Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Joshua 10:1

Now it came about when Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem heard that Joshua had captured Ai, and had utterly destroyed it (just as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king), and that the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were within their land,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Adoni-Zedek;   Armies;   Confederacies;   Jerusalem;   Thompson Chain Reference - Ai;   Jerusalem;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Amorites, the;   Canaanites, the;   Gibeonites;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Adonizedek;   Beth-Horon;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Gibeon;   Joshua the son of nun;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Jerusalem;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Prayer;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Adoni-Zedec;   Ai;   Jebusites;   Jerusalem;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Ai;   Jerusalem;   Melchizedek;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Adoni-Zedek;   Amorites;   Conquest of Canaan;   Gibeon;   Japhia;   Jarmuth;   Jebusites;   Jerusalem;   Joshua, the Book of;   Lord;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Adoni-Bezek;   Adoni-Zedek;   Ai;   Israel;   Joshua;   Salem;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Adonizedec ;   Ai, Hai ;   Gibeon ;   Jebusites ;   Jerusalem ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Adonizedek;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Jerusalem;   Journeyings of israel from egypt to canaan;   Lachish;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Adonize'dek;   A'i;   Jeb'usites;   Jeru'salem;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Conquest of Canaan;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Adoni-Zedek;   Gibeon;   Hoham;   Jebus;   Joshua (2);   Joshua, Book of;   Melchizedek;   Palestine;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Adonizedek;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Adoni-Zedek;   Jebusites;   Jerusalem;   Melchizedek;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Adoni-zedec - This name signifies the Lord of justice or righteousness; and it has been conjectured that the Canaanitish kings assumed this name in imitation of that of the ancient patriarchal king of this city, Melchizedek, whose name signifies king of righteousness, or my righteous king: a supposition that is not improbable, when the celebrity of Melchizedek is considered.

Jerusalem - ירושלם Yerushalam . This word has been variously explained; if it be compounded of שלם shalam, peace, perfection, etc., and ראה raah, he saw, it may signify the vision of peace - or, he shall see peace or perfection.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/joshua-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Adoni-zedec - i. e “Lord of righteousness” (compare Melchizedek, “King of righteousness”); probably an official title of the Jebusite kings.

Jerusalem - i. e. “foundation of peace,” compare Genesis 14:18. The city belonged to the inheritance of Benjamin Joshua 18:28, but was on the very edge of the territory of Judah Joshua 15:8. Hence, it was the strong and war-like tribe of Judah which eventually captured the lower part of the city, most likely in the days of Joshua‘s later conquests Judges 1:8, and after the warlike strength of the Jebusites had been weakened by the defeat in the open field, recorded in this chapter. The upper town, more especially the fortified hill of Zion, remained in the hands of the Jebusites, who accordingly kept a footing in the place, along with the men of Judah and Benjamin, even after the conquest Joshua 15:63; Judges 1:21; and would seem, indeed, to have so far, and no doubt gradually, regained possession of the whole, that Jerusalem was spoken of in the days of the Judges as a Jebusite city. David finally stormed “the stronghold of Zion,” and called it “the City of David” 2 Samuel 5:6-9. It was, probably, only after this conquest and the adoption by David of the city as the religious and political metropolis of the whole nation, that the name Jerusalem came into use 2 Samuel 5:5 in substitution for Jehus.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/joshua-10.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

Here we have the record of the conquest of Southern Canaan in which is featured the great third and final miracle of the Book of Joshua, the miracle of Beth-horon, the mighty hailstorm and the very long day. Commonly called "the Miracle of the Sun Standing Still," the event described in this chapter is one of the most talked-about occurrences in the O.T. A great deal of the scholarly comments focus on skillful attempts to avoid the acceptance, as fact, of what is related here. We shall give careful attention to these. It is impossible, of course, for anyone to profess a knowledge of exactly WHAT happened at Beth-horon, or precisely HOW it occurred, but there is no good reason whatever for denying God's intervention on behalf of the Gibeonites and of Israel in this most decisive battle in the conquest of Canaan. Given the fact that it was GOD who intervened here, where is any problem? Is anything TOO HARD for God?

We shall turn our attention at once to the text.

