Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 1:9

I, John, your brother and fellow partaker in the tribulation and kingdom and perseverance which are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.
New American Standard Version
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  1. Adam Clarke Commentary
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  21. Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament
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  23. Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable
  24. Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation
  25. Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament
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  27. E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
  28. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged
  29. Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers
  30. Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
  31. Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation
  32. E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament
  33. Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation
  34. D.S. Clark's Commentary on Revelation
  35. Harold Norris' Commentary on the Book of Revelation
  36. Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms
  37. Whedon's Commentary on the Bible
  38. The Expositor's Greek Testament

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Banishment;   Humility;   John;   Patience;   Patmos;   Persecution;   Scofield Reference Index - Inspiration;   John;   Theophanies;   Thompson Chain Reference - Islands;   John, Beloved Disciple;   Patience;   Patience-Impatience;   Patmos;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Confessing Christ;   Patience;   Punishments;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Cherub;   Patmos;   Punishments;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Fellowship;   John the apostle;   Revelation, book of;   Witness;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Word;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Ascension of Christ;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Patmos;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Caesar;   James;   John the Apostle;   Patmos;   Revelation of John, the;   Sacrifice;   Witnesses;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Island;   John;   Patmos;   Revelation, the Book of;   Rome and the Roman Empire;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Asia;   Island, Isle;   John the Apostle;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Apocalypse;   Gospel (2);   John (the Apostle);   Kingdom Kingdom of God;   Patience;   Patmos ;   Perseverance;   Tribulation;   Tribulation (2);   Witness;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Kingdom, Kingdom of God, Kingdom of Heaven;   Patmos ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Patmos;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Pat'mos,;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - John the Baptist;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Chronology of the New Testament;   Island;   Parousia;   Patmos;   Persecution;   Revelation of John:;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for October 30;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Your brother - A Christian, begotten of God, and incorporated in the heavenly family.

Companion in tribulation - Suffering under the persecution in which you also suffer.

In the kingdom - For we are a kingdom of priests unto God.

And patience of Jesus - Meekly bearing all indignities, privations, and sufferings, for the sake and after the example of our Lord and Master.

The isle that is called Patmos - This island is one of the Sporades, and lies in the Aegean Sea, between the island of Icaria, and the promontory of Miletus. It is now called Pactino, Patmol, or Palmosa. It has derived all its celebrity from being the place to which St. John was banished by one of the Roman emperors; whether Domitian, Claudius, or Nero, is not agreed on, but it was most probably the latter. The island has a convent on a well fortified hill, dedicated to John the apostle; the inhabitants are said to amount to about three hundred men, and about twenty women to one man. It is very barren, producing very little grain, but abounding in partridges, quails, turtles, pigeons, snipes, and rabbits. It has many good harbours, and is much infested by pirates. Patmos, its capital and chief harbour, lies in east Long. 26° 24', north Lat. 37° 24'. The whole island is about thirty miles in circumference.

For the testimony of Jesus Christ - For preaching Christianity, and converting heathens to the Lord Jesus.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

I John, who also am your brother - Your Christian brother; who am a fellow-Christian with you. The reference here is doubtless to the members of the seven churches in Asia, to whom the epistles in the following chapters were addressed, and to whom the whole book seems to have been sent. In the previous verse, the writer had closed the salutation, and he here commences a description of the circumstances under which the vision appeared to him. He was in a lonely island, to which he had been banished on account of his attachment to religion; he was in a state of high spiritual enjoyment on the day devoted to the sacred remembrance of the Redeemer; he suddenly heard a voice behind him, and turning saw the Son of man himself, in glorious form, in the midst of seven golden lamps, and fell at his feet as dead.

And companion in tribulation - Your partner in affliction. That is, he and they were suffering substantially the same kind of trials on account of their religion. It is evident from this that some form of persecution was then raging, in which they were also sufferers, though in their case it did not lead to banishment. The leader, the apostle, the aged and influential preacher, was banished; but there were many other forms of trial which they might be called to endure who remained at home. What they were we have not the means of knowing with certainty.

