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Bible Commentaries
Luke 13

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


1) "There were present at that season some that told him," (paresan de tines en auto kairo apangellontes auto) "Then there were present certain ones who reported to him at that season," or there arrived, perhaps to bring him a report of this outrage by Caesar Augustus, Luke 2:1. What season or period is not definitely known.

2) "Of the Galileeans," (peri ton Galilaion) "Concerning the Galileeans," certain ones who had been slain in an uprising against the Roman garrison in Jerusalem, whom Pilate had cruelly put down, suppressed, slaying many, Acts 5:36.

3) "Whose blood Pilate had mingled," (hon to hima Pilatos emiksen) "Some of whose blood Pilate mixed," with animal blood. This particular event was not recorded in history, but Josephus relates numerous similar events. See also Acts 5:36-37. This is likely why Herod and Pilate were at enmity, Luke 23:12; Luke 23:19.

4) "With their sacrifices." (meta ton thusion auton) "With human sacrifices," at the Jewish temple, where human blood or human sacrifices were not to be offered.

Judas of Galilee had led a tax rebellion against paying Roman tribute some twenty years earlier, was slain and his rebellion put down. This perhaps alludes to that event, Acts 5:37.

Verse 2

1) "And Jesus answering said unto them," (kai apokritheis elpen autois) "And replying he said to them," explained to them very clearly, perhaps not as they expected.

2) "Suppose ye that these Galileans were sinners," (dokiete hoti hoi Galilaioi houtoi hamartoloi enegento) "Do you all think that these Galileans were (came to be) sinners;" Just because some came to tragic death as a result of their sins does not make them any more certain for hell than the morally upright and the ethically upright rejecter of Jesus Christ, John 3:3; John 3:5.

3) "Above all the Galilaeans," (para pantes tous Galilaious) "Above (worse than) all the Galileans" or all others in Galilee because they permitted this sacrilege by Pilate, Romans 3:23; Ecclesiastes 7:20, or came to be sacrificed by him?

4) "Because they suffered such things," (hoti tauta peponthasin) "Because they have permitted or allowed these things," allowed Pilate to pour human blood of slain Galilaeans on their own Jewish altar, mingling it with their sacrifices? In a contemptible manner of sacrilege? Did this make those Galilaeans any worse sinners before God than those Galilaeans who rejected Him? John 8:24.

Verse 3

1) "I tell you, Nay;" (ouchi lego humin) "No, I tell you all," emphatically, not at all are they less certain to condemnation or more certain for hell than you all are unless you too repent of your sins, Romans 2:1; Romans 2:4-5. This alludes to the doom of all Israel and all who like them repent not of their sins.

2) "Except ye repent," (all’ ean me metanoete) "But unless you all repent," as all have sinned and in sinning come short of the glory-presence of the Lord, even so must all repent, Matthew 3:2; Luke 15:7; Acts 17:30.

3) "Ye shall all likewise perish." (pantes homoios apoleisthe) "You will all perish after a similar manner," Luke 13:5, go to the same hell as Pilate and those ceremonial worshippers who permitted slain Galilaean blood to be offered in their worship, Romans 6:20.

Verse 4

1) "Or those eighteen," (e ekeinoi ho dekaokto) "Or even those eighteen," to whom calamity fell, an event with which Jesus too was familiar.

2) "Upon whom the tower in Siloam fell," (eph ous epesen ho purgos en to Siloam) "Upon whom the former tower in Siloam fell," or near the pool of Siloam. Victims of acts of providence are no greater sinners, necessarily, than some others.

3) "And slew them," (kai apekteinen sutois) "And slew them," who were building it, in a manner offensive to God. The idea is moral wrong comes to dismal judgment, frequently, even in this life, Galatians 6:7-8.

4) "Think ye that they were sinners," (dikeite hoti auto! opheiletai egenonto) "Do you all think that they were debtors," obligated to pay a bill for their deeds.

5) "Above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem?" (para pantas tous anthropous tous katoikountas lerousalem) "More than, (above) all other men residing in Jerusalem?" Who rejected the Messiah, received him not, tried to establish their own righteousness, Matthew 5:20; Romans 10:2-4.

Verse 5

1) "I tell you, Nay:" (ouchi lego humin) "I tell you all no:" Jesus turned from the thought of personal judgment to that that was to fall on all Israel for their rejection of Him, especially the coming destruction of Jerusalem, Matthew 24:1-2; Luke 21:24.

2) "But except ye repent," (all’ ean me metanoesete) "But unless you all repent," each for himself, and leave your sins and this city of Jerusalem, which had rejected Him, John 1:11-12; Matthew 23:36-39.

3) "Ye shall all likewise perish." (pantes hosautos apoleisthe) "You will all perish, in a similar manner," perhaps even alluding to death by crumbling, falling buildings, in the destruction of Jerusalem, under Titus of Thespasia, AD 70. It was the final siege and destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, as prophesied by our Lord, Luke 21:24.

