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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 1:13

and in the middle of the lampstands I saw one like a son of man, clothed in a robe reaching to the feet, and girded across His chest with a golden sash.

Adam Clarke Commentary

Like unto the Son of man - This seems a reference to Daniel 7:13. This was our blessed Lord himself, Revelation 1:18.

Clothed with a garment down to the foot - This is a description of the high priest, in his sacerdotal robes. See these described at large in the notes on Exodus 28:4, etc., Jesus is our high priest, even in heaven. He is still discharging the sacerdotal functions before the throne of God.

Golden girdle - The emblem both of regal and sacerdotal dignity.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And in the midst of the seven candlesticks - Standing among them, so as to be encircled with them. This shows that the representation could not have been like that of the vision of Zechariah Zechariah 4:2, where the prophet sees “a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and his seven lamps thereon.” In the vision as it appeared to John, there was not one lampbearer, with seven lamps or branches, but there were seven lamp-bearers, so arranged that one in the likeness of the Son of man could stand in the midst of them.

One like unto the Son of man - This was evidently the Lord Jesus Christ himself, elsewhere so often called “the Son of man.” That it was the Saviour himself is apparent from Revelation 1:18. The expression rendered “like unto the Son of man,” should have been “like unto a son of man”; that is, like a man, a human being, or in a human form. The reasons for so interpreting it are:

(a)that the Greek is without the article, and

(b)that, as it is rendered in our version, it seems to make the writer say that he was like himself, since the expression “the Son of man” is in the New Testament but another name for the Lord Jesus.

The phrase is often applied to him in the New Testament, and always, except in three instances Acts 7:56; Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14, by the Saviour himself, evidently to denote his warm interest in man, or his relationship to man; to signify that he was a man, and wished to designate himself eminently as such. See the notes on Matthew 8:20. In the use of this phrase in the New Testament, there is probably an allusion to Daniel 7:13. The idea would seem to be, that he whom he saw resembled “the Son of man” - the Lord Jesus, as he had seen him in the days of his flesh though it would appear that he did not know that it was he until he was informed of it, Revelation 1:18. Indeed, the costume in which he appeared was so unlike that in which John had been accustomed to see the Lord Jesus in the days of his flesh, that it cannot be well supposed that he would at once recognize him as the same.

Clothed with a garment down to the foot - A robe reaching down to the feet, or to the ankles, yet so as to leave the feet themselves visible. The allusion here, doubtless, is to a long, loose, flowing robe, such as was worn by kings. Compare the notes on Isaiah 6:1.

And girt about the paps - About the breast. It was common, and is still, in the East, to wear a girdle to confine the robe, as well as to form a beautiful ornament. This was commonly worn about the middle of the person, or “the loins,” but it would seem also that it was sometimes worn around the breast. See the notes on Matthew 5:38-41.

With a golden girdle - Either wholly made of gold, or, more probably, richly ornamented with gold. This would naturally suggest the idea of one of rank, probably one of princely rank. The raiment here assumed was not that of a priest, but that of a king. It was very far from being that in which the Redeemer appeared when he dwelt upon the earth, and was rather designed to denote his royal state as he is exalted in heaven. He is not indeed represented with a crown and scepter here, and perhaps the leading idea is that of one of exalted rank, of unusual dignity, of one suited to inspire awe and respect. In other circumstances, in this book, this same Redeemer is represented as wearing a crown, and going forth to conquest. See Revelation 19:12-16. Here the representation seems to have been designed to impress the mind with a sense of the greatness and glory of the personage who thus suddenly made his appearance.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-1.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the son of man,.... By whom is meant not an angel, for he speaks of himself as a divine Person, as the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, phrases not applicable to any created beings; and of himself also as having been dead, which angels are not capable of, and of living again, and of living for evermore, and having power over death and the grave, which no creature has; yea, he calls himself expressly the Son of God, Revelation 1:11; so that Christ is manifestly designed, who, as a divine Person, appeared in a form like that individual human nature which was at his Father's right hand; for that human nature of his, or he as the son of man, was not in the midst of these candlesticks, or churches, but he the Son of God was in a form like to his human nature in heaven; so before his incarnation, he is said to be like unto the son of man, in Daniel 7:13; to which there is a reference here, and not only in this, but in some other parts of the description; so after his ascension, he in a visionary way appears, not in that real human nature he assumed, but in a form like unto it, that being in heaven; but when he was here on earth he is called the son of man, and not like to one; though even such a phrase may express the truth and reality of his humanity, for who more like to the son of man than he who is so? see John 1:14; now Christ was seen by John in the midst of the candlesticks or churches, and among whom he walked, as in Revelation 2:1; which is expressive of his presence in his churches, and which he has promised unto the end of the world; and of the gracious visits he makes them, and the sweet communion and conversation he indulges them with, to their joy and comfort; as well as the walks he takes among them for his own delight and pleasure; and where he is, abides and takes his turns, particularly as a priest, in which form he now appeared, as the antitype of Aaron the high priest, to him the lamps or candles in the candlesticks, to cause them to burn more brightly and clearly:

clothed with a garment down to the foot; which some understand of the righteousness of Christ; this is called a garment, a wedding garment, the best or first robe, the robe of righteousness; and is fitly compared to one, it being unto, and upon believers, put upon them, and which covers their persons, keeps them warm and comfortable, and beautifies and adorns them; and is a very beautiful, pure, and spotless robe; and reaches to the feet, covers all the members of Christ's mystical body, the meanest and lowest, as well as the more excellent; the weakest believer as well, and as much, as the strongest: but not Christ mystical, but personal, is here represented; others therefore think that this long garment is a sign of gravity and wisdom, it being usual for men of power and authority, and learning, as the Jewish sanhedrim, Scribes and Pharisees, to wear long garments; but it seems rather to design a priestly robe; the robe of the ephod wore by the high priest is called by this name in the Septuagint version of Exodus 28:4; and so it is by JosephusF9Antiqu. l. 3. c. 7. sect. 4. , who speaking of the hyacinthine tunic, or robe of blue, says, this is ποδηρης, "a garment down to the foot", which in our language is called "Meeir"; rather it should be מעיל, "Meil", which is its Hebrew name; and so this robe is expressed by the same word here, used by Philo the JewF11De Vita Mosis, l. 3. p. 671. , and by JeromF12Ad Fabiolam. fol. 19. H. ; so MaimonidesF13Cele Hamikash, c. 8. sect. 17. says, the length of his garment was to the top of his heel: and in the habit of a priest did Christ now appear; and so he is described in his priestly office, in the midst of his churches, having made atonement for their sins by the sacrifice of himself; and now as their high priest had entered into the holiest of all with his own blood and righteousness; bore their names on his breastplate, appeared in the presence of God on their account, and ever lived to make intercession for them:

and girt about the paps with a golden girdle; as the high priest was with the girdle of the ephod, which was made of gold, of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, Exodus 28:8; and with which the priests were girt about the paps, or breast, as Christ is here described: it is said of the priests in Ezekiel 44:18, "they shall not gird themselves with anything that causeth sweat"; which some render "in sweating places": and so some Jewish writers interpret it, which will serve to illustrate the present place,

"says R. AbaiF14T. Bab. Zebachim, fol. 18. 2. & 19. 1. Yalkut Simeoni, par. 2. fol. 74. 2. Vid. Jarchi & Kimchi in Ezek. xliv. 18. , (upon citing Ezekiel 44:18) they do not gird themselves in the place in which they sweat; according to the tradition, when they gird themselves they do not gird neither below their loins, nor above their arm holes, but over against their arm holes;

the gloss says, upon their ribs, against their arm pit, that is, about their breast, or paps; and which is still more plainly expressed by the Targum on the above place, which paraphrases it thus,

"they shall not gird about their loins, but they shall gird לע לבבהון, "about their heart".

So JosephusF15Antiqu. l. 3. c. 7. sect. 2. says, the high priest's garment was girt about the breast, a little below the arm holes. Christ's girdle, as a King, is the girdle of faithfulness and righteousness, which is about his loins; and his girdle, as a prophet, is the girdle of truth; but, as a priest, it is the girdle of love; it is that which has constrained him to put himself in the room and stead of his people, to assume their nature, give himself a sacrifice for them, and intercede on their behalf: this is like a girdle, round from everlasting to everlasting; is said to be "golden", because of the excellency, purity, glory, and duration of it; and because it is very strong, affectionate, and hearty, it is hid to be a girdle about the paps, near where is the heart, the seat of love; and this may also denote the power, strength, and readiness of Christ to assist and help his churches in every time of need,


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-1.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

His glorified form as man could be recognized by John, who had seen it at the Transfiguration.

in the midst — implying Christ‘s continual presence and ceaseless activity in the midst of His people on earth. In Revelation 4:1-3, when He appears in heaven, His insignia undergo a corresponding change yet even there the rainbow reminds us of His everlasting covenant with them.

seven — omitted in two of the oldest manuscripts, but supported by one.

Son of man — The form which John had seen enduring the agony of Gethsemane, and the shame and anguish of Calvary, he now sees glorified. His glory (as Son of man, not merely Son of God) is the result of His humiliation as Son of man.

down to the foot — a mark of high rank. The garment and girdle seem to be emblems of His priesthood. Compare Exodus 28:2, Exodus 28:4, Exodus 28:31; Septuagint. Aaron‘s robe and girdle were “for glory and beauty,” and combined the insignia of royalty and priesthood, the characteristics of Christ‘s antitypical priesthood “after the order of Melchisedec.” His being in the midst of the candlesticks (only seen in the temple), shows that it is as a king-priest He is so attired. This priesthood He has exercised ever since His ascension; and, therefore He here wears its emblems. As Aaron wore these insignia when He came forth from the sanctuary to bless the people (Leviticus 16:4, Leviticus 16:23, Leviticus 16:24, the {chetoneth}, or holy linen coat), so when Christ shall come again, He shall appear in the similar attire of “beauty and glory” (Isaiah 4:2, Margin). The angels are attired somewhat like their Lord (Revelation 15:6). The ordinary girding for one actively engaged, was at the loins; but Josephus [Antiquities,3.7.2], expressly tells us that the Levitical priests were girt higher up, about the breasts or paps, appropriate to calm, majestic movement. The girdle bracing the frame together, symbolizes collected powers. Righteousness and faithfulness are Christ‘s girdle. The high priest‘s girdle was only interwoven with gold, but Christ‘s is all of gold; the antitype exceeds the type.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-1.html. 1871-8.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

13. Clothed with a garment down to the foot and girded about the waist with a golden girdle.” This is a description of His priestly regalia, as our Savior is Prophet, Priest, and King. As Prophet, He teaches us; as Priest, He atones for all our sins; as King, He rules over us forever. During His earthly mission, He served mankind as Prophet, and was a most indefatigable preacher. He is now exercising His priestly office at the Father’s right hand in heaven. He will soon come down with His mighty angels and transfigured saints to set up His kingdom on the earth and reign forever.


