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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Luke 19:43

"For the days will come upon you when your enemies will throw up a barricade against you, and surround you and hem you in on every side,

Adam Clarke Commentary

Cast a trench about thee - This was literally fulfilled when this city was besieged by Titus. Josephus gives a very particular account of the building of this wall, which he says was effected in three days, though it was not less than thirty-nine furlongs in circumference; and that, when this wall and trench were completed, the Jews were so enclosed on every side that no person could escape out of the city, and no provision could be brought in, so that they were reduced to the most terrible distress by the famine which ensued. The whole account is well worth the reader's attention. See Josephus, War, book v. chap. xxii. sec. 1, 2, 3.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/luke-19.html. 1832.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

For the days shall come upon thee,.... Suddenly, and very quickly, as they did within forty years after this:

that thine enemies; the Romans, and such the Jews took them to be, and might easily understand who our Lord meant:

shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side: which was not only verified in the Roman armies closely besieging them; but particularly in this, as Josephus relatesF20De Bello Jud. l. 6. c. 8. that Titus built a wall about the city, of thirty nine furlongs long, and thirteen forts in it which reached ten furlongs, and all done in three days time; by which means they were pent up, starved, and famished, and reduced to inexpressible distress.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/luke-19.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

a trench — a rampart; first of wood, and when this was burnt, a built wall, four miles in circuit, built in three days - so determined were they. This “cut off all hope of escape,” and consigned the city to unparalleled horrors. (See Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 6.2; 12.3,4.) All here predicted was with dreadful literally fulfilled.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/luke-19.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Shall cast up a bank (παρεμβαλουσιν χαρακαparembalousin charaka). Future active indicative of παρεμβαλλωparemballō a double compound (παρα εν βαλλωpara χαρακαen χαραχballō) of long usage, finally in a military sense of line of battle or in camp. Here alone in the N.T. So also the word περικυκλωσουσιν σεcharaka (κυκλοςcharax) for bank, stake, palisade, rampart, is here alone in the N.T., though common enough in the old Greek.

Compass thee round (περιperikuklōsousin se). Future active indicative. Another common compound to make a circle (συνεχουσιν σεkuklos) around (παντοτενperi), though here only in the N.T.

Keep thee in (συνεχωsunexousin se). Shall hold thee together on every side (pantothen). See about sunechō on Luke 4:38.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

A trench ( χάρακα )

Rev., correctly, as Tynd., a bank. Only here in New Testament. The word literally means a pointed stake, used in fortifying the intrenchments of a camp, and thence the palisade itself. In fortifying a camp or besieging a city, a ditch was dug round the entire circuit, and the earth from it thrown up into a wall, upon which sharp stakes were fixed. Every Roman soldier carried three or four of these stakes on the march. Wyc., with pale.

Keep thee in ( συνέξουσιν )

See on Luke 4:38.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/luke-19.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,

Thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee around — All this was exactly performed by Titus, the Roman general.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/luke-19.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

For the days shall come upon thee, when thine enemies shall cast up a bank about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side1,

  1. Thine enemies shall cast up a bank about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side. From where Jesus then stood he could see the houses which were to be thrown down, he could locate the embankments which would be built, and he could trace almost every foot of the line of the wall by which Titus in his anger girdled the city when his embankments were burned (Josephus, Wars 5:6.2,11.4-6,12:1,2).


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.

Bibliography
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "The Fourfold Gospel". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/luke-19.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

43.For the days shall come upon thee. He now assumes, as it were, the character of a judge, and addresses Jerusalem with greater severity. In like manner the prophets also, though they shed tears over the destruction of those about whom they ought to feel anxiety, yet they summon up courage to pronounce severe threatenings, because they know that not only are they commanded to watch over the salvation of men, but that they have also been appointed to be the heralds of the judgment of God. Under these terms Jesus declares that Jerusalem will suffer dreadful punishment, because she did not know the time of her visitation; that is, because she despised the Redeemer who had been exhibited to her, and did not embrace his grace. Let the fearful nature of the punishments which she endured now alarm us, that we may not, by our carelessness, extinguish the light of salvation, but may be careful to receive the grace of God, and may even run with rigor to meet it.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/luke-19.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

43 For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,

Ver. 43. For the days shall come] God hath his days for vengeance, as man hath his day for repentance. There is a prime of every man’s life and of every man’s ministry. The Levite lingered so long that he lost his concubine, she came short home; so doth many a man’s soul for like reason.