Verse 6


1) "He spake also this parable;" (elegen de tauten ten parabolen) "Then he told or related this parable," to show that great privileges involve great responsibilities.

2) "A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard;" (suken eichen tis pephuteumenen en to ampeloni autou) "A certain man had planted a fig tree in his vineyard;" The fig tree seems to be Israel’s center of Jewish worship and teaching through her synagogues and temple; while Israel was God’s vineyard. Israel was God’s fig-tree from which He expected good fruit, Isaiah 5:1-7.

3) "And he came and sought fruit thereon," (kai elthen zeton karpon en aute? "And he came in the fruit season and sought fruit in it, among its branches," of worship and service; He sought hearts turned to righteousness, bearing righteousness, but was disappointed, Matthew 21:23; Matthew 21:34; Isaiah 5:2.

4) "And found none." (kai ouch heuren) "And found not a thing," found no fruit at all; He found it to be barren, unproductive, out of harmony with His word of prophecy and will, Mark 7:5-13.

Verse 7

1) "Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard," (eipen de pros ton ampelourgon) "Then he said directly to, confronting the vine dresser," who attended the trees; The dresser was His Son Jesus Christ, who came in mercy, to seek and to save, John 3:17; Luke 19:10.

2) "Behold, these three years," (idou tria ete) "Behold three years," the time of his having witnessed to them, in succession; Some believe this to correspond with the three years of our Lord’s previous ministry during which He sought spiritual fruit and found none among the priests and rabbis and synagogue rulers.

3) "I come seeking fruit on this fig tree," (aph’ ou erchomai zeton karpon en te suke taute) "Have passed since I came seeking fruit in this fig tree, beginning at His entrance into His home synagogue at Nazareth on the sabbath day. He returned there following His baptism, Luke 4:16-27. It was adequate time for fruitbearing.

4) "And find none:" (kai ouch heuriskeo) "And find not," any fruit either of the three years, from that day He declared Himself to be the Messiah, and they tried to kill Him, Luke 4:29-30; Isaiah 61:1-2.

5) "Cut It down;" (ekkopson auten) "Just cut it down," or destroy it, as a non-productive tree, John 15:2; Exodus 32:10; Exodus 32:14.

6) "Why cumbereth it the ground?" (kenati kai ten gen katargei) "Why let it spoil the ground?" He spoke with indignation; occupy a place and use soil and water a producing tree might use, Matthew 7:19-20.

Verse 8

1) "And he answering said unto him, Lord," (ho de apokritheis legei auto kurie) "And he answered and said advisedly to him, Lord," Jesus the vine dresser said to His Father, whose will He came to do, John 6:38.

2) "Lot it alone this year also," (aphes auten kai touto to etos) "Leave it also this year," this one more season, mercifully, La 3:22, 23; This is Jesus as intercessor to the Father, for His people, Israel, Luke 13:34; John 1:11-12; Mercy postpones the sentence of judgment, Job 33:23; Zechariah 1:12; Exodus 24:6; Hebrews 7:25.

3) "Till I shall dig about it:" (heos hotou skapso peri aute kai balo kopria) "Until I may dig around about it and throw dung or fertilizer around it," as plant food to stimulate production of fruit, as a final special effort, for He is longsuffering, 2 Peter 3:9.

Verse 9

1) "And it bear fruit, well;" (kai men poiese karpon eis to mellon) "And if indeed it makes fruit in the future," very good, Matthew 7:17.

2) "And if not," (ei de me ge) "Then if it does not bear fruit," good fruit of righteousness and obedience.

3) "Then after that thou shall cut it down." (ekkopseis atuten) "You shall cut it down," Matthew 7:19-20; John 15:2. For this is the way of wisdom, Matthew 3:10; Matthew 25:41-46; Psalms 6:8. Let justice take its course.

Verse 10


1) "And he was teaching," (en de didaskon) "Then he was teaching," as His custom was, wherever He went, Luke 4:16-19.

2) "In one of the synagogues," (en mai ton sunagogon) "in one of the synagogues," of that area of Galilee, or Perea; which synagogue is not certain.

3) "On the sabbath." (en tois sabbasin) "In and upon one of the sabbaths," as His "custom was," Luke 4:16. For the sabbath was that day of the week many Jews gathered in the synagogues for Scripture reading, teaching, and prayer.

Verse 11

1) "And, behold, there was a woman," (kai idou gune) "And behold (take note) there was a woman," a special kind of woman, and a particular woman, long in need.

2) "Which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years," (pneuma echousa astheneias hete dekaokto) "Who had had a spirit of infirmity for a period of eighteen years," a demon possessed woman whom Satan had bound, Luke 13:16. Yet it did not keep her from the place of worship and prayer.

3) "And was bowed together," (kai en sugkuptousa) "And was bending double," with bodily weakness, as often expressed "bent-double," held in slave bondage by an evil spirit, "whom Satan had bound," Luke 13:16.

