Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 20:24

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Thomas;   Thompson Chain Reference - Dead, the;   Lost;   Mortality-Immortality;   Opportunity;   Resurrection;   Thomas;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Resurrection of Christ, the;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Thomas;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Didymus;   Resurrection of Christ;   Thomas;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Didymus;   John, the Gospel According to;   Thomas;   Holman Bible Dictionary - John, the Gospel of;   Resurrection of Jesus Christ;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - John, Gospel of;   Thomas;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Apostles;   Breathing;   Didymus;   Discourse;   Judas Iscariot (2);   Man (2);   Manuscripts;   Slowness of Heart;   Surname;   Thomas;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Thomas ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chief parables and miracles in the bible;   Thomas;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Did'ymus;   John, Gospel of;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Thomas;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Body, Spiritual;   Christ, the Exaltation of;   Nathanael (2);   Papyrus;   Text and Manuscripts of the New Testament;   Thomas;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for December 8;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Thomas - called Didymus - See this name explained, John 11:16; (note).

Was not with them - And, by absenting himself from the company of the disciples, he lost this precious opportunity of seeing and hearing Christ; and of receiving (at this time) the inestimable blessing of the Holy Ghost. Where two or three are assembled in the name of Christ, he is in the midst of them. Christ had said this before: Thomas should have remembered it, and not have forsaken the company of the disciples. What is the consequence? - His unbelief becomes

    1st. Utterly unreasonable. Ten of his brethren witnessed that they had seen Christ, John 20:25; but he rejected their testimony.

2dly. His unbelief became obstinate: he was determined not to believe on any evidence that it might please God to give him: he would believe according to his own prejudices, or not at all.
    3dly. His unbelief became presumptuous and insolent: a view of the person of Christ will not suffice: he will not believe that it is he, unless he can put his finger into the holes made by the nails in his Lord's hand, and thrust his hand into the wound made by the spear in his side.

Thomas had lost much good, and gained much evil, and yet was insensible of his state. Behold the consequences of forsaking the assemblies of God's people! Jesus comes to the meeting - a disciple is found out of his place, who might have been there; and he is not only not blessed, but his heart becomes hardened and darkened through the deceitfulness of sin. It was through God's mere mercy that ever Thomas had another opportunity of being convinced of his error. Reader! take warning.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 20:24". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-20.html. 1832.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

Thomas' absence was a tragic loss to him; and what was true of him is true of all Christians in a spiritual sense. He was absent from the assembly, and thus he failed to see the Lord and receive his blessing. That absence contributed to his delinquency in his refusal to believe that anything had really happened in his absence. Absence from Christian worship quickly moves a believer into a posture of doubt and unbelief. "Didymus" means "twin" (English Revised Version, margin).

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-20.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus,.... The person here spoken of, is described by his Hebrew name Thomas, and his Greek one Didymus, which both signify a twin; and perhaps he was one. It was common with the Jews to have two names, a Jewish and a Gentile one; by the one they went in the land of Israel, and by the other when without the landF17T. Hieros. Gittin, fol. 43. 2. ; nay, they often went by one name in Judea, and by another in GalileeF18T. Hieros. Gittin, fol. 45. 3. ; where Thomas might go by the name of Didymus with the Greeks, that might live with the Jews in some of those parts: he is also said to be "one of the twelve" apostles, which was their number at first, though Judas now was gone off from them, and therefore are sometimes only called the "eleven"; but this having been their complement, it is still retained; but what is observed of him to his disadvantage and discredit is, that he

was not with them when Jesus came: Beza's ancient copy reads, "he was not there with them"; and so read the Syriac, Arabic, and Persic versions; he either had not returned to the rest after their scattering one from another upon the apprehending of Christ; or did not choose to assemble with the rest, for fear of the Jews; or was taken up with some business and affair of life; however, he was not with the rest of the disciples, when they were assembled together, and Jesus appeared among them: as it is of good consequence to attend the assemblies of Christ's disciples and followers, so it is of bad consequence to neglect or forsake them: it is frequently to good purpose that persons attend them; here God comes and blesses his people, Jesus grants his presence, the graces of the Spirit are increased, and drawn forth into exercise; souls that have lost sight of Christ find him, disconsolate ones are comforted, weak ones strengthened, and hungry ones fed: on the other hand, not to attend is of bad consequence; neglect of assembling together exposes to many snares and temptations; brings on a spiritual leanness; leads to an indifference and lukewarmness: issues in a low degree of grace, and a non-exercise of it, and in a loss of Christ's presence.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 20:24". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-20.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

7 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

(7) Christ draws out of the unbelief of Thomas a certain and sure testimony of his resurrection.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on John 20:24". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/john-20.html. 1599-1645.