"Now it came to pass when Adonizedek king of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and utterly destroyed it (as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king), and how the inhabitants of Gibeon, had made peace with Israel, and were among them; that they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, as one of the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all the men thereof were mighty. Wherefore Adonizedek king of Jerusalem sent unto Hotham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying, Come up unto me, and help me, and let us smite Gibeon; for it hath made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel. Therefore the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, the king of Eglon, gathered themselves together and went up, they and all their hosts, and encamped against Gibeon, and made war against it."

"Adonizedek ..." (Joshua 10:1). This king of Jerusalem, unlike his famous predecessor, Melchizedek, the king of Salem (Salem here being understood as an earlier name for Jerusalem), was an evil man. And like every wicked man, he was utterly blind to the presence and purpose of God which promulgated the invasion of Canaan. Notice that Adonizedek did not fear God, but only Joshua. He failed to see that Joshua was not his primary enemy, but that God Himself was the Person who would drive the wicked Canaanites out of Palestine, and that Joshua was only God's INSTRUMENT in that operation.

REGARDING ZEDEK

The word "Zedek" means "righteousness." Adonizedek has the meaning of "lord of righteousness, nearly synonymous with Melchizedek, which means `king of righteousness.'"[1] There cannot be any doubt that Melchizedek was a "Priest of God Most High," as emphatically declared in Genesis 14:18, making it absolutely certain that Melchizedek was a monotheist and a worshipper of the One True and Almighty God. Otherwise, Abraham's paying tithes to him, and his being singled out in the N.T. as a Great Type of the Son of God Himself (Hebrews 7:1ff) would make no sense at all. The expression "God Most High" receives further light in the N.T., where the expression is found five times: (1) in Mark 5:7, where a demon protested an order from Christ, addressing Jesus Christ as, "Jesus, thou Son of God Most High"; (2) Luke 8:28 states that a demon, pleading with Christ not to torment him, addressed Our Lord as, "Thou Son of the Most High God"; (3) the Christian martyr Stephen declared that, "The Most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands"; (4) the demon-possessed girl who followed Paul and Silas for days at Philippi, continually cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim unto you the way of salvation"; and (5) the passage in Hebrews 7:1 affirms that, "Melchizedek was a priest of the Most High God."

The critical community, however, have long accepted the false view that monotheism was unknown until the Jews "developed" the idea, and, therefore, as a rule, the critical scholars deny that Melchizedek was a priest of the one and only God Almighty, despite the passage in Hebrews that affirms flatly that he was a worshipper of "God Most High," which in Biblical history never referred to anyone else, other than the One True God.

How do they manage to claim this? It is done simply by that old trick of false teachers, namely, the device of finding some off-beat, unusual use, or alternative meaning of some well-known word, and then ramming such a bizarre meaning into the Sacred Text. We gave a classical example of this in our exegesis of 1 Peter 3:21. (See Vol. 11 of my N.T. series of commentaries, pp. 236-237).

How is this wicked device implemented here? Note the following: "Some have suggested that Zedek was originally the name of a deity. This would make the meaning of Adonizedek to be, `My lord is Zedek.'"[2] Therefore, unbelievers will reject what the text plainly declares and announce the postulation that both Melchizedek and Adonizedek were not worshippers of the One God at all, but worshippers of Zedek! We need to remember, however, that "There is no sufficient evidence for this suggestion."[3] Very recent scholars like Boling and Wright have pointed out that, "The form and meaning of this name (Zedek) tell nothing with certainty about the identity of this (alleged) Jerusalem deity."[4] Morton attempted to make a big thing out of the Zedek suggestion, as follows: "Since Zedek is known to have been a Canaanite divine name, its earlier meaning probably was `My lord (the god) Zedek.' The same element appears also in the name Melchizedek."[5] Note that Morton uses the word probably, which means that there is no solid evidence whatever to sustain this evil suggestion. Absolutely nothing is known of any Canaanite god called Zedek! For generations, the meaning of Zedek has been understood as "righteous", or "righteousness".[6] Similar efforts have been made to corrupt the plain meaning of "Most High God" through the `discovery' of a Babylonian pagan god called Elyon, or "the Most High."[7] In all such cases, the Biblical usage of "God Most High" (all three of these titles have the same meaning) squarely denies the aberrations that men would impose upon the word Zedek or Adonizedek and Melchizedek.