4) "And could in no wise lift up herself." (kai me dunamene anakupsai eis to panteles) "And she was not able to become entirely erect," therefore could not even look up and see Jesus.

Verse 12

1) "And when Jesus saw her," (idon de aute ho lesous) "Then when Jesus saw her," in her weak and demon possession. Though she did not ask to be cured, He had compassion on her, Matthew 9:36.

2) "He called her to him, and said unto her," (prosephonesen kai eipen aute) "He called her to come to him, and said to her," evidently seeing a yearning faith and hope in her face, in the synagogue on that sabbath day, John 7:17; Luke 4:18.

3) "Woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity." (gunai apolelusai tes astheneias sou) "Woman you have been and are loosed (released) from your infirmity," Matthew 8:16, The power of the demon that has bound and bent you double all these years. For He came to bring deliverance, release or liberation to those who were captive to Satan and sin, Psalms 146:8; Psalms 27:14. He made the bent, crooked, bound and deranged woman straight, as only He can from Satan’s bonds, Ecclesiastes 7:14; Acts 4:12.

Verse 13

1) "And he laid his hands on her:" (kai epetheken aute tas cheiras) "And he put (laid) his hands on her," as an expression of His love and care for her, and to strengthen her faith, as Annanias did Saul of Tarsus. It was the positive part of His healing, after releasing her from the demon.

2) "And immediately she was made straight," (kai parachrema anorthothe) "And she was straightened in her body at once," immediately, or suddenly made well, healed or cured, as the woman was who had a blood disease for twelve years, Luke 8:43-48.

3) "And glorified God." (kai edoksazen ton theon) "And she glorified God," or gave forth a burst of glory and praise to God, before the synagogue crowd that day, to the glory of God, Psalms 107:2; 1 Corinthians 10:31.

Verse 14

1) "And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation," (apokeitheis de hos archisunagogos aganokton) "Then the synagogue ruler answered, being angry," or agitated, frustrated over what had occurred. He was evidently an officer of the "barren fig, tree" that bare no fruit, Luke 13:6. His indignation was a sham, a farce, to cover a veneer of hypocritical piety, to hide the envy and malice in his own heart, Matthew 7:6-7; John 5:15-16; Romans 10:12.

2) "Because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day," (hoti to sabbata etherapeusen ho lesous) "Because Jesus healed on the sabbath," right before his eyes, and the eyes of the synagogue worshippers. He cared less for the demon possessed woman and her soul and life than he did about holding his job of cold, heartless, formalism of Jewish law.

3) "And said unto the people," (elegen to ochlo) "He said to the crowd," in a chiding, scolding, rebuking way, not to Jesus, who had done the good deed, which he was calling evil.

4) "There are six days in which men ought to work:" (hoti heks hemerai eisin en hais dei etgazesthai) "There are six days in which time we must work," Exodus 20:9, do this kind of work, like Jesus had done in healing the woman, and evidently saving her too, since she "glorified God," Luke 13:13.

5) "In them therefore come and be healed," (en autais oun erchomenoi therapeuesthe) "You all are therefore to come of your own volition in those days," come during the work week and be healed. He dare not acknowledge that What Jesus was doing was a Divine work or work of Grace, and therefore fitting and proper on the sabbath.

6) "And not on the sabbath day." (kai me te hemera tou sabbatou) "And not on the day of the sabbath," which he considered profaned by this miraculous healing, by which he should have recognized that Jesus was the Son of God, believed, and himself been saved, John 20:30-31. He dared not openly find fault with Jesus, but rather with the people, Matthew 12:10; Mark 3:2.

Verse 15

1) "The Lord then answered him, and said," (apekrithe de auto ho kurios kai eipen) "Then the Lord answered him and said," very sharply, and clearly, and directly to him and the other rabbis of the synagogue, knowing that his show of indignation was a pretence, as also observed Matthew 16:15. Jesus proceeded to pull the mask off of this masquerading hypocrite.

2) "Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath," (hupokritai hekastos humon to sabbato ou) "You hypocrites, does not each one of you all on the sabbath," Proverbs 11:9; Matthew 7:5; Matthew 23:13; Matthew 23:28, this very day, show mercy to dumb beasts, by loosing them to water and graze, but this woman, demon bound, when I release her you find fault.

3) "Loose his ox or his ass from the stall," (euei ton boun autou e ton onon apo tes phatnes) "Loosen or release his ox or ass from the manger or stall," on the sabbath. Certainly they did, Luke 14:5-6; John 7:23-24. Jesus saw the hate and jealousy in the heart of those hypocritical synagogue rulers.

4) "And lead him away to watering?" (kai apagagon potizei) "And lead him away to give it a drink?" You do, and the people know you do it, you hypocrites. That is more actual work, manual labor, in drawing much water for these animals, than I have done. You see dumb brutes, oxen and donkeys, were more important to them than the souls of the cripple and demon possessed one. They set aside the commandment of God to do good, to find fault with Jesus and all that He did, Mark 7:5-9. How much better was this woman, the seed of Abraham, better than an animal, Matthew 12:12.