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Bibliography
Godbey, William. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/revelation-1.html.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

One like unto a son of man (ομοιον υιον αντρωπουhomoion huion anthrōpou). Note accusative here with ομοιονhomoion (object of ειδονeidon) as in Revelation 14:14 and not the associative-instrumental as is usual (Revelation 1:15; Revelation 4:3, Revelation 4:6). Charles holds that ομοιονhomoion here has the sense of ωςhōs (as) and compares Revelation 4:6; Revelation 22:1 for proof. The absence of the article here shows also (Charles) that the idea is not “like the Son of man” for Christ is the Son of man. He is like “a son of man,” but not a man.

Clothed (ενδεδυμενονendedumenon). Perfect passive participle of ενδυωenduō accusative case agreeing with ομοιονhomoion garment down to the foot (ποδηρηpodērē). Old adjective ποδηρηςpodērēs (from πουςpous foot, and αιρωairō), here only in N.T., accusative singular retained with the passive participle as often with verbs of clothing. Supply χιτωναchitōna or εστηταesthēta (garment).

Girt about (περιεζωσμενονperiezōsmenon). Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυμιperizōnnumi accusative singular agreeing with ομοιονhomoion the breasts (προς τοις μαστοιςpros tois mastois). Old word for breasts of a woman (Luke 11:27; Luke 23:29) and nipples of a man, as here. High girding like this was a mark of dignity as of the high priest (Josephus, Ant. III. 7. 2). For προςpros with the locative see Mark 5:11.

With a golden girdle (ζωνην χρυσανzōnēn chrusān). Accusative case again retained with the passive participle (verb of clothing). Note also χρυσανchrusān (vernacular Koiné) rather than the old form, χρυσηνchrusēn f0).


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Seven.

Omit.

The Son of Man

The article is wanting in the Greek Rev., “a son of Man.” But the reference is none the less to the Lord, and is not equivalent to a man. Compare John 5:27; Revelation 14:14.

A garment down to the foot ( ποδήρη )

Compare Daniel 10:5. From πούς , the foot, and ἄρω , to fasten: hence that which connects head and foot. The word is properly an adjective, reaching to the foot, with χίτων garmentunderstood. Xenophon speaks of the heavy-armed soldiers of the Persians as bearing wooden shields reaching to their feet ( ποδήρεσι ξυλίναις ἀσπίσιν ) “Anabasis,” i., 8,9). The word occurs only here in the New Testament, but several times in the Septuagint; as Ezekiel 9:2, Ezekiel 9:3, Ezekiel 9:11, where the A.V. gives merely linen; Exodus 28:4, A.V., robe; of the High-Priest's garment, Leviticus 16:4; of Aaron's holy linen coat.

The long robe is the garment of dignity and honor. It may be either royal, or priestly, or both. Compare Isaiah 6:1.

Girt about the paps ( περιεζωσμένον πρὸς τοῖς μαστοῖς )

Rev., more correctly, “girt about at ( πρὸς ) the breasts.” Compare Revelation 15:6. The ordinary girding was at the loins. According to Josephus, the Levitical priests were girded about the breast.

A golden girdle

The girdle is an Old Testament symbol of power, righteousness, truth (Isaiah 22:21; Job 12:18; Isaiah 11:5). Compare Ephesians 6:14, where the girdle of the Christian panoply is truth, which binds together the whole array of graces as the girdle does the upper and lower parts of the armor. The girdle suits equally Christ's kingly and priestly office. The girdle of the High-Priest was not golden, but only inwrought with gold. See Exodus 28:8: “curious girdle:” Rev., “cunningly woven band.” So Exodus 29:5.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Clothed, &c. This was a dress denoting, according to the usages of those times, very high rank and station.


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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/revelation-1.html. 1878.

James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

THE PRESENT LORD

‘And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of Man.’

Revelation 1:13

This vision of St. John in Patmos, granted to him ‘on the Lord’s day,’ brings before us—

I. A living Lord.—It is not a mere historical personage, to whose great deeds we look back with admiration, that we call Master. It is He Who is alive for evermore, Who has the keys of Hades in His own royal hand. We do not think and speak of our Divine Head as of One that was, but as of One that is.

II. A present Lord.—He is in the midst of the Churches: not removed by immeasurable space from where we are living and labouring, but in the midst of us; quite near to us, accessible at every hour, observant of every action and of all endurance.

III. A reigning Lord.—This One Who is in the midst of the golden candlesticks is He Who ‘holdeth the seven stars in His right hand’ (Revelation 2:1). It is He Who has all power given to Him in heaven and on earth.

IV. A gracious Lord.—‘One like unto the Son of Man’; He therefore Who was once clothed in our humanity, once was partaker of our flesh and blood, once lived our human life; He Who has looked on all things through human eyes, and weighed all things by human measures; He Who has actually experienced human hopes and fears, human joys and sorrows, human gratifications and disappointments. This is a living Lord, of whose tender sympathy we may be always sure, upon whose willing strength we may always lean, on whose gracious considerateness we may always count.