"They feared greatly ... etc." (Joshua 10:2). Not only had the victories of Israel at Jordan and Ai demonstrated the need for this fear, there was the additional fact that Gibeon, a powerful city, with some of the most magnificent fighting men of ancient history enrolled among them, had defected to Israel and was now an ally of the invaders. As Boling said, "The awareness of the opposition had increased enormously!"[8] The fact of Gibeon having no king and its related monarchical system to support enabled them to develop a powerful middle class, many of whom were prosperous enough to provide armament, and a squire, and the leisure to become skilled in the use of such equipment. The Hebrew word here rendered "mighty" is translated "knights" by Boling.[9]

Bible students once had to contend with the bald, unsupported assertions of Biblical enemies that the account in this chapter is "unhistorical." Samuel Holmes, for example said: "This section (Joshua 10:28-40) is quite unhistorical."[10] The spade of the archeologist has proved the historical nature of this account.

Unger noted that:

"When Israel entered Canaan (about 1400 B.C.), there were more than 25 of these city-states (like the ones mentioned in this chapter), but by 1390 B.C., Israel had swallowed up many of them. The Tel El-Amarna letters reveal that by 1375 B.C., there remained only four main independent states."[11]

"Hebron ..." (Joshua 10:3). This was indeed a powerful city from very ancient times. Moses tells us that "Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt" (Numbers 13:22). And who, we might ask, could ever have known a fact like that except Moses? F. F. Bruce identified Hebron as having the highest elevation of any city in Palestine 3,040 feet above sea level, situated 19 miles south-southwest of Jerusalem. The date of its founding was about 1720 B.C.[12] Dating from the times of Abraham when that patriarch pitched his tent under the Oaks of Mamre near there, Hebron was destined to play a major role in Jewish history:

(1) There is the cave of Machpelah, purchased from the sons of Heth, where many of the patriarchs are buried.

(2) When the spies were sent out by Moses, they reported on Hebron.

(3) In this chapter Hebron joins the group of five allies who attack Gibeon and were defeated by Joshua.

(4) Caleb finally took possession of the city and received it as his possession.

(5) In Hebron, David was anointed king of Judah (2 Samuel 2:4).

(6) It remained as David's capital for seven years.

(7) It was also Absalom's capital when he rebelled against David.

(8) It was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:10).

(9) Exiles returning from Babylon settled here (Nehemiah 11:25).

(10) Today, under the name of El Hilil, it is one of the four sacred cities of the Muslims.

(11) The most ancient name of the place was Kiriath-arba.

"Jarmuth ..." (Joshua 10:3). "The low hill tract between the high central mountains and the coastal plain of Palestine was called the Shephelah;[13] and one of the principal fortified towns on this intermediate strip was called Jarmuth. About the time of the Israelite invasion of Canaan, Jarmuth was fortified, occupied a site of about eight acres, and is supposed to have had a population of between 1,500,2,000.[14]

"Lachish ..." (Joshua 10:3). At one time larger than Jerusalem, Lachish was an important fortified city guarding the main road up to Jerusalem from Egypt. It was about 30 miles southwest of Jerusalem.[15] Paganism was thoroughly entrenched here, and through Lachish, "The idolatry of the Northern Israel was successfully imported into Judah (Micah 1:13)."[16] (See further comment on this town in Vol. 2 of my series of commentaries on the minor prophets, pp. 291,292).

"Eglon ..." (Joshua 10:3). Little is known of this place except what may be gleaned from this chapter. W. F. Albright has identified the place as Tel el-Hesi, which was once thought to be Lachish.[17]

"Come up unto me ... (Joshua 10:4). Since, most of these kings were on the Shephelah, or even the lowlands, it was circumstantially accurate for the king of Jerusalem to say, "Come up" unto me, Jerusalem being on much higher ground (except in the case of Hebron). Note also that Adonizedek did not dare to propose that they fight Joshua, but only that they smite Gibeon. All such details as these, which are numerous in this chapter, are in keeping with the whole geography and history and of those times; and, collectively, they constitute an eloquent and convincing testimonial to the truth and historical accuracy of the whole passage.