John Lightfoot's Commentary on the Gospels

24. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

[But Thomas, called Didymus, was not with them.] I. The evangelist does not here, as the writers of lexicons, render the signification of a Hebrew name into Greek, when he tells us, "Thomas is also called Didymus"; but only lets us know that as he was called Thomas among the Hebrews, so was he called Didymus among the Greeks. There is not another amongst the twelve apostles of whom this is said. Simon indeed is called Peter; but these are really two distinct names: so was Nathanael called Bartholomew: but Thomas and Didymus both one name, of one signification in different languages. Perhaps Thomas was born in some place where the Jews and the Greeks promiscuously inhabited: such a place was the region of Decapolis; and so by the Hebrews he might be called by his Hebrew name, and the Greek by the Greeks.

II. The disciples had all fled and were dispersed when Christ was apprehended, Mark 14:50, except Peter and John. Whence it is said in verse 2 of this chapter, that Mary Magdalene came to Peter, and "to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved"; for she knew where she might find them; and so she could not for the rest. And thus scattered, as it should seem, they passed over the sabbath day; but when they heard that their Lord was risen, then they begin to associate again. But as yet Thomas had not got amongst them; and indeed Peter himself had been absent too, but that having seen the Lord he returned from Emmaus.

III. Thomas therefore not being present when our Saviour breathed on the rest and gave them the Holy Ghost, are we to suppose that he, by his absence, was deprived of this gift and privilege? No surely, for it was a privilege common to the whole apostolate, and peculiar to them as Apostles: so that however by his absence he might have missed of it, yet by reason of his apostolacy he could not. St. Paul, distant with a witness while these things happened, both from the apostleship and religion too, yet when made an apostle, was withal adorned with this privilege.

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Lightfoot, John. "Commentary on John 20:24". "John Lightfoot Commentary on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jlc/john-20.html. 1675.

People's New Testament

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them. Didymus, which means the Twin, is the Greek for the Hebrew name, Thomas. He was one of the twelve.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Original work done by Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
Johnson, Barton W. "Commentary on John 20:24". "People's New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pnt/john-20.html. 1891.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Didymus (ΔιδυμοςDidumos). The same expression applied to Thomas in John 11:16; John 21:2, but nowhere else in N.T. Old word for twin (double), “the pessimist of the apostolic band” (Bernard). The term twelve is still applied to the group, though Judas, the traitor, is dead.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-20.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

The Fourfold Gospel

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus1, was not with them when Jesus came.

  1. Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus. See .

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 20:24". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-20.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Фома же. Здесь идет речь о неверии Фомы. Для того, чтобы вера благочестивых еще больше окрепла. Он был не только медлителен и ленив в вере, но и довольно горделив. Упорство заставило его потребовать увидеть и даже ощупать Христа в том же самом облике. Таким образом, не только для него, но и для нас возник новый повод удостовериться в воскресении Христовом. Кроме того, упорство Фомы – пример и нашего упорства. Ведь его извращенность врождена всем, так что все медлят, когда им уже открыт доступ к вере.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-20.html. 1840-57.

James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

THE ABSENCE OF THOMAS

‘But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.’

John 20:24

There is a very pathetic ring about this verse; Thomas lost an opportunity and missed a blessing. The world seems to be full of lost opportunities, and people never seem to learn by the experience of others. The reason that so many people do not improve is because they lose opportunity.

I. Temperament and religion.—Temperament plays a very important part in religion, and so does our physical being. Have you not sometimes found yourself very despondent, and after a long day, when things seem to have gone wrong, you are weary and troubles are very heavy and very hard to bear? They are not any harder to bear than they were in the morning, the difference is in the individual; fatigue affects very materially our spiritual life. Thomas was a man who believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, and had expected great things of Him, but his hopes were dashed to the ground; and when somebody told him that Jesus is risen he would not believe it. It was too good to be true, and therefore he asked for very special evidence.

II. The evidence of the senses.—He wanted to see, or he would not believe; then he asked to feel—if he could feel he would not doubt. What he asked for was evidence to satisfy his senses. That is just the sort of evidence required by ordinary people—evidence to satisfy their senses; yet they live every day believing in things they cannot understand. There are things you never see, and yet you believe in them! There are many things we have never seen and never shall see, yet we believe in them. There are lots of things we do not understand, and yet we believe!

III. The evidence of experience.—There is another question of evidence—the evidence of experience. So many people say, ‘If I do not experience how can I know?’ But how is it possible for any one to make known his experience to others who have not had it? We older people teaching the younger generation were once children ourselves. We tell them that they have to act with judgment, and must be wary and watchful, and we say we have been through it all ourselves; but they do not heed our warning. The child as he grows up says, ‘I will see for myself’; and that is the only way in which a man can really know the Lord Jesus Christ—by his own personal experience. There are thousands of people who accept the fact that the Lord Jesus Christ rose from the dead, and yet they get no satisfaction from the past because they have never experienced what the Apostle calls the ‘power’ of His resurrection. Love can only be experienced by the heart that loves, and therefore it is necessary for us all to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and to accept the fact of His resurrection. And then starts a new life, the old life is left behind, and we walk henceforth with Jesus. There are a number of people who do not require the evidence of the senses, because they have found by experience the power of the risen Lord in their hearts. They walk by His power and in His strength.

