgement, at the command of Jesus, John 2:8.

5) "The governor of the feast called the bridegroom," (phonei ton numption ho architriklinos) "The master or director of the feast called the bridegroom," who normally provided the food and drink. He had a word with the bridegroom about the drink that now filled the water-pots, the provisions Jesus had made, the contribution Jesus had given to meet an immediate need for the occasion to continue and conclude as a joyful affair. Apparently the bridegroom knew nothing of what had happened, but appreciated the governor’s commendation, therefore, no response is recounted from the bridegroom.

Verse 10

1) "And saith unto him," (kai legei auto) "And said to him," to the bridegroom who usually provided drink for the wedding guests.

2) "Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine;" (pas anthropos proton ton kalon oinon tithesin) "Every man (as a custom) sets forth the ideal wine first," the best grade of wine first, at the first part of the feast, when the appetite is most demanding, and when the groom desires to make an early good impression on the guests.

3) "And when men have well drunk," (kai hoton methusthosin) "And when they (the guests) become drunk or inebriated," or have "drunk freely."

4) "Then that which is worse:”- (ton elasso) "Then that wine which is worse," is of a poor quality, when the taste is more palled or nil.

5) "But thou hast kept the good wine until now." (su teterekas ton kalon oinon heos arti) "Yet, you have kept the ideal wine until this moment," at a late hour of the wedding feast. The term "good wine" indicates that this which the servants had drawn from the stone water pots was better than what was served earlier in the feast. This testimony attested the genuineness of this first miracle of many, which Jesus thereafter performed, to show forth His glory, John 2:11; John 20:30-31.

Verse 11

1) "This beginning of miracles," (tauten archen ton semeion) "This beginning (origination) of miraculous signs," of supernatural demonstration to attest His identi­ty, Deity, and Divinity, John 3:2. These miracles Jesus later performed, like prophesies He fulfilled, were signs by which men were then and are now called upon to believe or receive Him, John 20:30-31.

2) "Did Jesus in Cana of Galilee," (epoiesen ho lesous en Kana tes Galilaias) "Jesus did (performed) in Cana of Galilee," It was done in His own native land, near His own home town of Nazareth in Galilee, a place of spiritual darkness, John 2:13; Matthew 14:13-17.

3) "And manifested forth his glory;” (kai ephaneresen ten doksan autou) "And manifested (showed forth) his glory," His heavenly identity, as the only begotten of the Father, come in the express image of God, to bring redemption to all mankind, John 1:14; Hebrews 1:1-3; 1 Timothy 3:16; Galatians 4:4-5. The water was necessary for cleansing, outer cleansing, while the wine was used as a symbol of joy and happiness to the one with inner cleansing.

4) "And his disciples believed on him." (kai episteusan eis auton hoi mathetai autou) "And his disciples trusted in him," His Divinity, 1 John 5:13. Their faith in His Messiah­ship was confirmed.

Thirty-five miracles Jesus performed were recounted in the gospels for testamentary purposes as follows:

1) Seventeen were incidents where He healed all manner of incurable physical ills, as leprosy, paralysis, blindness, deafness, dumbness, etc.

2) Six were incidents where He healed the mentally deranged, cast out demons and unclean spirits.

3) Nine were incidents where He suspended and overcame the laws of nature, natural law, for Divine purposes.

4) Three incidents recount His raising the dead. And all were done that men might believe and be saved, John 20:30-31.

Verse 12

1) "After this he went down to Capernaum," (meta touto katebe eis Kapharnaoum) "After this wedding occasion he went down into Capernaum," from the Western hills to the Northwest of the Sea of Galilee, down some 680 feet of elevation from Nazareth to the sea of Capernaum.

2) "He and his mother," (autos kai he meter autou) "He as well as his mother," Mary who perhaps visited the place of His residence in Capernaum, Matthew 4:13. This begins a new section of John’s writings that continue through chapter four, recounting manifestations of Jesus as the Son of God: 1) In Jerusalem; 2) Judea; 3) Samaria and 4) Galilee.

3) "And his brethren, and his disciples:”- (kai hoi adelphoi kai hoi mathetai autou) "And his fraternal brothers and his disciples;- His fraternal brethren were the children of Joseph and Mary, after the birth of Jesus, Matthew 13:55-56. They accompanied Jesus and the disciples, from the wedding, back to the area where most of the disciples resided.