Joseph R. Sizoo commented on the illogical and inaccurate allegations of scholars who would like to deny the historical nature of this narrative, identifying Martin Noth, especially, as having carried out his etiological explanation of the five kings in the cave (Joshua 10:27) to "a reductio ad absurdum."[18] It is refreshing, although surprising, to find a comment like that in the Interpreter's Bible!

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/joshua-10.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Now it came to pass, when Adonizedek king of Jerusalem,.... So called, perhaps by anticipation, Jerusalem, since it seems to have had this name given it by the Israelites, when they had got possession of it: and Jerusalem signifies "the possession of Salem"F23Reland, p. 833. , and in memory of this its ancient name, the Jews sayF24Gloss. in T. Bab. Taanith, fol. 16. 1. , they do not put "jod" in Jerusalem between "lamed" and "mem"; though some make the signification of it, "they shall see peace"F25Vid. Stockium, p. 480. ; and others, nearer to its old name, and with respect to it, "fear Salem", O ye enemies. Now the king of this place

had heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; which, being nearer to him than Jericho, the more alarmed him:

as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; burnt the one, and slew the other; and this terrified him, lest he and his city should undergo the same fate:

and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them; which as it weakened the interest of the kings of Canaan, might set an example to other places to do the like. Abarbinel suggests, that the Gibeonites making peace with Israel secretly, without the knowledge of their king, as he supposes, made Adonizedek fearful, lest his subjects should do the like; the Jewish chronologers sayF26Seder Olam Rabba, c. 11. p. 31. , that these three acts respecting Jericho, Ai, and Gibeon, were all finished within three months.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/joshua-10.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Joshua 10:1-5. Five kings war against Gibeon.

Adoni-zedek — “lord of righteousness” - nearly synonymous with Melchizedek, “king of righteousness.” These names were common titles of the Jebusite kings.

Jerusalem — The original name, “Salem” (Genesis 14:18; Psalm 76:2), was superseded by that here given, which signifies “a peaceful possession,” or “a vision of peace,” in allusion, as some think, to the strikingly symbolic scene (Genesis 22:14) represented on the mount whereon that city was afterwards built.

inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them — that is, the Israelites; had made an alliance with that people, and acknowledging their supremacy, were living on terms of friendly intercourse with them.

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/joshua-10.html. 1871-8.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

This chapter contains the relation of wonderful events: five kings wage war against Joshua, in the south of Canaan. Gibeon is made the seat of war, in the first instance, because of their league with Israel. Joshua hasteneth to the rescue of Gibeon, and carrieth on his victories, in taking and destroying six royal cities: the sun and moon at the voice of Joshua stand still: hailstones are sent from heaven, to aid Joshua in the destruction of the kingdoms: after his victories Joshua returneth unto Gilgal.

Joshua 10:1

I have often pondered over the name of this king, and been led to wonder whence he derived it. Adoni signifies Lord, and hence our Jesus is called Adonai, Psalms 110:1, where it is said, Jehovah the Lord said unto my Adonai, Lord. And again by the prophet, I saw also the Adonai, meaning Christ, sitting upon a throne, etc. Isaiah 6:1, And his other name, Zedak signifies righteousness. But what reference had his name to his character? Alas! so far from being righteous, he joins in league with the enemies of God. Reader! what a pity is it in the present day, to discover so many precious names of scripture, given to men who have nothing precious in them!

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/joshua-10.html. 1828.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Now it came to pass, when Adonizedek king of Jerusalem had heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;

Among them — That is, were conversant with them, had submitted to their laws, and mingled interests with them.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/joshua-10.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Joshua 10:1 Now it came to pass, when Adonizedek king of Jerusalem had heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;

Ver. 1. When Adonizedec king of Jerusalem.] A glorious name, fitter for Messiah the Prince, - for it signifieth the same in effect with Melchizedek, "which is by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is King of peace," - than [Hebrews 7:2] for such a tyrant. [ 1:7] But it is nothing new for that kind of men to affect glorious titles, as did Antiochus Soter, Ptolomeus Euergetes, &c. The great Turk styleth himself at this day, Awlem Penawh, that is, the world’s refuge. (a)

Had heard that Joshua had taken Ai, &c.] And that now their turn was not far off -

Iam tun res agitur, paries cure proximus ardet.