V. A Lord Whose presence is the one true bond of union.—‘In the midst of the Churches’; each one of them is therefore closely and vitally related to Him. They may not be organically connected with one another, but every one of them is directly related to Him.

ST.


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Bibliography
Nisbet, James. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". Church Pulpit Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/revelation-1.html. 1876.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.

Ver. 13. And in the midst] Christ is in the holy assemblies, in the beauties of holiness; he walketh in his garden, Song of Solomon 6:1, he comes in to see his guests, Matthew 22:11. The face of God is seen in Sion, Psalms 84:7.

A garment down to the feet] As a counsellor, Isaiah 9:6.

And girt] It implies readiness, nimbleness, handiness, and handsomeness. We also must gird ourselves, and serve the Lord Christ, Luke 17:8.

About the paps] This implies his entire love, seated in the heart.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-1.html. 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Revelation 1:13

Objective Faith.

I. If we were asked to fix upon the most prominent want in the spiritual life of the present time, we might perhaps not untruly say that it is the want of objective faith. We fail to grasp the realities of the spiritual world, and live in shadows. Visions pass before us, and we believe that in them is our life, but where is the entranced consciousness of their reality? Where is the abiding feeling of their substance, their power? Where is the fresh, warm faith which ever sees One like unto the Son of man moving amid sacraments, and taking the shape of human symbols? Where is the rapturous conviction that pierces at once through the veil of visions and sees the well-known features by a perpetual inspiration? And yet this is undeniably the character of the faith which has drawn the soul to God at all times, and it was to perpetuate this life of faith that in the Revelation our Lord chose symbols wherein to enshrine His presence.

II. Consider some of the bearings of this law of spiritual life. (1) The symbolic visions of the Revelation are an argument in favour of the sacramental teachings of the Church, of the system which represents sacraments as outward forms containing and conveying grace. (2) Again, as objective faith is the means of sustaining the spiritual life, so is it the true antidote of one of the great dangers which beset the soul in times of strong religious excitement: that of morbid self-contemplation. Our safety is to lose our own consciousness in the greater consciousness of the unseen world. (3) Once more, the same truth holds good as to our progress in any single grace. We gain more by looking on what is perfect than by striving against what is imperfect.

T. T. Carter, Sermons, p. 170.


References: Revelation 1:13.—Spurgeon, Evening by Evening, p. 343. Revelation 1:14. —Talmage, Old Wells Dug Out, p. 231. Revelation 1:17.—Spurgeon, Sermons, vol. xxvi., No. 1533; G. Macdonald, Christian World Pulpit, vol. xxxiv., p. 215.


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Bibliography
Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/revelation-1.html.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Revelation 1:13. One like unto the Son of man, clothed, &c.— The clothing here mentioned, is something like the Jewish high-priest's; and Christ is described much in the same manner as the divine appearance in Daniel's vision; Daniel 7:9. The girdles were a kind of sash, which went over the neck like a tippet, were crossed on the breast, and then went round the lower part of it two or three times, like a modern circingle, and from hence they fell down almost to the feet. They were sometimes embroidered, and at other times fringed with gold. The priests were required, for coolness and decency, to wear linen garments, and gird themselves higher than others; (see Ezekiel 44:17-18.) And this is one of the many allusions to the temple, and its forms and customs, with which we shall find this book so greatly to abound. See Exodus 39:5.


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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/revelation-1.html. 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

13.] and in the midst of the [seven] candlesticks one like to the Son of Man (i. e. to Christ: see John 5:27. I will not deny that the anarthrous use of this title may mark out less sharply our Lord himself than the use with the articles; but in N. T. Greek we should be no more justified in rendering υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου in such a connexion as this, “a son of man,” than πνεῦμα θεοῦ, “a spirit of God.” That meaning would doubtless have been here expressed by τοις υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων. The same remarks apply to ref. Dan.), clothed in a garment reaching to the feet (see the reff. in Dan. and Ezek., which the description and even the diction closely resemble. The χιτὼν ποδήρης, vestis talaris, was a sign of high rank or office: “sunt enim vestes pendulæ et laxæ, apud Persas imprimis, regum nobilium et sacerdotum insigne, cf. Esa. Revelation 6:1, Ezekiel 10:2 :” Ewald. Arethas, in the catena, supposes the dress to be that of the Melchisedek-priesthood (see also Andreas and Vitr.); but without reason, as De W. shews.

Cf. ref. Sir., ἐὰν διώκῃς τὸ δίκαιον, καταλήψῃ καὶ ἐνδύσῃ αὐτὸ ὡς ποδήρη δόξης), and girt round at the breasts with a golden girdle (in ref. Dan., Gabriel has his loins girt with gold of Uphaz. Bengel, and after him Züllig and De Wette, suppose a distinction—the girding round the loins betokening activity, while that round the breast is a sign of repose. But Hengst. well observes that this would hardly apply: for Christ is here in fulness of energy as ruler and orderer of His Church. Ebrard seems nearer the truth in regarding the higher girding as a sign of majesty. But perhaps after all the point is not to be pressed; for the angels in ch. Revelation 15:6 are also girt περὶ τὰ στήθη. Nor is the golden girdle distinctive of regal majesty: for this they also bear, ibid. In 1 Maccabees 10:89; 1 Maccabees 11:58, the πόρπη χρυσῆ is the privilege of the συγγενεῖς, or φίλοι τῶν βασιλέων, not, as is commonly cited, of kings themselves):