4) "And they continued there not many days." (kai ekei emeinon ou pollas hemeras) "And they remained there (at Capernaum) not many days," or for but a few days, the reason for which is recounted as follows:

Verse 13

1) "And the Jews’ passover was at hand," (kai engus en to pascha ton loudaion) "And the passover of the Jews was at hand," or approaching, Exodus 12:14. John mentions the passover three times and each time used the phrase 11 of the Jews," because he wrote for many who were not familiar with Jewish religious customs, John 5:6; John 6:4; John 11:55.

2) "And Jesus went up to Jerusalem," (kai anebe eis lerosoluma ho lesous) "And Jesus went up into Jeru­salem," in Judea, from Capernaum in Galilee, Jerusalem is 2,500 feet above sea level and is at an higher altitude than Capernaum some 75 miles to the north. His disciples also went up with Him as indicated John 2:17.

Verse 14

1) "And found in the temple," (kai heuren en to hiero) "And in the temple he found," in the outer court of the temple, the court of Gentiles of the heathen, not in the temple proper or inner sanctum of the temple, Revelation 11:2; Matthew 21:2.

2) "Those that sold oxen and sheep and doves," (tous polountas boas kai probata kai peristeras) "Those who were selling oxen, sheep and doves," for sacrificial ani­mals for those worshippers who had come there too far to bring these sacrificial animals with them. They dared not bring or drive the sacrificial animals from afar, then have rejected by the priest as unfit for sacrifice from blemish or injury or impurity, Leviticus 22:19-25; Exodus 30:12-13; Mark 11:15.

3) "And the changers of money sitting:”- (kai tous kernmatistas kathemenous) "And the coin dealers sitting," commercializing there, like lions or leopards, waiting to pounce upon their prey, or like a coiled serpent, waiting for the kill. Advantage was taken by greedy, unscrupulous merchants over devout worshippers, to the extent that the high cost of worship came to be hateful to the people. The priests could enter collusion or agreement with the money changers and merchants, to condemn the use of sacrifices brought by the people as being unlawful to offer, and in conflict with "blemish laws," as described in Leviticus 22:12-25. This they evidently were doing.

Verse 15

1) "And when he had made a scourge of small cords," (kai poiesas phragellion ek schoinon) "And when he had made a lash out of ropes," an emblem of wrath, rather than the instrument of wrath, having been incensed by what He had personally seen going on in the temple court area, at the very entrance to the temple proper. Our Lord made it clear that He was moved with indignation, and meant to be obeyed, there and then.

2) "He drove them all out of the temple," (pantas eksebalen ek tou hierou) "He expelled, literally drove them all (together) out of the temple area," that is the unscrupulous merchants, the traffickers in money and sacrificial animals. The lowing of cattle, bleating of sheep, cooing and flapping of doves, cry and haggling of pro­fiteering merchants and customers mingled with a few devout prayers, was a burning insult to the sense of honesty and justice of our Lord.

3) "And the sheep and the oxen," (ta te probata kai tous boas) "Both the sheep and the oxen," which ran from the area, to the exits, under the thunder of His condemnation and lifted scourge. There was violence in the area with men shouting, cursing, rushing from place to place, to hold on to their goods, as Jesus cleared out the place.

4) "And poured out the changers money," (kai ton kollubiston eksecheen ta kermata) "And he poured out the coins of the exchangers or money-changers," with His own hands. Their intolerable rate of "shake-down" exchange, of even the shekel or half shekel of temple tax, required of every Jew, was an insulting abuse, a criminal act of dishonesty that incensed our Lord to reprimand such behavior in this, His most dramatic public gesture.

5) "And overthrew the tables;”- (kai tas trapezas anetrepsen) "And he overturned the tables," or upset the tables, the bankers’ tables, and with them, the activities of that day for the wicked commercializers; Our Lord here rebuked those who had sinned "before all," that others might also fear, 1 Timothy 5:20. He also did this on one other occasion, Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:15; Luke 19:45.

Verse 16

1) "And said unto them that sold doves," (kai tois peristeras plousin eipen) "And he said to those who sold doves," for purposes of sacrificial offerings, yet with a personal and prevailing intent of excessive profit making.

2) "Take these things hence;”- (arate tauta enteuthen) "Take these things thence," out of there, elsewhere, these doves and perhaps dove cages, feed, water, and dove litter. Clean and clear them out of this door or entrance to the temple of Divine worship. He sought a temporary reform of their worship.

