Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Luke 13:14

But the synagogue official, indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, began saying to the crowd in response, "There are six days in which work should be done; so come during them and get healed, and not on the Sabbath day."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Hypocrisy;   Jesus, the Christ;   Miracles;   Sabbath;   Synagogue;   Scofield Reference Index - Parables;   Thompson Chain Reference - Defender of the Weak;   False;   Legalism;   Religion;   Religion, True-False;   Weak;   The Topic Concordance - Sabbath;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Hypocrites;   Sabbath, the;   Sickness;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Pharisees;   Sabbath;   Synagogue;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Demon;   Heal, Health;   Miracle;   Sabbath;   Sexuality, Human;   Synagogue;   Woman;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Sabbath;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Jesus Christ;   Sabbath;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Luke, Gospel of;   Sabbath;   Synagogue;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Matthew, Gospel According to;   Sabbath;   Synagogue;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Anger (2);   Claim;   Claims (of Christ);   Commandments;   Common Life;   Cosmopolitanism;   Cures;   Discourse;   Disease;   Dropsy;   Impotence;   Israel, Israelite;   Profaning, Profanity;   Ruler (2);   Sabbath ;   Salvation;   Sea of Galilee;   Searching;   Septuagint;   Synagogue;   Synagogue (2);   Walk (2);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Miracles;   Synagogue;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chief parables and miracles in the bible;   Synagogue;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Sabbath;   Synagogue;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Loose;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Synagogue;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Crook-Backed;   Jesus Christ (Part 2 of 2);   Ruler;   Sabbath;   Synagogue;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Jesus of Nazareth;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Answered with indignation, because … - He considered this a violation of the Sabbath, doing work contrary to the fourth commandment. If he had reasoned aright, he would have seen that he who could perform such a miracle could not be a violator of the law of God. From this conduct of the ruler we learn:

1.That people are often opposed to good being done, because it is not done “in their own way” and “according to their own views.”

2.That they are more apt to look at what they consider a violation of the law in others, than at the good which others may do.

3.That this opposition is manifested not only against those who do good, but also against those who are “benefited.” The ruler of the synagogue seemed particularly indignant that “the people” would come to Christ to be healed.

4.That this conduct is often the result of envy. In this case it was rather hatred that the people should follow Christ instead of the Jewish rulers, and therefore envy at the popularity of Jesus, than any real regard for religion.

5.That opposition to the work of Jesus may put on the appearance of great professed regard for religion. Many people oppose revivals, missions, Bible societies, and Sunday-schools - strange as it may seem - “from professed regard to the purity of religion.” They, like the ruler here, have formed their notions of religion as consisting in something “very different from doing good,” and they oppose those who are attempting to spread the gospel throughout the world.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/luke-13.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And the ruler of the synagogue, being moved with indignation because Jesus had healed on the sabbath, answered and said to the multitude, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the day of the sabbath.

It was a day of rejoicing and glorifying God by the woman who had been healed, and indeed by the whole community; but there was one whose face clouded with anger and resentment. The petty sabbath regulations which his class had imposed upon God's worship had been set aside; and he moved at once to protest, not against Jesus directly, for he was afraid to do that, but striking at our Lord through the multitude whom he rebuked for coming on the sabbath day to be healed.

Ruler of the synagogue ... "(This was) probably the head of the council of ten men who controlled the synagogue."[14]

ENDNOTE:

[14] Charles L. Childers, Beacon Bible Commentary (Kansas City, Missouri: Beacon Hill Press, 1964), p. 538.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/luke-13.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the ruler of the synagogue,.... For there never was but one in a synagogue, whatever some writers have observed to the contrary; See Gill on Matthew 9:18 the Ethiopic version reads, "the chief priests", but wrongly; these dwelt at Jerusalem, and in Galilee:

answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day; his indignation was at Christ, and the miracle he had wrought, being filled with envy at the honour it would bring unto him; though he covered it under pretence of its being a violation of the sabbath, and that it ought not to have been done on such a day, and in such a place, which were appropriated not to servile works, but to religious worship;

and said unto the people; over whom he had an authority, and who stood in awe of him, because of his office and dignity; and not daring to attack Christ himself, at least not directly, though he struck at him through the people, whose doctrine and miracles were so extraordinary.

There are six days which men ought to work, in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day; referring to the fourth command: but this observation and reproof were impertinent and needless, for the people did not come to be healed; for ought appears, the cure was unthought of and unexpected; nor was healing, especially as performed by Christ, by a word and a touch, a servile work, and therefore could not be any breach of the law referred to. The Ethiopic version reads, "is there not a sixth day?----come on that day"; the day before the sabbath.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/luke-13.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

4 And the f ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.

(4) A graphic image of hypocrisy, and the reward of it.

(f) One of the rulers of the synagogue, for it appears that there were many rulers of the synagogue, see (Mark 5:22) (Acts 13:15).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/luke-13.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

with indignation — not so much at the sabbath violation as at the glorification of Christ. (Compare Matthew 21:15) [Trench].

said to the people — “Not daring directly to find fault with the Lord, he seeks circuitously to reach Him through the people, who were more under his influence, and whom he feared less” [Trench].