And in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ - The meaning of this passage is, that he, and those whom he addressed, were not only companions in affliction, but were fellow-partners in the kingdom of the Redeemer; that is, they shared the honor and the privileges pertaining to that kingdom; and that they were fellow-partners in the “patience” of Jesus Christ, that is, in enduring with patience whatever might follow from their being his friends and followers. The general idea is, that alike in privileges and sufferings they were united. They shared alike in the results of their attachment to the Saviour.

Was in the isle that is called Patmos - Patmos is one of the cluster of islands in the Aegean Sea anciently called the “Sporades.” It lies between the island of Icaria and the promontory of Miletus. It is merely mentioned by the ancient geographers (Plin. Hist. Nat., iv., 23; Strabo, x., 488). It is now called Patino or Patmoso. It is some six or eight miles in length, and not more than a mile in breadth, being about fifteen miles in circumference. It has neither trees nor rivers, nor has it any land for cultivation, except some little nooks among the ledges of rocks. On approaching the island, the coast is high, and consists of a succession of capes, which form so many ports, some of which are excellent. The only one in use, however, is a deep bay, sheltered by High mountains on every side but one, where it is protected by a projecting cape. The town attached to this port is situated upon a high rocky mountain, rising immediately from the sea, and this, with the Scala below upon the shore, consisting of some ships and houses, forms the only inhabited site of the island.

Though Patmos is deficient in trees, it abounds in flowery plants and shrubs. Walnuts and other fruit trees are raised in the orchards, and the wine of Patmos is the strongest and the best flavored in the Greek islands. Maize and barley are cultivated, but not in a quantity sufficient for the use of the inhabitants and for a supply of their own vessels, and others which often put into their good harbor for provisions. The inhabitants now do not exceed four or five thousand; many of whom are emigrants from the neighboring continent. About halfway up the mountain there is shown a natural grotto in a rock, where John is said to have seen his visions and to have written this book. Near this is a small church, connected with which is a school or college, where the Greek language is taught; and on the top of the hill, and in the center of the island, is a monastery, which, from its situation, has a very majestic appearance (Kitto‘s Cyclopoedia of Bib. Literally). The annexed engraving is supposed to give a good representation of the appearance of the island,

It is commonly supposed that John was banished to this island by Domitian, about 94 a.d. No place could have been selected for banishment which would accord better with such a design than this. Lonely, desolate, barren, uninhabited, seldom visited, it had all the requisites which could be desired for a place of punishment; and banishment to that place would accomplish all that a persecutor could wish in silencing an apostle, without putting him to death. It was no uncommon thing, in ancient times, to banish people from their country; either sending them forth at large, or specifying some particular place to which they were to go. The whole narrative leads us to suppose that this place was designated as that to which John was to be sent. Banishment to an island was a common mode of punishment; and there was a distinction made by this act in favor of those who were thus banished. The more base, low, and vile of criminals were commonly condemned to work in the mines; the more decent and respectable were banished to some lonely island. See the authorities quoted in Wetstein, “in loco.”

For the word of God - On account of the word of God; that is, for holding and preaching the gospel. See the notes on Revelation 1:2. It cannot mean that he was sent there with a view to his “preaching” the Word of God; for it is inconceivable that he should have been sent from Ephesus to preach in such a little, lonely, desolate place, where indeed there is no evidence that there were any inhabitants; nor can it mean that he was sent there by the Spirit of God to receive and record this revelation, for it is clear that the revelation could have been made elsewhere, and such a place afforded no special advantages for this. The fair interpretation is, in accordance with all the testimony of antiquity, that he was sent there in a time of persecution, as a punishment for preaching the gospel.

And for the testimony of Jesus Christ - See the notes on Revelation 1:2. He did not go there to bear testimony to Jesus Christ on that island, either by preaching or recording the visions in this book, but he went because he had preached the doctrines which testified of Christ.