3) "Make not my Father’s house an house of merchan­dise." (me poieite ton oikon tou patros mou oikon emporiou) "Do not make my Father’s house an house of merchandise," or make not my Father’s residence a resi­dence of profiteering commercialism. In referring to this place as "my Father’s house," not "our Father’s house," He alludes to His Divinity, claiming to be the Son of The Most High God, the Holy One of Israel, or The Eternal, Luke 2:49.

While He here charged the hypocritical priests, Pharisees, and Jewish commercializers, of making the temple court area an "house of merchandise," as He cleaned up the area, He later, on another occasion, charged them with being a "den of robbers," thugs and bandits, Matthew 22:13.

Verse 17

1) "And his disciples remembered," (emnesthesan hoi mathetai autou) "His disciples (then) remembered," or recalled from their memory of a prophetic Psalm.

2) "That it was written," (hoti gegrammenon estin) "That it is having been written," and might be found in Psalms 69:1-36.

3) "The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up." (ho zelos tou oikou sou kataphagetai me) "The zeal of your house will consume me." It was this zeal that would not permit Him to stand by His Father’s house, and "sin by silence," in condoning without protest, such sins at the door of the temple, Psalms 69:9; Mark 11:17-18; For this, the jealous scribes and administrative priests sought ways to take and kill Him.

Verse 18

1) "Then answered the Jews and said unto him," (apekrithesan oun hoi loudaioi kai eipan auto) "Therefore the Jews responded and said to him," in a defiant, challenging, and demanding manner.

2) "What sign shewest thou unto us," (ti semeion deiknueis hemin) "What sign do you show to us," or what miracle do you show us, to confirm that you are the Christ or Messiah of the trinitarian or Elohim God? Rather than accept the prophetic word they demanded more, see? 1 Corinthians 1:22.

3) "Seeing that thou doest these things?’’ (hoti tauta poieis) "Because that you do these things?" the things referred to in John 2:16. These administrative priests and scribes in apparent commercializing cohorts with the profiteering merchandisers, bankers, and cattlemen, had taught that the Messiah was to come, but they were caught unprepared, tolerating the profaning of God’s house for their own greedy gain; They were "shook up," by the anger of an Holy Son who was offended at man’s abuse of His Father’s earthly residence.

Verse 19

1) "Jesus answered and said unto them" (apekrithe lesous kai eipen autois) "Jesus replied and said to them," directly, face to face, in confrontation, affirming His Divinity and right to see what His Father’s earthly Spiri­tual residence was an Holy place, an Holy hill, there on Mt. Zion, Psalms 9:9.

2) "Destroy this temple," (lusate ton naon touton) "You all destroy this shrine," this Messianic body shrine of mine, or "kill this body temple," if you may, if you will, if you must, as you want to do, as recounted on a similar occasion later, Mark 11:17-18; Matthew 26:61; Matthew 27:40.

3) "And in three days I will raise it up." (kai en trisin hemerais egero auton) "And in three days of time I will raise it." This was the sign He gave to them both on their demand, John 2:18, at this early hour, and at a later hour of His ministry. Yet, they did not accept the sign; When He came forth, they hired men to lie about His resurrection, Matthew 16:1-4; Matthew 28:11-15.

Jesus therefore predicted at His first passover, as an adult in Jerusalem, what would come to pass at His last passover. The raising up of the temple, after being destroyed by these Jews, referred to His resurrection, the raising up of His body, John 2:21.

Verse 20

1) "Then said the Jews," (eipan oun hoi loudaioi) "Then the Jews said," in response to his assertion that He would raise up His body-temple-shrine, three days after they killed or destroyed Him, John 2:19.

2) "Forty and six years was this temple in building," (tesserakonta kai heks etesin oikodomethe ho naos houtos) "In forty and six years this shrine was built," referring to Herod’s temple, the then restored Jewish temple. In fact it had been begun by Herod the Great forty-­six years earlier and was then still unfinished, as per Josephus Antiquities 15:11.

3) "And wilt thou rear it up in three days?" (kai su en trisin hemerais egereis auton) "And will you raise it up in three days?" they said with irony and scoffing. The blinded Jews saw in His statement no reference to His resurrection then, and did not accept it when it happened, though they later knew that He claimed that He would rise from the dead three days after His death and burial.