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/luke-13.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Answered (αποκριτειςapokritheis). First aorist passive participle of αποκρινομαιapokrinomai No one had spoken to him, but he felt his importance as the ruler of the synagogue and was indignant (αγανακτωνaganaktōn from αγανagan and αχομαιachomai to feel much pain). His words have a ludicrous sound as if all the people had to do to get their crooked backs straightened out was to come round to his synagogue during the week. He forgot that this poor old woman had been coming for eighteen years with no result. He was angry with Jesus, but he spoke to the multitude (τωι οχλωιtōi ochlōi).

Ought (δειdei). Really, must, necessary, a direct hit at Jesus who had “worked” on the sabbath in healing this old woman.

And not (και μηkai mē). Instead of και ουkai ou because in the imperative clause.

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-13.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

The Fourfold Gospel

And the ruler of the synagogue, being moved with indignation because Jesus had healed on the sabbath1, answered and said to the multitude2, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the day of the sabbath.

  1. And the ruler of the synagogue, being moved with indignation because Jesus had healed on the sabbath. There is not evidence that the woman came with any intention of being healed, nor was the ruler angry at her, but at Jesus. On the synagogue, see .

  2. Answered and said to the multitude. Too cowardly to openly rebuke Jesus, the ruler fell to reprimanding the people, and thus indirectly censuring the Lord.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/luke-13.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

14 And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.

Ver. 14. Answered with indignation] He that will be angry and not sin must be angry at nothing but at sin.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-13.html. 1865-1868.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

14.] The ruler speaks not either to Jesus or to the woman; but covertly and cowardly, to the multitude. Stier notices the self-stultification of this speech, in making θεραπεύεσθαι, a reception of divine grace and help, a species of ἐργάζεσθαι.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/luke-13.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Luke 13:14. τῷ ὄχλῳ, to the multitude) But all the while he obliquely aimed at Jesus. [For doubtless the benefit of the healing came to the woman without her expecting it.—V. g.]— ἕξ, six) quite many enough.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/luke-13.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Answered here signifies no more than, he spake, as in a multitude of other places in the Gospels. The Jews were both very superstitious and very uneven as to the sanctification of the sabbaths: superstitious, because they would not do many things which by God’s law they might do, such as applying means to heal the sick, defending themselves against enemies, &c. Uneven, because they would do divers things of equal bodily labour with those things which they pretend to scruple, one of which we shall hear our Saviour by and by instancing in. This ruler studied to defame him before the people. His pretence was, this was a work, and such a work as might be done in the six days. Let us hear how our Saviour defends himself.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 13:14". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/luke-13.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

начальник Занимающий высокое положение мирянин, в обязанности которого входило проведение собраний, забота о здании и наблюдение за учением в синагоге (ср. 8:41; Мф. 9:18; Мк. 5:38).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/luke-13.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

14.The ruler of the synagogue—Who is so great as your little great man, who imitates, of course, the prejudices and follies of his superiors? This official had not dared, for reasons which may appear, to withhold from Jesus the pulpit or the synagogue for preaching. But he understands that the doctors and lawyers maintain that for Jesus to perform miracles on the Sabbath is a desecration of that holy day. He will therefore protest, in the name of the decalogue, against such work.

Answered—It is not clear to what he gave answer; but it was most probably to the woman’s praise to God for her release from Satan.

With indignation—Which he meant to have considered a holy indignation, prompted by his soul, for God and Moses.

Said unto the people—He has not the courage to face Jesus. He therefore falls foul of the innocent congregation, because he dare berate them, being, as he is, ruler of the synagogue, while they are only the synagogue itself.

There are six days—The man quotes, without intending a verbal exactness, a very important item in the fourth commandment; namely, that men should work six days, and that that should be the limit of their week’s work.

Come and be healed—The coming to the synagogue was Sabbath duty; but the being healed was no work which the people or the woman had done. This man, then, when he whips the people, means the blow for Jesus. He commits the contradiction of supposing that the miracle is really and divinely performed, but wicked on the Sabbath; as if God was breaking his own Sabbath and must be prevented by the people.

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/luke-13.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And the ruler of the synagogue, being moved with indignation because Jesus had healed on the sabbath, answered and said to the gathered crowd, “There are six days in which men ought to work. In them therefore come and be healed, and not on the day of the sabbath.”

But the ruler of the synagogue, who led the synagogue committee, was angry. Possibly he recognised that he might be called on by certain of the Pharisees to explain why he had allowed this to happen in his synagogue on the Sabbath day. An enquiry might even have led up to a beating. But the fact of his anger suggests that we are to see his feeling as personal as well.