Shall cast a trench about thee] Because, like the wild ass, thou wouldest not otherwise be tamed and kept within compass of God’s commandments.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-19.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Luke 19:43. Shall cast a trench about thee, Jesus here foretold particularly the principal circumstances of the siege of Jerusalem, and with his prophesy the event corresponded most exactly; for when Titus attacked the city, the Jews defended themselves so obstinately, that he found there was no way to gain his purpose, but to encompass the city with a fence and a mound. By this means he kept the besieged in on every side, cut off from them all hope of safety by flight, and consumed them by famine. The work which he undertook was indeed a matter of extreme difficulty; for the wall measured thirty-nine furlongs, or almost five miles; nevertheless, the whole was finished in three days; for, to use the expression of Josephus, "the soldiers, in performing this work, were animated by a divine impulse."See his Jewish War, book 6: chap. 13 and for the other circumstances, the notes on Matthew 24.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/luke-19.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Here we have a prophetical prediction of the total and final destruction of the city of Jerusalem by the Roman armies, who begirt the city round, burnt the temple, starved the people, and brought such ruin and destruction upon the place, as no history could ever parallel: the reason is assigned, because they knew not the time of their visitation; that is, the time when God visited them with his gospel, first by the ministry of John, then by the preaching of Christ himself, and afterwards by his disciples and apostles.

Hence learn,

1. That when God gives his gospel to a people, he gives that people a merciful and a gracious visitation.

2. That for a people not to know, but to neglect the time of their gracious visitation, is a God-provoking, and a wrath-procuring sin: Because thou knowest not the time of thy visitation, therefore the time shall come, that thine enemies shall lay thee even with the ground, and not leave one stone upon another; which, history tells us, was literally fulfilled, when Turnus Rufus, with his plough, ploughed up the very foundation stones upon which the temple stood. Lord, how has sin laid the foundation of ruin in the most flourishing cities and kingdoms! Here we have a prophetical prediction of the total and final destruction of the city of Jerusalem by the Roman armies, who begirt the city round, burnt the temple, starved the people, and brought such ruin and destruction upon the place, as no history could ever parallel: the reason is assigned, because they knew not the time of their visitation; that is, the time when God visited them with his gospel, first by the ministry of John, then by the preaching of Christ himself, and afterwards by his disciples and apostles.

Hence learn,

1. That when God gives his gospel to a people, he gives that people a merciful and a gracious visitation.

2. That for a people not to know, but to neglect the time of their gracious visitation, is a God-provoking, and a wrath-procuring sin: Because thou knowest not the time of thy visitation, therefore the time shall come, that thine enemies shall lay thee even with the ground, and not leave one stone upon another; which, history tells us, was literally fulfilled, when Turnus Rufus, with his plough, ploughed up the very foundation stones upon which the temple stood. Lord, how has sin laid the foundation of ruin in the most flourishing cities and kingdoms!


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Bibliography
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/luke-19.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

43.] ὅτι declares, not ‘the things hidden from thine eyes,’ so that it should be rendered, ‘namely, that the days shall come,’ &c.: but the awful reason which there was for the fervent wish just expressed—for, or because.

χάρακα, a mound with palisades. The account of its being built is in Jos. B. J. ver. 6. 2. When the Jews destroyed this, Titus built a wall round them (ib. 12. 2),—see Isaiah 29:2-4,—to which our Lord here tacitly refers.


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Bibliography
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/luke-19.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Luke 19:43. ἡμέραι) days, which shall be many: because thou dost not regard the one day. See Luke 19:42.— καὶ, καὶ, καὶ, and, and, and) Three degrees of the straits to which they would be reduced.— συνέξουσι, keep thee in, press hard upon) Titus built a wall round the city, and thereby precluded the possibility of egress.


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/luke-19.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Ver. 43,44. It is a plain prophecy of the final destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman armies, which came to pass within less than forty years after. The cause of that dreadful judgment is assigned,

because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation. God’s visitations are either of wrath or mercy; of wrath, Exodus 32:34 Leviticus 26:16 Jeremiah 15:3; of mercy, Jeremiah 29:10. It is plain that our Saviour useth the term here in the latter, not the former sense; and that by God’s visitation of this people here, is meant his visiting them with his prophets, by John the Baptist, and by himself. Their not knowing of it (here intended) was their not making use of it, not receiving and embracing the gospel. The contempt of the gospel is the great, cause of all those miseries which come upon people in this life, or shall come upon them in that life which is to come.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 19:43". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/luke-19.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Thine enemies; the Romans.

Compass thee round; this they did by digging a trench around Jerusalem. See Josephus, Jewish Wars, book 6.


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Bibliography
Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Family Bible New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/luke-19.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

43. ἡμέραι. Often used of troublous times, like the Latin tempora.