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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-1.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

THE GREAT INTRODUCTORY VISION

I John, your brother and partaker with you in the tribulation and kingdom and patience which are in Jesus, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.

I John ... See introduction for comment on the authorship of Revelation. Although an apostle, and possibly the last surviving apostle, he here identified himself with his readers as their brother and a fellow-member of Christ's kingdom. All of the sacred writers hesitated to flaunt their authority; and even Paul, who, in a sense, was compelled to do so by circumstances, proclaimed himself the chief of sinners and the least of saints.

Partaker with you in the tribulation and kingdom and patience ... "These are a present experience and possession"[24] of John and his readers. As Lenski put it: "We (Christians) are the kingdom, in it, partakers of it, lifted to royalty in it!"[25] All theories that deny the present existence of the kingdom of Christ are contrary to the New Testament.

Which are in Jesus ... It is surprising that Moffatt would perceive this as primarily "A Pauline concept."[26] While true enough that Paul did stress this conception, it surely antedates him. All of the New Testament authors wrote of it, and it goes right back to Christ himself who gave the analogy of the true vine in John 15. This corporate conception of Christ's kingdom as being composed of those who have been baptized into Christ dominates the New Testament. The kingdom itself, as stated in this verse is "in Jesus." Those who are "in Jesus" are the kingdom. The New Testament knows nothing of some far-off time when the kingdom will come. It is a present reality. The thousand years' reign with Christ is going on right now, and has been going on, since the first Pentecost following the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Christ is reigning and will continue to reign until all enemies are vanquished. His holy apostles are reigning with him (Matthew 19:28). This reign is identified in Matthew as occurring during the times of "the regeneration," that is, the times of the new birth, meaning that it is going on right now. As for the saints reigning with Christ, John includes his readers in this very passage as being fellow-partakers with himself in the kingdom of Christ. The trouble with many is that they have lost a sense of exaltation through being 'tin Christ" and have started longing for something different from the glorious salvation already available "in Christ," that is, in Christ's precious kingdom.

Was in the isle that is called Patmos ... This is a small island, only about half the size of Manhattan Island, ten miles long, with a maximum width of six miles, and with an area of only 13 square miles. "It is an island of the Dodecanese group, Greece, in the Aegean sea about 28 miles south-southwest of Samos (37 degrees 20 minutes north latitude and 26 degrees 35 minutes east longitude). It is volcanic, bare and rocky, rising to an altitude of 800 feet with a deeply indented coast."[27] The 1951 population of Patmos is given as 2,613; but in John's day it is said to have been principally a rock quarry and used as a place of banishment for certain types of offenders.

Regarding the tradition that the apostle John was banished to Patmos, living in exile there when he received the Revelation, both the event of his banishment and the date of it are uncertain. The usual tradition that he was banished to Patmos by Domitian (circa 95 A.D.) and released 18 months later by Nerva[28] is incapable of any dogmatic proof. Even if accepted, the question of the date would still be in doubt.

The complicating factor is that Domitian was the de facto emperor for a year or so in 69-70, following his father Vespasian's elevation as Emperor, July 69 A.D. He was hailed by the army in Rome as Caesar and continued to administer the affairs of Italy until his father's return.[29] Vespasian was not pleased by the high-handed behavior of his son. Josephus stated that he was ruler until his father returned.[30] He moved into the royal residence, signed all edicts and proclamations in his own name, being in every sense, during that period, Emperor. Vespasian returned to Rome, however, in the latter part of 70, and promptly appointed Nerva as one of his chief administrators, who moved at once to quash some of the measures taken by Domitian. Thus we have the strange fact that Nerva, in a sense, succeeded Domitian in authority both in 70 A.D. and in 96 A.D. For this reason, the tradition that John was banished by Domitian and released by Nerva does not even touch the problem of WHEN such events occurred. The events might have taken place either in 70-71 or in 95-96! Robinson preferred the early date, writing: "So, he was banished by Domitian and restored by Nerva, as the tradition says, but in 70-71 A.D.!"[31]