Verse 16

1) "And ought not this woman," (tauten de) "Then this woman (ouk edei) did it not become her," or was it not proper toward her, a repetition of the synagogue rulers "ought not", complaint of Luke 13:14.

2) "Being a daughter of Abraham," (thugatera Abraam ousan) "Being or existing as a daughter of Abraham," a Jewish woman, long demon bound, away from God, Luke 19:9; Romans 4:12-16.

3) "Whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years," (hen edesen ho santanas idou deka kai okto ete) "Whom Satan, take note, has bound these eighteen years," Luke 13:11; Luke 22:3; Luke 22:31. Note, your beasts you all loose after a few hours. But this woman has been bound for 18 years; Yet you find fault with my help of this daughter of Abraham!

4) "Be loosed from this bond of the sabbath day” (luthenai apo tou desmou toutou te hemera tou sabbatou) "To be loosed or released from this bond (of infirmity) or malady on the sabbath day?" Tell your neighbors, her relatives you think she is worth less than your oxen and asses, if you please. That is your warped fruitless, merciless, ceremonial judgment of the whole matter, See? Mark 7:3-9. But Jesus compassionately released her from Satan, the great slave-holder, 2 Corinthians 4:3-4.

Verse 17

1) "And when he had said these things," (kai touto legontos autou) "And having said these things," as a matter of chiding them for their hypocrisy, or when He had said these things.

2) "All his adversaries were ashamed:" (kateschunonto pantes hon antikeimenoi auto) "All those opposing him were put to shame," indicating that there were several there that day, caused to be visibly ashamed, were blushing at their naked exposure to truth from the mouth of the Son of God, Romans 3:19; Daniel 12:2. They were put to open shame, 2 Timothy 3:12.

3) "And all the people rejoiced," (kai pas ho ochlos echairen) "And all the crowd (in the synagogue) that day rejoiced," in a synagogue whether on the southeastern border of Galilee or in Perea, Matthew 19:1-2.

4) "For all the glorious things that were done by him." (epi pasin tois endoksois tois ginomenois hup’ autou) "Over all the glorious things that had occurred by Him," by His miraculous deeds, Matthew 19:2; John 3:2; John 20:30-31.

Verse 18


1) "Then said he," (elegen oun) "Therefore he said,"

2) "Unto what is the kingdom of God like?" (tini homoia estin he basileia tou theou) "To what is the kingdom of God likened or compared," as also said, Matthew 13:31-32. The kingdom of God is here used to refer to the church that Jesus had established, referred to in the 7 kingdom parables, as recounted by Matthew, Matthew 13:1-58 as "the kingdom of heaven."

3) "And where unto shall I resemble it?" (kai tini homoioso auten) "And to what may I compare it or make to it a resemblance?" The first resemblance to a mustard seed is recounted by Matthew 13:31. The "kingdom of heaven", the church that was established to carry on the worship and service of the kingdom of God, in this age, also referred to as the "house" that Jesus built, Hebrews 3:3-6, was small, like a mustard seed, in comparison with other governments or kingdoms when Jesus first established it, by choosing, calling and sending His disciples to do His work, according to His commands or laws, John 15:16; John 15:27; John 20:21.

Note: A kingdom is made of four major things:

1) A King --- Jesus was a king, Matthew 2:1-5.

2) Subjects --- His baptized disciples were His subjects, Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 4:18-22.

3) Laws --- The things He commanded were His laws, John 14:15-16; John 14:27; John 20:21.

4) A territory -He gave a worldwide field for His kingdom of heaven subjects, in the church, for this age, Ephesians 3:21; Mark 16:15.

As a church institution it was minute, like a mustard seed in comparison with earthly kingdoms, yet our Lord chose, organized, or planted it, as His executive for this age, as cited above.

Verse 19

1) "It is like a grain of mustard seed,"(homoia estin kokko sinapeos) "It is similar to a grain of mustard," so small in size that it was commonly used as a proverbial comparison for anything exceedingly small, Matthew 13:31-32; Mark 4:31.

2) "Which a man took, and cast into his garden;" (hon labon anthropos elaben eis kepon heautou) "Which a man took and cast or sowed in his garden," or "field," as expressed Matthew 13:31, a place of planting for growth and reproduction. That man was Jesus Christ. The mustard seed is the church, as an institution, a mystery hidden from those of former ages, but now made known, Romans 16:25-26; Ephesians 3:3-10.

3) "And it grew, and waxed a great tree;" (kai euksesen kai egeneto eis dendron) "And it grew and came to be a tree," very large, exceedingly expansive in size, above what normally is expected of so small a seed. It sometimes grows to be from ten to twelve feet high, as high as a man on horseback, Matthew 13:32. It is durable to resist wind, storms, and the sun.