This they hardly, and not till needs must, take notice of: sin and Satan having cast them into a dead lethargy, out of which they are hardly roused.

And were among them.] Having embraced their religion, and glad to do them service. This caused the devil and his imps to set up their bristles, and to seek their destruction.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/joshua-10.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ver. 1. Now—when Adoni-zedec, &c.— Adoni-zedec, signifies lord of righteousness, which is nearly the same as Melchizedec. As these kings were both kings of Salem, or Jerusalem, some suppose, that the successors of Melchi-zedec affected a name like his to give themselves more dignity, by resembling in some measure that famous monarch. But while he assumed a name which called forth so many virtues, Adoni-zedec was not careful to imitate them. Contented to adorn himself with an amiable appellation, he limited his wishes to the being called just, without any endeavour to merit so excellent a sirname by just actions. It is very evident, that Jerusalem retained its ancient name of Salem till the Israelites took possession of it, and called it Jeru-salem. But the Benjamites, to whose lot it fell, being unable entirely to dislodge the Jebusites who occupied it, Judges 1:21 and the latter having at length driven off the former, the Jebusites continued to call it Jebus, (Judges 19:10.) while the Israelites on their part called it

Jerusalem, says Bishop Patrick. It must, however, be acknowledged, that all this is but conjecture. It is neither proved, that Jerusalem is precisely the same city as the ancient Salem, nor that the Israelites gave it the name of Jerusalem when they made the conquest of it. This latter name did not begin to supplant those of Jebus, Sion, and city of David, till the time of Solomon. Whatever is urged to account for this change is dubious; nor are authors agreed respecting the true signification of the name Jerusalem. The Massoretes pronounce it Jerushalaim; but, according to the method in which the Chaldees pronounce the Hebrew, it should be read Jeroushelem, which come nearer to the Jerousalem of the Greeks, and our Jerusalem. This name is probably composed of Shalum, or Shalem, i.e. peace, and, as many persons think, of jarab, which signifies to fear, or from jarash, to inherit, to possess, (see Reland. Palaest. lib. 3: p. 834.) or from jerus, the same word as jebus, with the change only of a single letter.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/joshua-10.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

JOSHUA CHAPTER 10

Five of the kings of Canaan, afraid of Joshua, are angry with the Gibeonites, and wage war against them; they send to Joshua for succours, Joshua 10:1-5. He rescues them, Joshua 10:6-10. God casts down hail-stones upon the enemy, Joshua 10:11. Joshua prays to God, and commands the sun to stand still, which it does for the space of a day, Joshua 10:12-15. The five kings hide themselves in caves, where Joshua causeth them to be shut up, afterwards to be brought forth, scornfully used, and hanged, and thrown into a cave by Makkedah, Joshua 10:16-27. This place taken, the king, city, and all therein are burnt, Joshua 10:28. Joshua doth the same to Libnah and Lachish, Joshua 10:29-32; to Gezer, Eglon, Hebron, Debir, and all the land, Joshua 10:33-42. Joshua returns to Gilgal, Joshua 10:43.

i.e. Were conversant with them, had yielded themselves to their disposal, submitted themselves to their laws, had mingled interests with them.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/joshua-10.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

Chapter 10. Defeat of the Canaanite Confederacy - The Invasion of the South.

In this chapter we read of an alliance of five Canaanite kings against the Gibeonites, who then appeal to Joshua for assistance, in virtue of their treaty rights, something which has to Joshua grant. This is followed by the slaughter of the Canaanite armies by the forces of Israel, chiefly as a result of hailstones from heaven, and of the standing still or ‘silence’ of the sun and of the moon while vengeance was being taken on them. The five kings then hide in a cave, and we learn of what was done to them when they were taken. This is followed by the taking of Makkedah, Libnah, Lachish, Eglon, Hebron, and Debir, which indicated the initial conquest of the southern part of the hill country and lowlands.

Joshua 10:1

Now it happened that, when Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem, heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it, for as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king, and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them.’