And yet his anger is directed at the crowd. Perhaps he felt wary of challenging a person with the powers that Jesus had. Or indeed perhaps he did not wish to. He may even have been secretly sympathetic, but dared not show it, while recognising that he had to make some protest. Perhaps he even acknowledged that as the miracle had happened God was clearly not displeased with it this time (it is so difficult accusing someone whose miracles actually happen of not being pleasing to God. It took certain types of Pharisees to argue like that). It may be that it in fact was the reaction of the crowd that angered him, as they surged around and clamoured for more. So he covered himself by rebuking the people who were gathered there. He pointed out to them that there were six days in every seven in which men should work, and therefore that if they wished to be healed they should come on a day other than the Sabbath. The weakness of his position comes out in the fact that Jesus was not a doctor. Had He been the ruler may have had a point. But everyone knew that only God could have done what had happened that day. Possibly that was what the ruler had recognised and had thus felt that it would probably be unwise to rebuke God by rebuking Jesus. He would feel that he was on safe ground in rebuking the crowd.

In Pharisaic eyes, however, he was totally in the right. The only healing that was allowed on the Sabbath was dealing with possible life threatening conditions to the minimum required.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/luke-13.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

As previously, Jesus" works proved controversial and provided another opportunity for Him to teach. The synagogue official showed more concern for Sabbath observance then for human suffering (cf. the previous Sabbath controversies in Galilee [ Matthew 12:9-13] and in Jerusalem [ John 5:16]). Instead of praising God with the woman he criticized her and Jesus indirectly. Perhaps he felt safer addressing the people than Jesus. His advice to the assembled crowd amounted to keeping them from entering the kingdom ( Luke 11:52). [Note: Martin, p240.]

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/luke-13.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Luke 13:14. Being filled with indignation. The attitude of mind was hostile; but had been manifested hitherto on such occasions. The answer was not ‘with indignation.’ The ruler was afraid to speak out so boldly, and he ‘covertly and cowardly’ addresses himself, not to the Healer or to the healed, but to the multitude. His false premise was, that works of mercy are forbidden on the Sabbath.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/luke-13.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Luke 13:14. But religious propriety in the person of the ruler of the synagogue is once more shocked: it is a Sabbath cure.— : He spoke to the audience at Jesus—plausibly enough; yet, as so often in cases of religious zeal, from mixed motives. Christ’s power and the woman’s praise annoyed him.

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/luke-13.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

president of the synagogue, when he saw the woman, who before crept on the ground, now raised by the touch of Christ, and hearing the mandate of God, was filled with envy, and decried the miracle, apparently through solicitude for keeping the sabbath. But the truth is, he would rather see the poor woman bent to the earth like a beast, than see Christ glorified by healing her. (St. Cyril in St. Thomas Aquinas)

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/luke-13.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

not. Greek. me. App-105.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/luke-13.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.

And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people - or 'the multitude' [ ochloo (Greek #3793)]. 'Not daring,' as Trench remarks, 'directly to find fault with the Lord, he seeks circuitously to reach Him through the people, who were more under his influence, and whom he feared less.'

There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day. From the "hypocrisy" with which the Lord charges him (Luke 13:15), we may conclude that zeal for the honour of the Sabbath was only the pretence, and that the glory which this miracle shed upon the Lord Jesus was the real cause of this ruler's "indignation," as the same writer observes. See Matthew 21:15.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/luke-13.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(14) And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation.—The traditional law for the work of the Jewish physician was that he might act in his calling in cases of emergency, life and death cases, but not in chronic diseases, such as this. This law the ruler of the synagogue wished to impose as a check upon the work of the Healer here.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/luke-13.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.
the ruler
8:41; Acts 13:15; 18:8,17
with
6:11; John 5:15,16; Romans 10:2
There
Exodus 20:9; 23:12; Leviticus 23:3; Ezekiel 20:12
and not
6:7; 14:3-6; Matthew 12:10-12; Mark 3:2-6; John 9:14-16
Reciprocal: Exodus 16:26 - GeneralExodus 31:15 - Six days;  Exodus 34:21 - Six;  Exodus 35:2 - Six days;  Deuteronomy 5:13 - GeneralIsaiah 29:20 - and all;  Ezekiel 34:21 - pushed;  Ezekiel 46:1 - six working;  Matthew 9:18 - ruler;  Mark 5:22 - rulers;  Luke 6:6 - he;  John 5:10 - it is not;  Hebrews 12:3 - contradiction

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/luke-13.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

14.There are six days. This reprover does not venture to pass censure openly on Christ, but points the venom of his dislike to another quarter, and indirectly condemns Christ in the person of the multitude. What an astonishing display of furious malice! Six days, he tells them, were set apart for labor; but how incorrectly and foolishly does he define that work, which is not permitted but on six days! Why does he not likewise forbid them to enter the synagogue, lest they should violate the Sabbath? Why does he not order them to refrain from all the exercises of godliness? But granting that men are restrained from following their own employments on the Sabbath-day, how unreasonable is it that the grace of God should be limited in that manner!

On them, therefore, come and you shall be cured. He bids them come on the other days to seek a cure, as if the power of God lay asleep on Sabbath, and were not rather exerted chiefly on that day for the salvation of his people. What purpose is to be served by the holy assemblies, except to give an opportunity to believers for entreating the Divine assistance? That ungodly hypocrite talks as if the lawful observation of the Sabbath interrupted the course of God’s favors, hindered men from calling upon him, and took away from them all feeling of his kindness.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Luke 13:14". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/luke-13.html. 1840-57.