4) "And the fowls of the air," (kai ta petina tou ouranou) "And the birds of the heaven, the lower heaven," where the clouds float and the birds fly, Matthew 13:31. These birds, fowls, represent religious fowls that seek to find refuge in the branches of the Lord’s church under her cover, Matthew 7:15; Matthew 7:22-23.

5) "Lodged in the branches of it." (kateskenosen en tois kadois autou) "Lodged in its branches," came to light and roost among the limbs or branches, for shade, nesting, and shelter, Luke 9:58; Mark 4:32. They represent those who come to the church, only for the benefit they can get from it, in carnal ways. They creep or sneak in, unawares or deceitfully, Judges 1:4; 1 John 4:1-2; Acts 10:28; 2 Peter 2:1-3.

Verse 20


1) "And again he said," (kai palin eipen) "And again he said," as He continued an application of His teaching and the future ministry of His teaching body, the church, Matthew 28:18-20.

2) "Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God?" (tini homoioso ten basilelan tou theou) "To what may I liken or compare the kingdom of God?" This broad phrase, very general phrase," Kingdom of God,"’ embraces, includes, and specifically refers to what Matthew, and Matthew only, called "The Kingdom of heaven," more than 30 times, referring in every instance to that institutional body He chose, called, and commissioned as His church, His bride, the House of God, Matthew 16:18; John 3:18-19; Mark 13:33; Mark 13:35; 1 Timothy 3:15; Ephesians 3:21.

Verse 21

1) "It is like leaven," (homoia estin zume) "it is similar to leaven," or to be compared with leaven, as also referred to Matthew 13:33. Both the little mustard seed and the leaven refer to the influence of the church growth in the world.

2) "Which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal," (hen lablusa gune ekrupsen eis aleurou sata tria) "Which a woman, having received, then hid in three measures of meal," perhaps the amount needed for a substantial family meal, Genesis 18:6. The church, as the government of Jesus Christ, contrary to normal usage of the term leaven, is here pictured as bearing and sharing the bread of life, to and with the whole world, Ecclesiastes 11:1-6.

3) "Till the whole was leavened." (heos ou ezurmothe holon) "Until all the meal was leavened." Christ was that bread of life who was "leavened for us ... .. made sin for us," when He "bare our sins in His own body on the tree," 1 Peter 2:24; This He did that we might partake or eat of Him and live forever, John 6:51; John 6:58; John 11.

Verse 22


1) "And he went through the cities and villages," (kai dieporeueto kata poleis kai komas) "And he journeyed throughout cities and villages," of Perea on His last long journey to Jerusalem, and to Calvary, Isaiah 53:1-12.

2) "Teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem." "Teaching and journeying into Jerusalem," teaching, preaching, and healing, as His custom was, as He went, Luke 4:16-18; Matthew 9:35; Mark 6:6; Acts 10:38.

Verse 23

1) "Then said one unto him, Lord," (eipen de tis auto kurie) "Then someone said to him, Lord," or a certain one, perhaps a Jew along the way, based on Luke 13:28.

2) "Are there few that be saved?"(ei oligoi hoi sozomenoi) "Are there only a few who are saved?" who are delivered, liberated, or set free from the bondage of fear and sin, saved from eternal condemnation? Matthew 7:14; Matthew 20:16; Revelation 7:9.

3) "And he said unto them." (ho de ei pen pros autos) "Then he said directly to them," to the Jews, in response to their question, expressing His desire that they all be saved, 2 Peter 3:9; Matthew 11:28; John 6:37; Revelation 22:17.

Jesus did not give a direct answer to their question, but turned their attention to the kind of persons that will be saved, rather than the number, However Luke 13:29; Revelation 7:9 indicate that there will be many, even an innumerable number.

Verse 24

1) "Strive to enter in at the strait gate:" (agonizesthe eiselthen dia tes stenes thuras) "You all struggle to enter, of your own accord, through the strait or restricted door," the entrance, which is Jesus Christ, John 10:10, through whom only, men may enter to be saved, John 10:1; John 14:6; Acts 4:12; Romans 1:16.

2) "For many, I say unto you," (hoti polloi lego humin) "Because I tell you (that) many," great numbers, not just a few, Matthew 7:22-23.

3) "Will seek to enter in, and shall not be able." (zetesousin eiselthein kai ouk ischusousin) "Will seek to enter and will not be able," Matthew 7:13-14. Because they do not seek to enter in time, by the door, but try to climb up, ascend some other way, like thieves, robbers, and bandits, Matthew 16:24; Luke 9:23; Luke 14:33; 1 Peter 3:20, trying to be saved

By Religious ceremonies, is another way.

By Baptism, keeping the ordinances, etc., is another way.

By good works is another way.

