Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Luke 13:16

And this woman, a daughter of Abraham as she is, whom Satan has bound for eighteen long years, should she not have been released from this bond on the Sabbath day?"
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Abraham;   Hypocrisy;   Jesus, the Christ;   Miracles;   Sabbath;   Satan;   Scofield Reference Index - Parables;   Thompson Chain Reference - Adversary;   Defender of the Weak;   Satan;   Satan's;   Satan-Evil Spirits;   Serpent;   Tempter;   Weak;   Work, Satan's;   The Topic Concordance - Sabbath;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Diseases;   Sickness;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Diseases;   Satan;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Freedom;   Sabbath;   Satan;   Suffering;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Anthropomorphism;   Demon;   Drink;   Heal, Health;   Miracle;   Satan;   Sexuality, Human;   Synagogue;   Woman;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Sabbath;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Devil;   Paul;   Satan;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Bond;   Demon Possession;   Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic;   Devil;   Luke, Gospel of;   Sabbath;   Synagogue;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Evil;   Exorcism;   Law;   Matthew, Gospel According to;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Abraham;   Authority in Religion;   Character;   Chastisement;   Claim;   Commandments;   Common Life;   Cures;   Daughter ;   Demon;   Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs;   Devil ;   Discourse;   Disease;   Dropsy;   God (2);   Impotence;   Israel, Israelite;   Mental Characteristics;   Mission;   Palestine;   Personality;   Reality;   Rebuke;   Sabbath ;   Satan (2);   Sin (2);   Son, Sonship;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Miracles;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chief parables and miracles in the bible;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Sabbath;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Bonds;   Daughter;   Loose;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Affliction;   Crook-Backed;   Daughter;   Jesus Christ (Part 2 of 2);   Sabbath;   Satan;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Jesus of Nazareth;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

A daughter of Abraham - A descendant of Abraham. See the notes at Matthew 1:1. She was therefore a Jewess; and the ruler of the synagogue, professing a special regard for the Jewish people, considering them as especially favored of God, should have rejoiced that she was loosed from this infirmity.

Whom Satan hath bound - Satan is the name given to the prince or leader of evil spirits, called also the devil, Beelzebub, and the old serpent, Matthew 12:24; Revelation 12:9; Revelation 20:2. By his “binding” her is meant that he had inflicted this disease upon her. It was not properly a “possession” of the devil, for that commonly produced derangement; but God had suffered him to afflict her in this manner, similar to the way in which he was permitted to try Job. See the notes at Job 1:12; Job 2:6-7. It is no more “improbable” that God would suffer “Satan” to inflict pain, than that he would suffer a wicked “man” to do it; yet nothing is more common than for one “man” to be the occasion of bringing on a disease in another which may terminate only with the life. He that seduces a virtuous man and leads him to intemperance, or he that wounds him or strikes him, may disable him as much as Satan did this woman. If God permits it in one case, he may, for the same reason, in another.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/luke-13.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound, lo, these eighteen years, to have been loosed from this bond on the day of the sabbath?

Daughter of Abraham ... These words forbid any imputation of gross sin and immorality to the woman Jesus healed, but at the same time they deepen the mystery of how Satan had bound one of the true spiritual seed of Abraham. However it was, Jesus had the power to heal her. The contrast is vivid. The sinful rulers of the synagogue loosed an ass on the sabbath; Jesus loosed this precious woman. As Ash noted:

His critics would allow more for an animal than for this woman. Was it more important to loose an animal or to loose a person (note the parallel between UNTIE and LOOSED)? Jesus made his case more vivid by calling the woman a daughter of Abraham and by noting how long she had been afflicted.[16]

ENDNOTE:

[16] Anthony Lee Ash, The Gospel according to Luke (Austin, Texas: Sweet Publishing Company, 1972), p. 51.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/luke-13.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham,.... Not only a woman, or rational creature, and much preferable, as such, to an irrational one; but a descendant of Abraham, of whom the Jews gloried, and in descent from him prided themselves, and trusted; and chose to call their women by this nameF23T. Bab. Cetubot, fol. 72. 2. Tzeror Hammor, fol. 109. 1. , which gave them a character above others: and who, besides all this, was doubtless a good woman, a spiritual worshipper of the God of Israel; who, in a spiritual sense, was a daughter of Abraham, that walked in the steps of his faith, and was now a believer in Christ, and appeared to be a chosen vessel of salvation:

whom Satan hath bound, lo these eighteen years; with a bodily distemper that none could loose her from in so long a time. The Persic version, very wrongly, reads "twelve years"; though in Luke 13:11 it observes the right number.

Should not such an one be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day? the force of Christ's reasoning is this, that if it was lawful, on a sabbath day, to lead out a beast to watering, to quench its thirst, that so it may not suffer so much as one day for want of water, how much more reasonable must it be, that a rational creature, one of Abraham's posterity, and a religious person, who had been for eighteen years under a sore affliction, through the power of Satan over her, by divine permission, should be freed from so long and sore an affliction on the sabbath day? if mercy is to be shown to beasts, much more to men and women.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/luke-13.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

ought not, etc. — How gloriously the Lord vindicates the superior claims of this woman, in consideration of the sadness and long duration of her suffering, and of her dignity notwithstanding, as an heir of the promise!