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Bibliography
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/revelation-1.html. 1863-1878.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 1:13. The entire appearance of Christ expresses essentially what has been said of him in Revelation 1:5-6,(746) and is likewise as highly significant as that declaration, as to the entire contents of the book. Hence each of the seven epistles is introduced “by a sketch of his form,”(747) as the majesty of Christ here presented, who holds his people in his hand,(748) is the real foundation and support of the apocalyptic hope.(749)

Christ appears in the midst of the seven candlesticks, not walking,(750) but rather, if any thing dare be imagined, standing. He is not named, but is infallibly designated already by the ὅμοιον υἱῷ ἀνθρώπου.(751) The ὅμοιον is incorrectly urged by those who wish to infer thence that not Christ, the Son of man himself, but “an angel representing Christ,”(752) is meant. In this expression the dogmatic thought is not present, that Christ is essentially more than a mere son of man;(753) but John had to write ὅμοιον, which does not correspond to the simple כְּ, Daniel 7:13 (LXX., ὡς),(754) as the type of the form of the Son of man was to be recognized in the divine majesty of the entire manifestation.(755)

The Lord, who makes his people priests and kings (Revelation 1:5), appears clad in the sublime splendor of the high priest and of kings. He wears the robe of the high priest, reaching down to his feet,(756) which, according to Wisdom of Solomon 18:24,(757) was a symbol of the world; yet God himself also appears, as he is royally enthroned, in a similar long robe.(758) To this is added the entirely golden girdle.(759) The girdle of the high priest was only adorned with gold.(760) That Christ wears the girdle πρὸς τοῖς μαζοῖς,(761) not about the loins,(762) is in no way to be urged in the sense of Ebrard: “The twofold nature of the unglorified body, in the nobly endowed upper part of the body, and in the lower part of the body serving the purposes of reproduction, nourishment, and discharge, vanishes in that higher girding, as it is first correctly marked by the girding above the loins.” For, is Daniel 10:5 to be understood of an unglorified body? Cf., besides, Josephus, Antiqq., iii. 7, 2, as to why the priests bind their girdles κατὰ στέρνον.


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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-1.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 1:13. ποδήρη) מעיל, Septuagint ποδήρης, of the garments of Aaron.


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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

And in the midst of the seven candlesticks; that is, of the churches, resembled by the golden candlesticks.

One like unto the Son of man: we say, no like is the same; but Christ, who was the Son of man, and who ordinarily calls himself so throughout the gospel, is undoubtedly here meant, as appeareth by Revelation 1:17,18, which description can agree to him alone. He is said to have come in the likeness of sinful flesh, though he came in true human flesh; and Philippians 2:7, he was made in the likeness of men. John saw one who appeared to him as a man in the midst of seven golden candlesticks, which was Christ in the midst of his churches; placed in the midst, partly to let us know his observation of them all, and partly to let us know his being at hand to them all, to help, protect, and defend them.

Clothed with a garment down to the foot; podhrh the word signifieth a long garment reaching to the feet, whether of linen or woollen, or what other material, is not expressed; so as it seemeth to me hard to determine, whether it was to signify his priestly or kingly office, or neither. It is a habit of gravity.

And girt about the paps with a golden girdle; nor dare I determine the significancy of the golden girdle about his loins. It was a habit like that in Daniel’s vision, Daniel 10:5. They were both symbols of majesty, authority, and dignity, and the appearance agreed very well to him, who was both a High Priest and a King.


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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-1.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

One like unto the Son of man; compare Daniel 7:13, where "one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days." In both cases it is Christ, who, when on earth, called himself "the Son of man." In the description of his person that follows, the writer combines what is said of "the Ancient of days," that is, God, Daniel 7:9, and of the "man clothed in linen," Daniel 10:5-6. Thus he ascribes to Christ the characters of deity.


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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Family Bible New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-1.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

13. ὅμοιον υἱῷ ἀνθρώπου. It might be better with Tischendorf and Westcott and Hort to read ὅμοιον υἱὸν here and at Revelation 14:14; if so the writer makes juxtaposition do the work of construction, as sup. 16, see n. In the title of our Lord in the Gospels (except John 5:27) and in Acts 7:56 both words have the article. The absence of the article here proves not that our Lord is not intended, but that the title is taken not from His own use of it but direct from the Greek of Daniel 7:13, where also both words are without the article. There the human figure which succeeds the bestial shapes symbolizes the kingdom of the saints of the Most High more certainly than the personal King, the Head of the mystical Body. Here it is a question of taste rather than of grammar whether we are to translate “a son of man”: the words themselves mean no more than “I saw a human figure,” but their associations would make it plain to all readers of the Book of Daniel that it was a superhuman Being in human form; and to a Christian of St John’s day as of our own, Who that Being was.

ποδήοη. Certainly a garment of dignity (as Sirach 27:8; Daniel 10:5, LXX. where Theodotion gives the Hebrew in Greek letters βαδδιν; Ezekiel 9:2; Ezekiel 9:11), probably especially of priestly dignity, as Exodus 25:6; Exodus 28:4; Exodus 28:31 (where the next verse suggests comparison with John 19:23). The same word is used in the so-called Epistle of Barnabas (c. 7) of the scarlet robe in which the Lord will appear when coming to judgement; some suppose that the writer had in his mind this passage and perhaps Revelation 19:13.