Regarding the theory of John's having been banished to Patmos, the New Testament gives no hint of any such thing, but the mention of tribulation in the same verse certainly seems not opposed to the tradition. If indeed John was an exile, it would be in keeping with the experience of some of God's other great prophets. When Jacob saw God at Bethel, when Moses saw God in the burning bush, when Elijah heard the still small voice, when Ezekiel saw the glory of the Lord by the river Chebar, and when Daniel saw the ancient of days in Babylon, all of them were exiles. Wallace, however, was of the opinion that John was not an exile, but that, "His reason for being in Patmos was no other than to receive the Revelation."[32] Certainty in the matter is impossible.

For the word of God and the testimony of Jesus ... The language here could mean either (1) that John was in Patmos to preach the gospel or for the express purpose of receiving the Revelation or (2) that he had been banished to Patmos as punishment for his loyalty in proclaiming the word of the Lord. There is no way to tell exactly which understanding of the words is correct.

[24] G. R. Beasley-Murray, op. cit., p. 1282.

[25] R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 55.

[26] James Moffatt, op. cit., p. 341.

[27] Encyclopedia Britannica (Chicago: William Benton, Publisher, 1961), Vol. 17, p. 383.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Ibid., Vol 7, p. 521.

[30] Flavius Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book IV, Chapter 11,4.

[31] John A. T. Robinson, Redating the New Testament (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976), p. 250.

[32] Foy E. Wallace, Jr., op. cit., p. 74.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

I, John, who also am your brother,.... Here begins the narrative of the visions and prophecies of this book, the former verses containing a general preface to the whole; and this, and the two following verses, are the introduction to the first vision, which John saw; who describes himself by his name, "I John", the evangelist and apostle, a servant of Christ, and a beloved disciple of his; one that was well known to the seven churches to whom he writes, and who had no reason to doubt of his fidelity in the account he gives them; and also by his relation to them as a "brother", not in a natural, but in a spiritual sense, they and he belonging to that family that is named of Christ, to the household of God, and of faith, and having one and the same Father, even God: thus, though he was an elder, an evangelist, yea, an apostle by office, yet he puts himself on a level with the several members of these churches, as he was a believer in Christ:

and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ; many are the afflictions and tribulations of the saints; these lie in the way to the kingdom; and they are companions and partners with one another in them, both by enduring the same, and by their sympathy and compassion with each other; and as they go sharers in the troubles of this life, so they do, and shall in the kingdom; in the kingdom of grace now, being all of them made kings and priests unto God, and in the kingdom of Christ on earth, where they will all reign with him a thousand years, and in the kingdom of glory, where they shall reign together to all eternity; and in the mean while, they join in the exercise of the grace of patience, of which Christ is the author, exemplar, and object; they are directed by the Spirit of God into a patient waiting for Christ, or a patient expectation of his coming, kingdom, and glory: the Alexandrian copy reads, "patience in Christ"; and the Complutensian edition, "patience in Christ Jesus": this same person John, who gives this account of himself,

was in the isle that is called Patmos; but now "Palmosa"; it is one of the islands of the Cyclades, in the Archipelago, or Icarian sea, and sometimes called the Aegean sea, and had its name from the turpentine trees in it; it is, as PlinyF21Nat. Hist. l. 4. c. 12. says, about thirty miles in circumference; and it lay next to the churches on the continent, and is said to be about forty miles southwest of Ephesus, from whence John came thither, and to which church he writes first; how he came here he does not say, concealing, through modesty, his sufferings; he did not come here of his own accord; Ignatius saysF23Epist. ad Tarsenses, p. 76. , John εφυγαδευετο, "was banished to Patmos": by Domitian emperor of Rome, as Irenaeus saysF24Irenaeus adv. Haeres. l. 5. c. 30. , at the latter end of his reign, about the year 95 or 96; and, as TertullianF25De Praescript. Haeret. c. 36. after he had been cast into a vessel of flaming oil, where he got no hurt: and this banishment was not for any immorality, and capital sin he had committed, but