News soon reached surrounding city states about what had happened. One of these was Jerusalem, whose king was made aware of the full situation. Israel had captured both Jericho and Ai and had totally destroyed them and annihilated their inhabitants, and had now entered into a treaty-covenant with the Gibeonite confederacy. There is total silence about the treaty-covenant with Shechem. That is because the writer was concentrating on conveying the picture of the capture of the land by Joshua, and did not want the picture to be affected by such an idea. He was writing a record of the triumph of YHWH, not the history of the conquest. The Gibeonite treaty was a different matter as it was obtained by subterfuge and resulted in the total submission of Gibeon to slavery. However, the total picture is clear. The way into Canaan over the Jordan and the central hill country was now mainly in the hands of the Israelites, while the way had been laid open for the settling of the southern hill country and lowlands..

“Adoni-zedek”. The name means ‘my lord is righteous’ or ‘Zedek is my lord’. We can compare the former king of Jerusalem ‘Melchizedek - my king is righteous’ or ‘Zedek is my king’. There is not sufficient evidence for a god Zedek in Canaan so that the other meanings may well be the right ones. At the time of the Amarna letters the king of Jerusalem was Abdi-heba. The letters also referred to Uru-salim as the name of the city.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/joshua-10.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

FIVE KINGS WAR AGAINST GIBEON, Joshua 10:1-5.

1.Adoni-zedek — The name means lord of justice. Compare the kindred word Melchizedek, king of justice. Genesis 14:18. All that is known of this Amorite king and his four confederates is recorded in this chapter. Alarmed at the victories of Joshua and the defection of Gibeon, his nearest neighbour on the north, he aroused the kings in the south, and combined them against the seceding state. This drew Joshua to the aid of his ally, and to the discomfiture of his confederated foes, and the execution of Adonizedek and his four royal associates.

Jerusalem — This is the first time that undisputed mention is made in the Bible of this celebrated city. Probably the Salem in Genesis 14:18, is Jerusalem, although Jerome contends that Salem was in the southern part of Galilee, near Scythopolis. Jerusalem is called “Jebus” and the “city of the Jebusites” in Judges and some later books. It became the metropolis of the Hebrews under David at a comparatively late date, after the nation had gone through the period of the Judges and entered on the Monarchy. Bethel, Hebron, and Shechem were ancient holy places when the Jebusite was still possessing Jerusalem.

It is a little south of the centre of Palestine, thirty-two miles from the coast and eighteen from the Jordan, and is two thousand six hundred feet above the level of the sea. It is surrounded on three sides by hills still higher, from which it is separated by precipitous ravines, which rendered it, before the invention of gunpowder, almost impregnable. “It is on the ridge, the broadest and most strongly marked ridge, of the backbone of the complicated hills which extend through the whole country, from the plain of Esdraelon to the desert. Every wanderer, every conqueror, every traveller, who has trod the central route of Palestine from north to south, must have passed through the table-land of Jerusalem. It was the water-shed between the streams, or, rather, the torrent beds, which find their way eastward to the Jordan and westward to the Mediterranean.” — Stanley. See note, Matthew 2:1.

And were among them — That is, were having amicable intercourse with the Israelites.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/joshua-10.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Joshua 10:1. Adoni-zedek, king of Jerusalem — Who seems to have been the most powerful prince in Canaan, and carried in his name, which signifies The Lord of righteousness, an honourable title, such as had been anciently given to the kings of this place, who had been famous for doing justice. So Melchizedek undoubtedly was, of whom we have such honourable mention, Genesis 14:18. King of Jerusalem — It is thought by many, that this city retained the name of Salem, which they suppose it had in Abraham’s time, till the Israelites came into the land of Canaan, and took possession of it, when they called it Jerusalem, from ירשׁ, Jarash, and שׁלום, Shalum, to possess peace: or from Jerus, the same as Jebus, with the change of one letter only, and Shalem, the place having belonged to the Jebusites. How the inhabitants of Gibeon — were among them — Among the Israelites, that is, were conversant with them, had submitted to their laws, and mingled interests with them.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/joshua-10.html. 1857.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Jerusalem = vision of peace. First occ, is connected with war, and next mention is siege and fire (Judges 1:8); called Jebus (Judges 19:10-11). Assigned by Joshua to Benjamin (Joshua 18:28).

taken Ai. Compare Joshua 8:23-29.

as = according as.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/joshua-10.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Now it came to pass, when Adonizedek king of Jerusalem had heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;

Adoni-zedek - `lord of righteousness;' nearly synonymous with Melchinzedek, 'king of righteousness.' These names were common titles of the Jebusite kings.