πρὸς τοῖς μασθοῖς. So Revelation 15:6 of angels. In Daniel 10:5 and Ezekiel 9:2 (LXX.) angels wear the girdles of gold or gems in the ordinary human way, on their loins. The Seer like the Prophets draws his images from earthly pomp which in his days had grown more splendid. The girdle is probably crossed upon the breast, as in the figure of Darius in the great mosaic of the Museo Borbonico and in statues of the kings of Greek tragedy: anyway it visibly serves not to brace the wearer for labour but simply to keep his stately robe duly arranged.


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"Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/revelation-1.html. 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

13. In the midst—The candlesticks were so arranged that this One could be, and (Revelation 2:1) could walk, in their midst. That would seem to imply that they stood in two rows, of three and of four, as the seven cities somewhat irregularly did, as seen upon our map.

Like… man—So Daniel 7:13, with which compare John 5:27. John recognises, even in this his glorification, his identity with the man of his humiliation. So our own resurrection bodies, in all their glorified changes, will manifest their identity with our present selves. See note, 1 Corinthians 15:44. In the sublime description of the Christophanic person that follows, Hengstenberg, and still more Trench, are extreme in finding out symbols of wrath and destruction. Their points we shall notice in the progress of our notes. But surely there was no reason why the Lord, in his interview with the beloved apostle and visitation of his circle of Churches, should put on the tokens of vengeance. Nor is such St. John’s idea. His description presents the intense dazzling glory of the Lord’s celestial body, too transcendent for mortal eye to bear; but that glory, though dread, is serene and merciful.

Trench, also, acutely draws a contrast between the Grecian representations and the Oriental; to the latter of which this and other of St. John’s pictures belong. The former is predominantly aesthetic; presenting beautiful models for the artist. The latter are deeply significant, often a collection of expressive but crudely adjusted symbols, incapable of being wrought into agreeable picture. The many-breasted Diana was a personation made of symbols, and so, disagreeable to sight. And so this present figure, wrought into painting, would be unsightly. There is great truth in Trench’s distinction; but not, we think, in its application to the present description. The personation could not be painted, for the very object is to image forth a supernatural splendour and glory. The splendour consists largely of an intensity of colouring to which the materials of art are inadequate. An artist could form a distinct and splendid conception of the figure, but would at once say that it was beyond and above reducing to picture. But we hold that, viewed as a work of descriptive art, this piece is congruous and aesthetically magnificent.

Clothed… to the foot—John first discerns the main person, almost completely enveloped in a priestly-royal robe flowing to the feet.

A golden girdle—Again implying highest nobility, binding— not the loins, as if engaged in a task of labour—but the breasts, uniting the robe in a composed dignity, as he walked or stood.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-1.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The man looked like "a son of man." This expression refers to the divine Messiah in Daniel 7:13-14 (cf. Daniel 3:25; Daniel 10:5-6; Daniel 10:18; Acts 7:56). "Son of Man" was Jesus" favorite title for Himself according to the writers of the Gospels (cf. Mark 13:26). The person John saw looked like a human man. His clothing was that of a priest: a long robe with a golden sash around it. [Note: Cf. Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 3:7:2.] Jesus Christ"s present office is that of our high priest ( Hebrews 4:14). However this long robe (Gr. poderes) was also a sign of rank or dignity in those who wore it (cf. Ezekiel 9:2; Daniel 10:5). [Note: Swete, pp15-16; R. H. Charles, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Revelation of St. John , 1:26-27.]

"In Revelation 1:13, Christ is seen dressed in the type robe worn by both a priest and a judge; but the position of the girdle about the breasts rather than the waist indicates that Christ, in this passage, is exercising a judicial rather than a priestly role. A priest would be girded about the waist, signifying service; but the girdle placed about the shoulders or breasts indicates a magisterial function (cf. John 13:2-5; Revelation 15:6)." [Note: Arlen L. Chitwood, Judgment Seat of Christ, p15.]

"The titles of Jesus Christ found in the introductions to six of the seven messages in chapters2,3are drawn largely from this vision of Revelation 1:12-20 and its descriptive phrases. Only the message to Laodicea ( Revelation 3:14-22) is devoid of one of these. One of the titles is used in two messages (cf. Revelation 2:1 and Revelation 3:1) ... It is apparent that the appearance of Christ in this vision is designed to emphasize the aspects of His nature that are most relevant to the needs and circumstances of the seven churches who are the primary recipients of this book." [Note: Thomas, Revelation 1-7 , p97.]


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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-1.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 1:13. We have beheld the contents of the outer circle; but there is something more glorious within. In the midst of the seven golden candlesticks is One, not walking as in chap. Revelation 2:1, but standing, who is like unto a Son of man, i.e appears in human likeness. As in chap. Revelation 14:14, and John 5:27, the article ‘the’ is awanting, and ought not to be supplied. Besides which, the whole description shows that it is the Son of man Himself, not One ‘like unto’ Him, that is seen. Yet St. John does not say, ‘I saw the Son of man,’ for it is not in reality, but in vision, that he sees the Lord.