for the word of God; for believing in Christ, the essential Word of God, and for professing and bearing record of him, both in preaching and writing:

and for the testimony of Jesus; for the Gospel of Christ, see Revelation 1:2; for embracing it, adhering to it, and publishing it: it is generally thought that John wrote his Revelation in this isle, though some think it is not to be concluded from these words, but the contrary that he had been here, but now was not, but at Ephesus, where he wrote what he had a vision of there,

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

7 I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is g called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

(7) The narration, opening the way to the declaring of the authority and calling of John the evangelist in this singular revelation, and to procure faith and credit to this prophecy. This is the second part of this chapter, consisting of a proposition, and an exposition. The proposition shows, in (Revelation 1:9) first who was called to this revelation, in what place, and how occupied. Then at what time, and by what means, namely, by the Spirit and the word, and that on the Lord's day, which ever since the resurrection of Christ, was consecrated for Christians: that is to say, to be a day of rest, as in (Revelation 1:10) Thirdly, who is the author that calls him, and what is the sum of his calling.

(g) Patmos is one of the islands of Sporas, where John was banished according to some historians.

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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-1.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

I John — So “I Daniel” (Daniel 7:28; Daniel 9:2; Daniel 10:2). One of the many features of resemblance between the Old Testament and the New Testament apocalyptic seers. No other Scripture writer uses the phrase.

also — as well as being an apostle. The oldest manuscripts omit “also.” In his Gospel and Epistles he makes no mention of his name, though describing himself as “the disciple whom Jesus loved.” Here, with similar humility, though naming himself, he does not mention his apostleship.

companionGreek, “fellow partaker in the tribulation.” Tribulation is the necessary precursor of the kingdom,” therefore “the” is prefixed. This must be borne with “patient endurance.” The oldest manuscripts omit “in the” before “kingdom.” All three are inseparable: the tribulation, kingdom and endurance.

patience — Translate, “endurance.” “Persevering, enduring continuance” (Acts 14:22); “the queen of the graces (virtues)” [Chrysostom].

of, etc. — The oldest manuscripts read “IN Jesus,” or “Jesus Christ.” It is IN Him that believers have the right to the kingdom, and the spiritual strength to enable them to endure patiently for it.

wasGreek, “came to be.”

in  …  Patmos — now Patmo or Palmosa. See on Introduction on this island, and John‘s exile to it under Domitian, from which he was released under Nerva. Restricted to a small spot on earth, he is permitted to penetrate the wide realms of heaven and its secrets. Thus John drank of Christ‘s cup, and was baptized with His baptism (Matthew 20:22).

forGreek, “for the sake of,” “on account of”; so, “because of the word of God and  …  testimony.” Two oldest manuscripts omit the second “for”; thus “the Word of God” and “testimony of Jesus” are the more closely joined. Two oldest manuscripts omit “Christ.” The Apocalypse has been always appreciated most by the Church in adversity. Thus the Asiatic Church from the flourishing times of Constantine less estimated it. The African Church being more exposed to the cross always made much of it [Bengel].

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-1.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

1 John (Εγω ΙωανηςEgō Iōanēs). So Revelation 22:8. In apocalyptic literature the personality of the writer is always prominent to guarantee the visions (Daniel 8:1; Daniel 10:2).