Jerusalem. The original name, "Salem" (Genesis 14:18; Psalms 76:2), was superseded by that here given, which signifies 'a peaceful possession, or 'a vision of peace,' in allusion, as some think, to the strikingly symbolic scene (Genesis 22:14) represented on the mount whereon that city was afterward built. It is called Jebusi, Joshua 18:28, and Jebus, Joshua 15:8; Judges 19:10. 'It may be reasonably inferred that Adonizedek exercised a kind of ecclesiastical dominion over the surrounding clans, and that Jerusalem was esteemed a sacred locality even in the estimation of the pagan. It was probably even at that early period distinctively called "Holy City"' (Barclay's 'City of the Great King,' p. 110).

Inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them - i:e., the Israelites had made an alliance with that people, and, acknowledging their supremacy, were living on terms of friendly contact with them.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/joshua-10.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

X.

CONQUEST OF THE SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY OF THE NATIONS OF CANAAN.

(1) Adoni-zedec king of Jerusalem.—We may compare this name (Lord of Righteousness) with Melchizedek (King of Righteousness). (See Genesis 14:18 and Hebrews 7:1.) The similarity of the names makes it probable that the Salem of Genesis 14:18 is Jerusalem (see Notes). The title Lord or King of Righteousness may have belonged to the king of Jerusalem, not only as a local title, but also in relation to the surrounding tribes, over whom he may have been a suzerain. But we know nothing of the matter beyond what we find in the sacred text.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/joshua-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Now it came to pass, when Adonizedek king of Jerusalem had heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;
Adoni-zedec
Genesis 14:18; Hebrews 7:1
as he had
6:21; 8:2,22-29
how the
9:15-27; 11:19,20
Reciprocal: Joshua 10:3 - king of Jerusalem;  Joshua 10:4 - we may;  Joshua 10:23 - GeneralJoshua 24:11 - the men;  Psalm 135:11 - and all the;  Jeremiah 21:2 - according;  Acts 9:23 - the Jews

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/joshua-10.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

1.Now it came to pass, etc He had formerly briefly glanced at, but now more fully details the conspiracy of the kings, who dwelt both in the mountains and in the plain. For after mentioning that they were struck with fear, and leagued together to make common war, he had broken off abruptly, and proceeded to speak of the Gibeonites. But what he had previously said of the kings in general, he now applies only to one individual; not because Adoni-zedek alone was afraid, but because he stirred up all the others, and was the principal originator and leader in carrying on the war against the Israelites. This is sufficiently expressed by the plural number of the verb; for it is said, When Adoni-zedek had heard — they feared greatly. From this it appears that they were all of the same mind, but that while some of them held back from fear, he who possessed greater authority, and was nearer the danger, invited the four others to arms. (90)

In the beginning of the chapter it is again told, how the five kings formed an alliance to meet the Israelites, and ward off the overthrow with which they were all threatened. But as the Gibeonites had meanwhile surrendered, they first turned their arms against them, both that by inflicting punishment upon them, as the betrayers of their country, they might make them an example to all their neighbors, and that by striking terror into those vanquished enemies, they might also inspire their own soldiers with confidence. They resolve, therefore, to attack the Gibeonites who, by their embassy, had made a disruption and opened a passage to the Israelites. They had, indeed, a fair pretext for war, in resolving to punish the effeminacy of those who had chosen to give their sanction to strangers, about to lay the whole country waste, rather than faithfully defend their neighbors. And the Gibeonites experienced how useless their crafty counsel must have been, had they not been saved in pity by the Israelites. Meanwhile the Lord allowed them to be involved in danger, in order that, being twice freed, they might more willingly and meekly submit to the yoke.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/joshua-10.html. 1840-57.