In the description given, the first thing mentioned is the Saviour’s garb, a garment down to the foot. The description of Gabriel in Daniel 10:5 (comp. also Ezekiel 9:2-3; Ezekiel 9:11) leaves little doubt as to the nature of the robe spoken of. It was a long white linen garment reaching to the feet, and worn by priests, or (1 Samuel 15:27) by kings. It was thus not only a priestly but a royal robe.—In addition to this, the person seen was girt round at the breasts with a golden girdle. The supposition is often entertained that the place of this girdle, so much higher than the loins, indicates not action, but rest from toil. It may be greatly doubted if such a supposition is correct. The girding referred to in Luke 12:35 presents no proper analogy to that now mentioned, being the girding up at the loins of the robe itself, so as to prevent its flowing to the feet. Here the girdle has no connection with the loins; and it seems rather to have been that worn by the priests when engaged in sacrifice. We learn from Josephus (comp. Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, 2 p. 702) that at such times it was their practice to wear a girdle about the body just below the arm-pits. The Son of man, therefore, is not here at rest, but is engaged in discharging the functions, what-ever they are, which belong to Him as a Priest for ever. In chap. Revelation 15:6 the angels with the seven last plagues are described as similarly girt. The priestly girdle under the Law was only of linen embroidered with gold (Exodus 28:8). Here it is ‘golden,’ that is, wholly of gold in order to indicate the high dignity of the wearer and the exceeding riches of the blessings He bestows. The important question has still to be asked, whether in this dress we are to see the emblem only of priestly or of both kingly and priestly power. If we consider (1) That the more peculiar articles of the priests’ dress, such as the mitre and the ephod, are not spoken of, hat only such as were common to both priests and kings; (2) That in Daniel 10:5 and Isaiah 22:21 we have the same specification associated with the exercise of the royal and governmental rather than the priestly office; and (3) That the idea of kingly power is embodied in those parts of the description which are yet to follow, we shall have no difficulty in answering the question. We have before us not only a Priest but a King, One who is already a Priest upon His throne, a Priest after the order of Melchizedec. But the thought of the King is prominent.


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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-1.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 1:13. The churches are inseparable from their head and centre Jesus, who moves among the cressets of his temple with the dignity and authority of a high priest. The anarthrous . . is the human appearance of the celestial messiah, as in En. xlvi. 1–6 (where the Son of man accompanies God, who, as the Head of Days, had a head “white as wool”) and Asc. Isa. xi. 1. The difficult ὅμοιον is to be explained (with Vit. ii. 127, 223, 227) as = ὡς (Revelation 2:18, Revelation 6:14, Revelation 9:7-8; Revelation 9:11) or οἶον, “something like,” a loose reproduction of the Heb. (“un être semblable à nous, un homme”). The whole passage illustrates the writer’s habit of describing an object or person by heaping up qualities without strict regard to natural or grammatical collocation. ποδήρης (sc. χιτὼν or ἐσθής), a long robe reaching to the feet, was an oriental mark of dignity (cf. on Revelation 1:7, and Ezekiel 9:2; Ezekiel 9:11, LXX), denoting high rank or office such as that of Parthian kings or of the Jewish high priest who wore a purple one. High girding (with a belt?) was another mark of lofty position, usually reserved for Jewish priests, though the Iranians frequently appealed to their deities as “high-girt” (i.e., ready for action = cf. Yasht 15:54, 57, “Vaya of the golden girdle, high-up girded, swift moving, as powerful in sovereignty as any absolute sovereign in the world”). The golden buckle or πόρπη was part of the insignia of royalty and its φίλοι (1 Maccabees 10:8-9; 1 Maccabees 11:58). The author thus mixes royal and sacerdotal colours on his palette to heighten the majesty of Christ’s appearance. New, golden (as in Iranian eschatology), shining, white—are the usual adjectives which he employs throughout the book for the transcendent bliss of the life beyond and its heavenly tenants; “golden” had been used already in Greek as a synonym for precious, excellent, divine.


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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-1.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

See Exodus xxviii. 51.; Daniel x. 5.

====================


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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-1.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

the. Omit.

Son of Man. See App-98and App-99.

about. Greek. pros.

paps = breasts.


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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. His glorified form could be recognized by John, who saw it at the transfiguration.

In the midst - implying Christ's presence and ceaseless activity in the midst of His people on earth. In Revelation 4:1-11, appearing in heaven, His insignia undergo a corresponding change; even there the rainbow reminds us of His everlasting covenant.

Seven. Omitted in A C so 'Aleph (') B.

Son of man. The form which John had seen enduring the agony of Gethsemane, and the shame of Calvary, he now sees glorified. His glory as Son of man (not merely Son of God) is the fruit of His humiliation.

Down to the foot - marking high rank. The garment and girdle are emblems of His priesthood. Compare Exodus 28:2; Exodus 28:4 [the same word in the Septuagint as here; podeeree (Greek #4158)], Exodus 28:31; Exodus 28:42; Exodus 39:27-29; Septuagint Aaron's robe and girdle were "for glory and beauty," combining the insignia of royalty and priesthood, characteristic of Christ's king priesthood "after the order of Melchisedec." His being in the midst of the candlesticks (only seen in the temple), shows it is as king-priest. He is so attired. This priesthood He has exercised since His ascension; and therefore wears its emblems. As Aaron put on the holy white linen tunic [ k


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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-1.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

Among them. "I will be with you always!" Like a man. (John 1:14; Romans 8:3) [Son of Man - Luke 22:69-70; Daniel 7:13. ] A robe . . . a gold band. The robe of a high priest with the gold band of a king.