And all who trust in these things, rather than Jesus Christ, are rebels against God and shall never be saved, in such efforts to enter heaven, John 8:24; Ephesians 2:8-10; Titus 3:5; Acts 4:12. The church is commissioned to point men to the strait or restricted way which is through faith in Jesus Christ, Acts 20:21; John 7:34; John 8:21; John 13:33; Romans 9:31; Romans 10:2-3.

Verse 25

1) "When once the master of the house is risen up," (aph’ ou an egerthe ho oikodespotes) "From the time when the house-master is risen," Psalms 32:6; Isaiah 55:6. The master of the house is Jesus Christ who built His house (the church) that was "Better than" the house that Moses built, (the structure of Jewish worship), Hebrews 3:1-6. After Jesus built His house, the church, 1 Timothy 3:15, He left His house with a program of worship and service, Mark 13:34-35.

2) "And hath shut to the door," (kai apokleise ten

thruan) "and shuts the doors;" The door is yet open to, all people, for salvation and service. But once He returns, as He said He would, Mark 13:34-35; John 14:1-3; Acts 1:10-11, the door will be totally shut to their own doom, Matthew 25:10.

3) "And ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying," (kai arksesthe ekso hestanai kai krouein ten thuran legontes) "And you all outside begin to stand and to knock, repeatedly, saying," begging, Proverbs 1:23-29; Psalms 32:6; Isaiah 55:6.

4) "Lord, Lord, open unto us;" (kurie, anoikson hemin) "Lord, Lord, open to us," Luke 6:46, or let us in, Proverbs 1:28; Matthew 25:11-13. It shall be an unavailing cry, a wail of despair, an inexcusable cry, to those who were called to salvation, but willfully waited too late, Proverbs 27:11; Proverbs 29:11; Hebrews 4:7.

5) "And he shall answer and say unto you," (kai apokritheis ere! humin) "And replying he will say to you all," From hell the rich man cried, but his cry was too late, Luke 16:19-31; At the horror hour of the Tribulation The Great many shall cry, too late, wanting to die, crying for rocks and mountains to fall on them, but after that the judgment, Revelation 6:17; Hebrews 9:27.

6) "I know you not whence ye are:" (ouk ioda humas pothen este) "I do not recognize you all, whence you are," Matthew 7:23; See Job 27:9; Job 35:12; Isaiah 1:15; Jeremiah 11:11; Jeremiah 14:12; Micah 3:4; Zechariah 7:13; James 4:3.

Verse 26

1) "Then shall ye begin to say," over and over, repeatedly, calling too late, without excuse, Proverbs 1:28-29; Romans 2:1.

2) "We have eaten and drunk in thy presence," (ephagonomen enopion sou kai epiomen) "We ate and drank in your presence," a very different thing from "eating and drinking with Him," as He fed the thousands, Matthew 14:13-21; Mark 6:32-44; Luke 9:10-17.

3) "And thou hast taught in our streets." (kai en tais plateiais hemon edidaksas) "And you taught in our streets," a thing He did not do, because the Word says "His voice was not heard in the streets," Matthew 12:19. They were seeking entrance on the basis of presumed earthly friendship, which they shall exaggerate, as a basis of ticket-entrance into the presence of the Lord, at His coming, See? Matthew 7:22; Titus 1:16.

Verse 27

1) "But he shall say, I tell you," (kai emei legon humin) "And he will say, explaining to you all," when He then sits as your judge, Acts 17:31; 2Ti 41; Psalms 5:4-5; Matthew 25:12; Matthew 25:41.

2)”I know you not whence ye are;" (ouk oida pothen, este) "I know not whence you all are," or recognize you not, as my children or servants, Matthew 7:23. You rejected me as your Savior all your life. It is too late to cry, to argue now. It is judgment hour, Proverbs 1:23-29; Proverbs 27:1; Proverbs 29:1; Hebrews 4:7.

3) "Depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity." (apostete ap’ emou pates ergatai adikias) "Stand off and away from me all you who are workers of unrighteousness," you who work hard at unrighteousness, as the Pharisees and scribes did, in your claims of rights to my table, on the basis of acquaintance, friendship, self-righteousness and religious ceremonies, Psalms 101:4; Psalms 101:8; Matthew 5:20; Romans 10:2-4.

Verse 28

1) "There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth," (ekei estai ho keauthmos kai ho brugnos ton odonton) "There will be (exist) weeping and gnashing of teeth," extreme anguish of soul, in your separation from me.

2) "When ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob," (hotan opsesthe Abraam kai Isaak kai lakob) "When you all see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob," who believed God, accepted His offered Son-sacrifice by faith, Romans 4:1-5. Note two things here: First, physical or kinship nearness to the church, or people of God, does not give one an entrance pass to heaven: And second, Jesus will himself judge, without mercy, those who despised and willfully rejected Him at His call on earth, Proverbs 1:22-29; Acts 17:31; 2 Timothy 4:1-2.