περιβαλοῦσινχάρακά σοι. ‘Shall surround thee with a palisade,’ Isaiah 29:3-4; Isaiah 37:33, LXX[336] χάραξ in Polybius means a palisaded mound. Literally fulfilled forty years afterwards at the siege of Jerusalem, when Titus surrounded the city first with a palisaded mound (vallum and agger), and then with a wall of masonry. Hence the ‘pale’ of Wyclif and the ‘mound’ of Tyndale were better than the ‘trench’ of the A.V[337], Genevan, and Rhemish. The Jews in one of their furious sorties destroyed this χάραξ, and then Titus built the wall.

συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν. The blockade established was so terribly rigid that myriads of the Jews perished of starvation.


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Bibliography
"Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/luke-19.html. 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

43. The days shall come—We have here one of the most striking predictions ever uttered.

A trench—A ridge or low wall of earthworks, flung up from a ditch made by the excavation.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/luke-19.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Luke 19:43. For. This introduces a prophetic proof that these things were hidden; and is also ‘the awful reason for the fervent wish just expressed’ (Alford). Because our Lord knew that the judgment was inevitable, He voices His sorrow not only in loud weeping but in this pathetic unavailing wish.

Days shall come upon thee. There is a day of decision, but days of retribution. Comp. the discourse uttered two days afterwards (chap. Luke 21:7, etc.), and near the same spot (see on Matthew 24:3). From this very quarter these things came upon the city. The first Roman camp was pitched on this slope of the Mount of Olives.

Shall throw an embankment about thee. A palisaded mound is meant, and according to Josephus, this was the first regular operation in the siege under Titus.

And com-pass thee round, etc. This indicates a different and subsequent act. After the Jews burned the palisades, Titus erected a wall, which hemmed in the city. Hence the famine.


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Bibliography
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/luke-19.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Luke 19:43. ὅτι, for, because, introducing a prophetic picture of coming ruin, either to explain the εἰ ἔγνως = what you would have escaped had you but known; or to substantiate the assertion of judicial blindness = no hope of your seeing now; your fate sealed; judgment days will surely come ( ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι). Then follows an awful picture of these judgment days in a series of clauses connected by a fivefold καὶ, the first being = when. The description recalls Isaiah 29:3 so closely that the use of such definite phrases before the event is quite conceivable, although many critics think the prophecy so certainly ex eventu as to use it for fixing the date of the Gospel.— χάρακα, a palisade (here only in N.T.). Titus did erect a palisaded mound around Jerusalem, and, after it was destroyed by the Jews in a sortie, he built a wall.


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Bibliography
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/luke-19.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

And compass thee, &c. Christ's prophecy is a literal description of what happened to Jerusalem, under Titus. (Witham)


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/luke-19.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

the days = days.

trench = rampart. Greek charax. Occurs only here. Compare Isaiah 29:3, Isaiah 29:4; Isaiah 37:33.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/luke-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,

For the days shall come, [ hoti (G3754) heexousin (G2240) heemerai (G2250), 'For there shall come days'] upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee , [ charaka (Greek #5482)] - rather a palisaded 'rampart.' The word signifies any 'pointed stake;' but here it denotes the Roman military vallum, a mound or rampart with palisades. In the present case, as we learn from Josephus, it was made first of wood; and when this was burnt, a wall of four miles' circuit was built in three days-so determined were the besiegers. This 'cut off all hope of escape,' and consigned the city to unparalleled horrors. (Josephus, Jewish Wars, 5: 6. 2; and 12: 3. 4.)

And compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/luke-19.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(43) The days shall come upon thee. We again come upon a cluster of words peculiar, as far as the New Testament is concerned, to St. Luke, and belonging to the higher forms of historical composition.

Shall cast a trench about thee.—The Greek substantive means primarily a stake, then the “stockade” or “palisade” by which the camp of a besieging army was defended, then the earth-work upon which the stockade was fixed. In the latter case, of course, a trench was implied, but the word meant the embankment rather than the excavation. The better MSS. give for “cast” a verb which more distinctly conveys the idea of an encampment.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/luke-19.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,
the days
21:20-24; Deuteronomy 28:49-58; Psalms 37:12,13; Daniel 9:26,27; Matthew 22:7; 23:37-39; Mark 13:14-20; 1 Thessalonians 2:15,16
cast
Or, "cast a bank" or rampart [ ()] This was literally fulfilled when Jerusalem was besieged by Titus; who surrounded it with a wall of circumvallation in three days, though not less than 39 furlongs in circumference; and when this was effected, the Jews were so enclosed on every side, that no person could escape from the city, and no provision could be brought in.
Isaiah 29:1-4; Jeremiah 6:3-6

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Luke 19:43". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/luke-19.html.

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