Verse 21

1) "But he spake," (ekeinos de elegen) "Yet that one spoke;- That one, (Jesus) spoke," or gave prophetic testi­mony and pledge, regarding His body temple, that they repeatedly threatened to kill or destroy, as they preferred by assassination,

2) "Of the temple of his body." (peri tou naou tou somatos autou) "Concerning the shrine of his body," in which "body he bare our sins on the tree," It was in the body of His flesh or "flesh body" that He obtained Reconciliation, Redemption, and Peace for believers, not in His church body, Colossians 1:14; Colossians 1:20-22. Thus reconciliation and redemption were effected for Jew and Gentile alike, in one body, His cross-body, where His blood was shed, not in, by, or through His church body, as an institution of worship-and -service, Ephesians 2:14-16.

Verse 22

1) "When therefore he was risen from the dead," (hote oun egerthe ek nekron) "When therefore he was raised out of and from among the dead corpses," as He had repeatedly told both His disciples and Jewish enemies that He would, Matthew 28:6; Mark 16:6; Luke 24:6.

2) "His disciples remembered," emnesthes an hoi mathetai autou) "His disciples remembered or recalled to mind," certain testimony, as surely as His Jewish enemies did, Matthew 26:31-32; Matthew 27:62-63.

3) "That He had said unto them:”- (hoti touto elegen) "That he had said this," on numerous occasions as recounted, Matthew 16:21; Matthew 17:23; Mark 8:31; Mark 9:31; Luke 9:22.

4) "And they believed the scripture," (kai episteusan te graphe) "And they believed the scriptures;- They saw both the meaning and truth of the prediction of Jesus, upon remembering His words, Luke 24:6-8.

5) "And the word which Jesus had said." (kai to logo hon eipon ho lesous) "And the word which Jesus said," John 2:19; John 2:21, about His raising the shrine of His body temple after three days, on numerous occasions, Matthew 12:38-40; Matthew 16:1-4; Matthew 27:62-63.

Verse 23

1) "Now when he was in Jerusalem," (hos de en tois lerosolumois) "Then when he was in Jerusalem," where He had come to observe His first passover, after beginning His ministry, John 2:13.

2) "At the passover, in the feast day," (en to pascha en te heorte) "At the passover in the feast period," that lasted more than a week, from the purifying all houses from leaven and drawing of pure water on Nisan 13th, through the intervening days with the paschal meal on the 14th, the feasts in the convocations of the 15th and 21st days of worship and feasting.

3) "Many believed in his name," (polloi episteusan eis to onoma autou) "Many people believed in his name, authority, or power," on His Messiahship, with at least a shallow belief, as they had heard about His coming, from John the Baptist, and knew His miracles were of super­natural nature.

4) "When they saw the miracles which he did,’’ (theorountes autou ta semeia ha epoiei) "Upon observing his miracle-signs, which he was repeatedly doing," day by day, during the period of more than a week that He was in the Jerusalem area; No miracle is here described, such as were given on 35 other occasions. Yet the miracles were of such Divine influence that Nicodemus was convinced that Jesus was from God, John 3:2; John 20:30-31; John 21:25. These miracles resulted in many people flocking after Him, John 3:26.

Verse 24

1) "But Jesus did not commit himself unto them," (autos de lesous ouk episteuesn auton autois) "Then Jesus himself did not commit himself to them," did not place Himself in their hands; did not trust them.

2) "Because he knew all men," (dia to auton ginoskein pantas) "Because he himself knew all," all persons; He positively knew their thoughts, their character, their wishes, the meaning of their faith, how fickle it was in some of them, 1 Samuel 16:7; Revelation 2:23; He knew all men, including Judas Iscariot, the traitor, John 6:64; 1 Chronicles 28:9; Jeremiah 17:9-10; Matthew 9:4; John 16:30; Acts 1:24.

Verse 25

1) "And needed not," (kai hoti ou chreian eichen) "And because he held no need," negatively, had not a need at all, concerning testimony regarding anyone’s character.

2) "That any should testify of man:" (hina tis marturese peri tou anthropou) "In order that anyone should witness concerning man,’’ or divulge information to Him regarding human nature, and man’s weakness, Isaiah 53:4 -­6.

3) "For he knew what was in man." (autos gar eginosken ti en to anthropo) "For he knew what existed in humanity," the carnal, depraved nature, the motives that governed the ways of man. His thoughts are above man’s thoughts, so sublime, as set forth, Isaiah 55:8-9; Jeremiah 17:9-10. Our Lord’s cleansing the temple area, claiming it belonged to His Father, asserting His resurrection in three days after He was killed, and doing many miracles in Jerusalem demonstrated that He was the Messiah --- exciting hatred of the Jews and many fickle-faith followers.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on John 2". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/john-2.html. 1985.
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