3) "And all the prophets in the kingdom of God," (kai pantas tous prophetas en te basileia tou theou) "And all the prophets in the kingdom of God," Here the phrase "kingdom of God is used by Luke to refer to the redeemed by faith, not as in the parables, when used restrictedly to refer to the church, as in the seven parables of Matthew 13:1-58.

4) "And you yourselves thrust out." (humas de ekballomenous ekso) "Yet you all will yourselves be thrust forcefully outside," and away, because you refused to enter by me, the door, and tried to climb up another way, as thieves and robbers, thugs and religious bandits, in anarchy against the true door or entrance way, John 1:11-12; John 10:1; John 10:10; John 14:6.

Verse 29

1) "And they shall come from the east, and from the west," (kai eksousin apo anatolon kai desmon) "And they will come from (the) east and from (the) west," wherever their bodies went down in death they shall be brought forth for this golden, earthly, millennial reign with Christ on earth, John 5:28-29.

2) "And from the north, and from the south," (kai apo borra kai notou) "And from north and from South," completing every directional dimension of the earth, wherever their bodies went down in death, when the hour that the master, the bridegroom shall come in the air, to be glorified in His saints, 2 Thessalonians 1:8-10.

3) "And shall sit down in the kingdom of God." (kai anaklithesontai en te basileia tou theou) "And they will recline (rest) in the kingdom of God," also referred to as the kingdom of Christ, when He shall sit on David’s throne, Luke 1:32-33; 1 Corinthians 15:24-28; Revelation 7:9-10; There is something better beyond death for all the redeemed. This appears to describe His coming to the earth to conclude The Tribulation The Great, when He comes "to be glorified in His saints," the church, "and to be admired in all them that believe," the saved of both Israel and from among the Gentiles, who are not of "the saints" the church, to whom He delivered "the faith," 2 Thessalonians 1:10; Judges 1:3.

Verse 30

1) "And, behold, there are last which shall be first," (kai idou eisin eschatoi hoi esontai protoi) "And behold there are (or now exist) those who are first (in priority) among men, who will be last," Matthew 20:16, in that millennial hour. The church shall be first in priority of honor and service, not Israel in that hour, when the twelve apostles and those of His church shall reign with Him, sitting on specific thrones of glory and service, Luke 22:30; Revelation 5:9-11.

2) "And there are first which shall be last." (kai eisin protoi hoi esontai eschatoi) "And there exist last ones now who will be first ones in priority then." And Israel who was "first," in priority of position of service, till Jesus came and they rejected Him, shall then be last; As they who exalt themselves shall be abased, brought low, Luke 18:14; Matthew 19:30; Matthew 21:31-32; Romans 9:30-33; Mark 10:31.

Verse 31

1) "The same day there came," (en aute te hora proselthan) "in the same hour there approached," came directly, in that hour, with intent, purpose, and design.

2) "Certain of the Pharisees, saying unto him," (tines Pharisaioi legontes auto) "Certain Pharisees, repeatedly saying to him," scolding, deriding, and advising Him, with hate in their hearts, but in an effort to pass the buck, or fix the blame of predicted harm to Him on others.

3) "Get thee out, and depart hence:" (ekselthe kai poreuou enteuthen) "You get out and away from this area," where you have talked like this: "Push away, if you care for your life and safety," He was on His way out of Perea, Herod’s dominion, going on toward Jerusalem, Luke 13:22.

4) "For Herod will kill thee." (hoti Herodes thelei se apokteinai) "Because Herod wishes (above all else) or desires to kill or liquidate you," haunted by fears, Mark 6:14, to wipe you out, but not as much as they themselves did, Matthew 14:1. It is likely that they themselves had induced Herod to bring such a message of death to Him, Matthew 16:21; Matthew 17:12; Matthew 17:23; Matthew 10:17-19; Matthew 21:45-46.

Verse 32

1) "And he said unto them," (kai eipen autois) "And he replied to them," the rejecting Jews, those who brought Him a death report, purportedly from Herod.

2) "Go ye, and tell that fox," (poreuthentes eipate te alopeke taute) "You all go, and tell this fox," this clever and cunning man-killer, this liquidator, of imaginary enemies, this king you all have incited, about me, Psalms 2:1-3.

3) "Behold, I cast out devils," (idou ekballo diamonia) "Observe that I cast out and away demons," from deranged men and make them emotionally sound, as I did: 1) the daughter of the Syrophenician woman, 2) Mary Magdalene, and, 3) The demon man of Gadara.

4) "And I do cures to day and to morrow," (kai easels apotelo semeron kai aurion) "And that I complete or accomplish cures (for the physically ill) today and tomorrow," of those physically ailing or ill and afflicted, I will continue to cure by miraculous powers, John 20:30-31, as I have for near three years, John 2:11; Mark 2:5-11; John 3:2; Matthew 8:2-3; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 9:35.

5) "And the third day I shall be perfected." (kai te trite teleioumai) "And on the third day I am finished," on earth, John 17:4-5; John 19:30; Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 5:8-9. He would complete this work among them in Perea in three days then go on to Jerusalem for His final hours of earthly life.