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/luke-13.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Daughter of Abraham (τυγατερα Αβρααμthugatera Abraam). Triple argument, human being and not an ox or ass, woman, daughter of Abraham (Jewess), besides being old and ill.

Ought not (ουκ εδειouk edei). Imperfect active. Of necessity. Jesus simply had to heal her even if on the sabbath.

Whom Satan bound (ην εδησεν ο Σαταναςhēn edēsen ho Satanas). Definite statement that her disease was due to Satan.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-13.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Satan

“True to its principle of contrast, this book gives Satan a prominent position” (Abbot). See Luke 4:13; Luke 10:18; Luke 22:3, Luke 22:31. See Introduction.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/luke-13.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?

And ought not this woman? — Ought not any human creature, which is so far better than an ox or an ass? Much more, this daughter of Abraham - probably in a spiritual as well as natural sense, to be loosed?

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/luke-13.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham2, whom Satan had bound, lo, [these] eighteen years3, to have been loosed from this bond on the day of the sabbath?

  1. And ought not this woman . . . to have been loosed from this bond on the day of the sabbath? Taking their own conduct on the Sabbath day as the basis for his justification, Jesus presents three contrasts, each of which made his action better than theirs: (1) He had blessed the woman instead of an ox. (2) He had loosed from a disease instead of from a comfortable stall. (3) He had relieved a waiting of eighteen years' standing instead of one of some few hours' duration--the brief time since the watering of the morning.

  2. Being a daughter of Abraham. He mentions the woman's descent from Abraham because, according to their ideas, it made her worthy of every consideration.

  3. Whom Satan had bound, lo, [these] eighteen years. In attributing the infirmity to Satan he acknowledges the action of the demon as Satan's agent. Disease were not infrequently ascribed to Satan and the demons (Acts 10:38; 2 Corinthians 12:7).

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/luke-13.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?

Ver. 16. Whom Satan hath bound] So he held Job in captivity, Job 42:10, by afflicting his body, buffeting his soul for a year together, say the Hebrews; for seven years, saith Suidas.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-13.html. 1865-1868.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

16.] The contrast is strongly drawn—between a dumb animal, and (not merely a human creature, but) a daughter of Abraham—one of the chosen people (I cannot see any necessity for a spiritual daughtership (Galatians 3:7) being here implied),—between a few hours, since the last watering, and ‘lo these eighteen years’ (compare Luke 13:7, ἰδοὺ τρ. ἔτ.)

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/luke-13.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Luke 13:16. θυγατέρα ἀβραὰμ, a daughter of Abraham) not merely a daughter of Adam. There is a strong antithesis to the beast of burden (the ox or the ass). Christ brought salvation to all the children of Abraham: they who remained without share in it had themselves to blame. Comp. as to Zaccheus, ch. Luke 19:9.— ἰδοὺ δέκα καὶ ὀκτὼ ἔτη eighteen years ago. The nominative. So the LXX. according to the Aldine copy, in Joshua 1:11, ἔτι τρεῖς ἡμέραι ὑμεῖς διαβήσεσθε [Al. καὶδιαβαίνετε]. A specimen of the omniscience of Jesus Christ: The Lord knew all about the cause of the disease, and its duration, which seems not to have been made known to Him previously by any outward means of information. זה ἰδου τεσσαράκοντα ἔτη, Deuteronomy 8:4.— οὐκ ἔδει, ought not, was it not fitting?) The argument holds good, both when drawn from the daily necessary wants of the beast, Luke 13:15, and also when drawn from any sudden danger into which it may fall, ch. Luke 14:5. Nor is it permitted one to make the objection: “But the human being, who has been sick for so many years, may wait some few hours until the end of the Sabbath;” for not even in the case of the beast is the case one of the extremest necessity, and yet help is given to the beast; and in the case of a human being’s affliction, where there is the opportunity of getting or giving aid, even an hour is of great importance, when first the patient and the physician meet one another.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/luke-13.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

See Poole on "Luke 13:15"

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 13:16". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/luke-13.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

дочь Авраамову Она была иудейкой.

которую связал сатана Физические болезни и другие беды Иова также были, с Божьего позволения, причинены сатаной. Несомненно, этой женщине должно было страдать не вследствие какого-то совершенного ею греха, но с тем, чтобы через ее исцеление могла проявиться слава Божья (ср. Ин. 9:3).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/luke-13.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

A daughter of Abraham; a descendant of Abraham and possessing his faith.

Whom Satan hath bound-loosed; the allusion is to the loosing of an animal from the stall, verse Luke 13:15. Satan has bound down this woman as an ox or ass is bound to the stall. Jesus Christ delights to bless those who habitually attend public worship. Though Satan may have bound them in chains of sin for many years, Christ is able and willing to deliver them. He often shows this on the Sabbath in the house of God.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/luke-13.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

“And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound, lo, these eighteen years, to have been loosed from this bond on the day of the sabbath?”