—Rev. G. Robinson Lees.

Illustration

‘St. Thomas was certainly wrong in separating himself from the other disciples, and see what he missed (John 20:24). “The angels are present when we assemble for worship,” said the venerable Bede. “What will they say if they find me not there? Will they not ask, ‘Where is Bede? Why comes he not to prayers with his brethren?’” Yes, but some One infinitely greater than the greatest of the angels is present where two or three gather together in His Name.’

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Nisbet, James. "Commentary on John 20:24". Church Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/john-20.html. 1876.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

24 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

Ver. 24. But Thomas, one of the twelve] A man cannot be wilfully absent from the public assemblies but once, without great danger and damage. Thomas was absent perhaps about some weighty cause. It may be he lurked and lay close for fear of the Jews; or it may be he was providing, and settling his own private affairs, now his Master was slain; but whatever the cause was, the effect was grievous; he was woefully hardened.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 20:24". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-20.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

John 20:24. Thomas, one of the twelve, It is said, Luke 24:33 that the disciples from Emmaus gave the eleven, and those who were with them, an account of their meeting with Christ, and of the other circumstances accompanying that event. The eleven was the name by which the apostles went after the death of Judas, whether they were precisely that number, or fewer; as we have observed in the note on the abovementioned passage in St. Luke: wherefore we are under no necessity, from this expression, of supposing that Thomas was present when the disciples came in. We are sure that he wasnot present at this meeting, when Jesus shewed himself; yet, if St. Luke's expression is thought to imply that Thomas waswith his brethren at the arrival of the disciples, we may suppose that he was one of those who would not believe, and that he went away before they had finished their relation. See Mark 16:1

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on John 20:24". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/john-20.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

What the cause of Thomas's absence was is not declared; it is evident that he was not with the rest of the disciples when Christ appeared to them; and his absence had like to have cost him dear, even the loss of his faith; and he might have had cause for ever to have bewailed his absence from that meeting of the disciples, had not Christ been more merciful.

Learn hence, that the letting slip of one holy opportunity, may prove exceedingly prejudicial to the soul's advantage: it is wise and safe to lay hold upon every opportunity for enjoying communion with God, and fellowship with his saints. Thomas's absence deprived him not only of the good news which Mary brought of Christ's being risen, but also of the sight of him, which the other disciples got by assembling together: and for want thereof Thomas is left under many doubts and fears.

Verily, we know not what we lose, when we absent ourselves from the assembly of God's people. Such views of a crucified raised Jesus may be communicated to others whilst we are absent, as would have confirmed our faith, and established our joy, had we been present.

Observe farther, what a strange declaration Thomas makes of his obstinate unbelief; Except I see the print of the nails, and put my finger into his side, I will not believe.

Where note, how strangely rooted unbelief is in the hearts of holy men, insomuch that they desire that the objects of faith should fall under the view of their senses. Thomas carries his faith at his fingers' ends; he will believe no more than he can see or feel; whereas faith is the evidence of things not seen.

O! Thomas, how deplorable had been thy case, if Christ had never given thee that proof, which was very unreasonable for thee to expect! But Christ takes compassion on him, and appears to him, and cures his obstinate unbelief, which he might have justly punished, as appears by the following verses.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on John 20:24". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/john-20.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

24.] οὐκ ἦν—for what reason does not appear. Euthym(257) says, εἰκὸς γὰρ αὐτὸν μετὰ τὸ διασκορπισθῆναι τοὺς μαθητάς, … μήπω συνελθεῖν αὐτοῖς. I incline, with Stier (vii. 117, edn. 2), to think that it could not have been accidentally (Lücke), nor “negotio aliquo occupatus” (Grot.). On such a day, and in such a man, such an absence must have been designed. Perhaps he had abandoned hope;—the strong evidence of his senses having finally convinced him that the pierced side and wounded hands betokened such a death that revivification was impossible.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 20:24". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-20.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

John 20:24. λεγόμενος, who is called) A formula of explaining or translating, similar to that in John 20:16, which is to say. Among the Greeks Thomas was better known by his Greek name [ δίδυμος, a twin, answering to the Heb. Thomas].— οὐκ ἦν μετʼ αὐτῶν, had not been with them) because perhaps he had his dwelling at a greater distance, and had been late in hearing of the resurrection. Afterwards however he became partaker of the gift which is mentioned, John 20:21-23. For neither time, nor place, excludes the Spirit’s operation. Numbers 11:29 [Eldad and Medad in the camp, “the Spirit rested upon them, but they went not out unto the tabernacle,” where the rest of the seventy elders received the Spirit.]