Verse 33

1) "Nevertheless I must walk to day, and to morrow," (plen dei me semeron kai aution poreuesthai) "However I must journey on today and tomorrow," in pursuit of completing His Father’s will, John 4:34; John 5:30; John 6:38; Psalms 40:7; Matthew 26:39.

2) "And the day following:" (kai te echomene) "And also on the day following," on the third day into Jerusalem. He was now pressing on to complete His ministry in a few days, Luke 22:34.

3) "For it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem." (hot! ouk endechetai propheten apolesthai ekso lerousalem) "Because it is not possible (can not be) that a prophet is to perish outside of and away from Jerusalem," or the Jerusalem area, center of the Divinely Sanctioned place of Hebrew Law worship. For it was there the Jews had slain their own prophets. The statement is one of irony. For He too was to die, like most of the prophets slain before Him, in Jerusalem, the slaughter-house of prophets, Matthew 23:37-38.

Verse 34


1) "0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killed the prophets," (lerousalem he apokteinousa tous prophetas) "0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one repeatedly killing the prophets," Matthew 23:37. Jerusalem was both the mother and altar or slaughter house of saints of Israel.

2) "And stonest them that are sent unto thee;" (kai lithobolousa tous apestalmenous pros auten) "And stoning those who have been commissioned directly to her," Matthew 23:37. She stoned them as if they were capital criminals.

3) "How often would I have gathered thy children together," (posakis ethelema episunaksai ta tekna sou) "How often (frequently) I have longed to gather your children together," in an affinity of oneness, those of Israel who went there for Passover, annual atonement, and special feast days and to make sacrifices, Matthew 23:37; In another place Luke reports that He wept, Luke 19:41-44,

4) "As a hen doth gather her brood under her wings," (hon tropon ornis ten heatues nossian hupo tas pterugas) "Much as a bird gathers her brood under her own wings," for shelter from heat and cold and protection from predators. It is much as God’s mercy and care is expressed in His care for His own, as an eagle covers her nest and young, Deuteronomy 32:11-12.

5) "And ye would not!" (kai ouk ethelesate) "And you all would not," be so gathered; You had no primary will or concern to be under my protection. This points up man’s freedom of choice to rebel against God, his creator and daily sustainer of life. This is known as the free-moral -agency of man, his ability or capacity to choose right or wrong, belief or unbelief, without regards to the will and purpose of God, Matthew 11:28-30; Matthew 23:37 d; John 10:30.


A young lady was so strongly moved under the preaching of the Gospel that she often wept. Her pastor watched her with interest, hoping to see her brought to Christ. After a time, not seeing her at church, he inquired concerning her of her mother. That lady was a widow, and she replied weeping, "Ah, sir, I fear my daughter has met with companions who are leading her sadly astray." The pastor did his best to restore the girl to right paths. His efforts were vain. She had given her heart to folly, and would no longer listen to the voice of duty. But her sinful pleasures could not guard her against the assault of death. Not many weeks elapsed before this young woman, while busy over her sewing, suddenly dropped her needle and exclaimed: "Oh, I am dying!" The inmates of the house placed her on the bed. Looking wildly about her, she said, "I see heaven and hell before me; I can’t get to heaven, for HELL IS IN THE WAY!" These were her last words. Terrible words, were they not? But would not the same words be applicable to you, 0 impenitent sinner, if you were on your death-bed?

Verse 35

1) "Behold, your house is left unto you desolate:" (idou aphietai humin ho oikos humon) "Behold, (or take note) your house," order of worship which Moses built, "given over, left, or abandoned to you all," never to have God’s blessings, sanction, presence, or the Shekinah light within, or upon it any more. Divine Glory had departed from it, Ezekiel 10:18; Ezekiel 11:23.

2) "And verily I say unto you," (lego de humin) "Moreover I tell you all," who have willfully chosen to reject me, as individuals and as a race of Jewish people.

3) "Ye shall not see me," (ou me edete me) "You all may see or perceive me no more," as you have in the past, in my Shekinah Glory or presence, or recognize my presence with you all any more, because of Judicial blindness.

4) "Until the time come when ye shall say," (heos heksei hote eipete) "Until the time when you all shall say," again, as in olden days, when you walked by the law and the prophets, Matthew 23:39; Luke 1:31-33; 1 Corinthians 15:24.

5) "Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord." (eulogemenos ho erchomenos en onomati kuriou) "Blessed is (exists) that one who comes in the name of the Lord," at the end of The Tribulation The Great, Psalms 118:26; Deuteronomy 30:3; Acts 1:9-11.

For He will come "to be glorified in the saints," (His church) and "admired of all them that believe," 2 Thessalonians 1:10; even those who too are "Called to the marriage of the Lamb," Revelation 19:9.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Luke 13". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/luke-13.html. 1985.
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