So if they were willing to loose domestic animals on the Sabbath day so as to water them (not a life threatening condition as other provision could have been made), why did they cavil at Jesus for loosing from her tether a woman who had been bound for eighteen years, who was of far greater worth than a domestic animal as she was a daughter of Abraham (a full Jewess)?

‘Daughter of Abraham’ may well indicate that He was asserting that she was a godly woman, something that some may have doubted because of her condition. See Luke 3:8 where children of Abraham signifies those who claim to be in the right with God. Was it not right then to also loose her on the Sabbath?

‘Eighteen years’. This was three times six. Possibly He was saying that they should recognise that she had completed not just ‘six days’ but six years, three times over, and had not been loosed on any of them, because they were unable to loose her, and thus it was right that at last she be loosed by God on the ‘seventh’ day, the Sabbath, on a day when God was at work.

‘Loosed.’ Compare Luke 4:18. This example was probably chosen to be the centrepiece of this section in which the word of deliverance and the Kingly Rule of God is in mind precisely because it illustrated so well Jesus’ commission to ‘loose the captives’ and to ‘loose those who are oppressed’.

It should be noted that Jesus does not just defend His healing on the Sabbath, but seems to suggest that it was right that it happen on the Sabbath. This might be seen as confirming that to Him the Sabbath pointed forward to the ‘rest’ of the people of God into which He wanted all to enter. It was thus the most suitable day for healing and revealing the compassion of God. After all Satan had still been at work in the woman on the Sabbath day. Was he then to have it as his sole preserve?

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/luke-13.html. 2013.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Luke 13:16. And ought not. They were ‘hypocrites,’ because they perceived the necessity in the case of the beast, but heartlessly denied it in the case of the poor woman. The contrast is marked. In the one case a dumb animal, in the other a woman, who was moreover a daughter of Abraham, one of the covenant people of God, the God of the Sabbath. The reference to her being a spiritual daughter of Abraham is not at all certain. The animal is represented as bound by a master aware of its necessities, this woman was bound by Satan. Ordinary infirmity would scarcely be thus described; some kind of possession is asserted by our Lord. In the case of the animal but a few hours would have passed since the last watering the woman had been bound for eighteen years.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/luke-13.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Luke 13:16. The case of the woman described so as to suggest a parallel and contrast: a daughter of Abraham versus an ox or ass; bound by Satan, not merely by a chain round the neck; for eighteen years, not for a few hours. The contrast the basis of a strong a fortiori argument. The reply is thoroughly in the spirit of Jesus, and the whole incident, though peculiar to Lk., is a credible reminiscence of His ministry; whether placed in its true historical setting is a matter of minor moment.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/luke-13.html. 1897-1910.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

ought. The same word as the ruler"s, but as an Interrogative. The former was based on ceremonial law; the Lord"s, on the necessity of Divine love.

daughter. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6. for descendant.

lo. Greek. idou. App-133. Same as Behold, Luke 13:7.

bond. See note on Mark 7:35.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/luke-13.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?

And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham - that is, not after the flesh, or a Jewess, which would be a poor view of His meaning; but in spirit (compare Luke 19:9, and 1 Peter 3:6).

Whom Satan hath bound. Probably there is nothing more intended by this expression than a strong contrast between the exalted character of the woman, and the suffering of which the dark author of all evil had so long made her the victim.

Lo, these eighteen years. The "behold" here calling attention to the long duration of her malady is not to be overlooked; attesting, as it does, the lively sensibility to human suffering of our great High Priest.

Be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day? How gloriously the Lord vindicates the superior claims of this woman, in consideration of the sadness and long duration of her suffering, and of her dignity notwithstanding, as an heir of the promise!

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/luke-13.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(16) Whom Satan hath bound.—The words imply the belief that there was another source than mere bodily disease for the infirmity—in part, at least, the belief that all disease—or very many forms of it—is directly or indirectly traceable to the power of the Enemy. So St. Paul’s “thorn in the flesh”—assuming it to be some sharp bodily suffering—is “the messenger of Satan.” (See Note on 2 Corinthians 12:7.)

It is obvious that this narrative would have for one like St. Luke a special interest over and above that which like narratives had for the other Evangelists. We can scarcely fail to think of the “beloved physician” as practising his art for the good of men, his brothers, on the Sabbath, as on other days. In doing so he would doubtless be met, on the part of Jews and Judaisers, with words like those of the ruler of the synagogue, “There are six days on which men ought to work; do thy work of healing on them.” For such a one it would be a comfort unspeakable to be able to point to our Lord’s words and acts as sanctioning his own practice.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/luke-13.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?
being
3:8; 16:24; 19:9; Acts 13:26; Romans 4:12-16
whom
11; John 8:44; 2 Timothy 2:26
be loosed
12; Mark 2:27
Reciprocal: Psalm 41:8 - An evil disease;  Mark 2:28 - GeneralMark 9:21 - How;  Luke 8:43 - twelve;  John 5:5 - thirty;  Acts 9:33 - which;  2 Corinthians 12:7 - the messenger;  Revelation 12:9 - and Satan

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Luke 13:16". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/luke-13.html.