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 20:24". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-20.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Whether Thomas had ever, since they all forsook our Saviour in the garden and fled, returned again to a communion with the rest, or was absent through some occasion, is not said; but upon this some have started a question, Whether Thomas, being absent, received the Holy Ghost at this time as the rest did? Some think he did not, because of his unbelief. Some of the ancients think he did; for, Numbers 11:26,27, when God gave out the Spirit to the seventy elders, Eldad and Medad, though absent, had their share of it, Numbers 11:27. The matter is not much.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 20:24". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-20.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Thomas; chap John 11:16.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/john-20.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

§ 152.JESUS APPEARS TO THE APOSTLES, vv. THOMAS BEING PRESENT, John 20:24-29.

See note on Matthew 10:3.

24.Was not with them—To be absent on such an occasion justifies the suspicion that all was not right with Thomas; a suspicion that is confirmed by his scepticism. We can scarce indeed believe that our Lord would have made a visit of such importance when one of the twelve was unavoidably absent. The apparent reason seems to be, that Thomas was in a frame of mind to believe that all of Christ and Christianity was over.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/john-20.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 20:24. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. On the object of thus interpreting the name Thomas, see on chap. John 11:16. It is impossible to think that the Evangelist translates the word for the mere purpose of mentioning that Thomas had a Greek as well as an Aramaic name. The man appears in the name.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-20.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

John 20:24. . [ or a twin, from to be double; of which from is the Greek equivalent]. “one of the twelve,” the familiar designation still used of the eleven, ’ “was not with them when Jesus came,” why, we do not know.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on John 20:24". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/john-20.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Thomas ... was not with them. Yet no doubt the like power of forgiving sins was given to him, either at this time or afterwards. See St. Cyril. (Witham)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on John 20:24". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/john-20.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Thomas. The third mention of him in John. See John 11:16; John 14:5.

of = out of. Greek ek. App-104.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 20:24". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-20.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came - that is, on the evening of the resurrection-day. Why he was absent we know not; but we cannot persuade ourselves, with Stier, Alford, and Luthardt, that it was intentional, from sullen obstinacy. Indeed, the mention here of the fact of his absence seems designed as a loving apology for his slowness of belief.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-20.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

24. Thomas (called the Twin). He had not seen Jesus up to this point, and was hesitant to believe the Resurrection. He demanded concrete evidence!

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on John 20:24". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/john-20.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(24) But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus . . .—Comp. Notes on John 11:16; John 14:5. It is in harmony with the desponding character that looks upon the visit to Jerusalem as necessarily leading to death, that he now is as one who has given up the common hope of the band of disciples, and is not present with them. It has happened as he had thought; the death he had foretold has come to pass. Is this the end of all the Messianic hopes which he had cherished? Is the grave the “whither,” and the cross the “way,” which they knew not?

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-20.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.
Thomas
11:16; 14:5; 21:2; Matthew 10:3
was
6:66,67; Matthew 18:20; Hebrews 10:25
Reciprocal: Mark 3:18 - Thomas;  Luke 6:15 - Thomas;  John 20:26 - Thomas

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 20:24". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-20.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Ver. 24. "But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came."

As to δίδυμος, see the remarks on ch. John 11:16. The surname stands here in direct connection with the event now related. "The Twelve" is the appellation of the Apostles in all the Evangelists. Account is not taken of the fact that one place was vacant. It is all the less regarded, because the Twelve was not a fortuitous number, but rested on theological grounds; in the Old Testament twelve having been the consecrated signature of the Church. Why Thomas was not with them,—whether it was for the reason indicated in Hebrews 10:25, "Forsake not the assembling of yourselves together, as the manner of some is;" whether, with his doubts concerning Christ, the bond that united him to his brethren became relaxed,—we cannot with certainty determine. But Anton rightly observes: "They did not separate from Thomas, who was so unrestful; for he was not even then an enemy of Christ, but a dear friend, only that he gave too much place to his postulatis. This teaches us an important lesson—to distinguish whether those in error are friends or foes, and not to be too swift to separate. Let this be noted."

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Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on John 20:24". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/john-20.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

24.But Thomas, one of the twelve. The unbelief of Thomas is here related, that by means of it the faith of the godly may be more fully confirmed. He was not only slow and reluctant to believe, but even obstinate. His dulness of apprehension was the reason why Christ again permitted them both to see and to feel him, in the same manner as before. In this manner, a new addition to the proof of Christ’s resurrection was given, not only to Thomas, but, also to us. Besides, the obstinacy of Thomas is an example to show, that this wickedness is almost natural to all men, to retard themselves of their own accord, when the entrance to faith is opened to them.

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These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 20:24". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-20.html. 1840-57.