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "The Bible Study New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-1.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(13) In the midst of the seven candlesticks (the word “seven” is omitted in some of the best MSS.) one like unto the Son of man.—“He who kindled the light to be a witness of Himself and of His own presence with men was indeed present.” He was present the same as He had been known on earth, yet different—the same, for He is seen as Son of Man; the same as He had been seen on the Resurrection evening; the same as He appeared to Stephen; the same Jesus, caring for, helping and counselling His people: yet different, for He is arrayed in the apparel of kingly and priestly dignity. He is robed to the foot with the long garment of the high priest. St. John uses the same word which is used in the LXX. version of Exodus 28:31, to describe the robe of the Ephod. (Comp. Zechariah 3:4.) It has been understood by some, however, to indicate the “ample robe of judicial and kingly power.” There is in the vision a combination of both thoughts. He is the King-Priest who is seen by the Evangelist, the Melchisedec whom the Epistle to the Hebrews had so gloriously set forth (Hebrews 5:9-10; Hebrews 6:20; especially Hebrews 7:1-17). He is girt about the breasts with a golden girdle. The girdle is not around the loins, as though ready for action and toil (Luke 12:35), but it is worn as by one who rests from toil in the “repose of sovereignty.” So, according to Josephus (Ant. iii. 7, § 2), the Levitical priests were girdled. The girdle is of gold; not interwoven with gold, as was the high priest’s girdle (Exodus 28:8), but pure gold, the emblem of a royal presence. (Comp. Isaiah 11:5; Daniel 10:5; Ephesians 6:14.)


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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.
like
14:14; Ezekiel 1:26-28; Daniel 7:9,13; 10:5,6,16; Philippians 2:7,8; Hebrews 2:14-17; Hebrews 4:15
clothed
Daniel 10:5
and girt
15:6; Exodus 28:6-8; 39:5; Leviticus 8:7; Isaiah 11:5

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-1.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Like unto the Son of man. Much of the language addressed to John is worded as if Christ did the talking personally. That is not the case, for He has been on his throne in heaven since his ascension and will remain there until He comes to judge the world ( Hebrews 10:12-13). All that is said as coming from and concerning Christ is done through the instrumentality of an angel. (See Revelation 22:8.) The long garments were worn by the priests, and the girdle of gold around the breast betokened a king. All this was very appropriate because Christ is both High Priest and King ( Zechariah 6:13), and this angel was representing Him.


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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-1.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 1:13

Revelation 1:13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of Prayer of Manasseh , clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.

The LORD Jesus Christ (who is the Mediator) is here personally described after his ascension, as he was before his resurrection. { Daniel 7:13} Such a discovery of Christ Stephen had. Acts 7:55-56 He was real, this mystical, as appears by metaphorical description of Christ here following.

"Clothed with a Garment down to the Foot," etc.

Long garments were worn among the Jews by two sorts of persons, and both for distinction from others, and for dignity above others; namely, kings and priests. { Leviticus 8:6-9; Isaiah 22:20-23}

"And girt about the Paps with a Golden Girdle"

The girdle that John saw Jesus girt about the breasts with, signifies his divine power, strength, and kingly authority. { Isaiah 22:20-23} I will strengthen him with thy girdle, I will commit the government into his hands { Isaiah 11:5; Isaiah 9:6-7} Jesus Christ is present in and with his churches of saints at all times. { Matthew 18:20} Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them: That Isaiah , they have his spiritual presence and power. { 1 Corinthians 5:4; Revelation 2:7-11; Matthew 28:20} And lo, I am with you always, pasav tav hmerav, daily, all days, and every day, even unto the end of the world. Amen.


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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 1:13". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-1.html.

D.S. Clark's Commentary on Revelation

V:13. "In the midst one like unto the Son of Man." Christ is in the midst of his church. He is its life and power. He is not an absentee Lord. He is an abiding presence and personality. "Lo, I am with you alway even unto the end of the world." Unless Christ is in the midst, the church is dead and shorn of power. This vision was of special significance and comfort to those churches in the scenes of blood thru which they were called to pass. In the burning fiery furnace into which they were soon to be thrown, there was One who would walk with them, whose appearance was like to the Son of Man.


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In verse13John saw the UNIVERSAL CHURCH AS A SEVEN BRANCHED GOLDEN LAMPSTAND. Verse20 states "The7 lampstands are the7 churches" (the universal church). In verse20 "STARS" are described as "ANGELS." There are various views as to the meaning of the word "angels" here. The simplest seems to be that they are the churches themselves in their ministry as "messengers" of the gospel.

In chapter1let our minds rest in Verse13.

1. THE7 BRANCHED LAMPSTAND.

What a picture of the universal church! A lampstand, a vessel holding oil enabling light to shine out. Such is Christ"s picture of a congregation. He intends EACH member to be a giver of light "to shine as lights in the world, holding forth the word of life." Is that what we are?

2. And there, "IN THE MIDST OF THE CHURCH IS CHRIST HIMSELF."

Verses13-20 describes Christ in the midst of the universal church. We recall that in Matthew 28:20 Jesus promised "Lo, I am with you always even to the end of the world." It is His unseen, spiritual, real presence in His church that is symbolised in Revelation 1:13-20. John saw Christ clothed as the high-priest in these verses and we interpret the meaning of his symbolism like this (See next verse comment)


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