Partaker with you (συνκοινωνοςsunkoinōnos). See note on 1 Corinthians 9:23. “Co-partner with you” (Romans 11:17). One article with αδελποςadelphos and συνκοινωνοςsunkoinōnos unifying the picture. The absence of αποστολοςapostolos here does not show that he is not an apostle, but merely his self-effacement, as in the Fourth Gospel, and still more his oneness with his readers. So there is only one article (τηιtēi) with τλιπσειthlipsei (tribulation), βασιλειαιbasileiāi (kingdom), υπομονηιhupomonēi (patience), ideas running all through the book. Both the tribulation (see Matthew 13:21 for τλιπσιςthlipsis) and the kingdom (see Matthew 3:2 for βασιλειαbasileia) were present realities and called for patience (υπομονηhupomonē being “the spiritual alchemy” according to Charles for those in the kingdom, for which see Luke 8:15; James 5:7). All this is possible only “in Jesus” (εν Ιησουen Iēsou), a phrase on a par with Paul‘s common εν Χριστωιen Christōi (in Christ), repeated in Revelation 14:13. Cf. Revelation 3:20; 2 Thessalonians 3:5.

Was (εγενομηνegenomēn). Rather, “I came to be,” second aorist middle indicative of γινομαιginomai the isle that is called Patmos (εν τηι νησωι τηι καλουμενηι Πατμωιen tēi nēsōi tēi kaloumenēi Patmōi). Patmos is a rocky sparsely settled island some ten miles long and half that wide, one of the Sporades group in the Aegean Sea, south of Miletus. The present condition of the island is well described by W. E. Geil in The Isle That Is Called Patmos (1905). Here John saw the visions described in the book, apparently written while still a prisoner there in exile.

For the word of God and the testimony of Jesus (δια τον λογον του τεου και την μαρτυριαν Ιησουdia ton logon tou theou kai tēn marturian Iēsou). The reason for (διαdia and the accusative) John‘s presence in Patmos, naturally as a result of persecution already alluded to, not for the purpose of preaching there or of receiving the visions. See Revelation 1:2 for the phrase.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

I John

Compare Daniel 7:28; Daniel 9:2; Daniel 10:2.

Who am also your brother ( ὁ καὶ ἀδελφὸς ὑμῶν )

Omit καὶ , also, and render as Rev., John your brother.

Companion ( συγκοινωνὸς )

Rev., better, partaker with you. See Philemon 1:7, and note on partners, Luke 5:10. Κοινωνὸς , is a partner, associate. Σύν strengthens the term: partner along with. Compare John's favorite word in the First Epistle, κοινωνία fellowship 1 John 1:3.

In the tribulation, etc.

Denoting the sphere or element in which the fellowship subsisted.

Tribulation ( θλίψει )

See on Matthew 13:21Persecution for Christ's sake, and illustrated by John's own banishment.

Kingdom ( βασιλείᾳ )

The present kingdom. Trench is wrong in saying that “while the tribulation is present the kingdom is only in hope.” On the contrary, it is the assurance of being now within the kingdom of Christ - under Christ's sovereignty, fighting the good fight under His leadership - which gives hope and courage and patience. The kingdom of God is a present energy, and it is a peculiality of John to treat the eternal life as already present. See John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:47, John 6:54; 1 John 5:11. “In all these things we are abundantly the conquerors (Romans 8:37sqq.). This may go to explain the peculiar order of the three words; tribulation and kingdom, two apparently antithetic ideas, being joined, with a true insight into their relation, and patience being added as the element through which the tribulation is translated into sovereignty. The reference to the future glorious consummation of the kingdom need not be rejected. It is rather involved in the present kingdom. Patience, which links the life of tribulation with the sovereignty of Christ here upon earth, likewise links it with the consummation of Christ's kingdom in heaven. Through faith and patience the subjects of that kingdom inherit the promises. “Rightly he says first 'in the tribulation' and adds afterwards 'in the kingdom,' because, if we suffer together we shall also reign together” (Richard of St. Victor, cited by Trench). Compare Acts 14:22.

Patience

See on 2 Peter 1:6; see on James 5:7.

Of Jesus Christ ( Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ )

The best texts omit Christ and insert ἐν inrendering, as Rev., “kingdom and patience which are in Jesus.”

Was ( ἐγενόμην )

Lit., I came to pass, i.e., I found myself: The past tense seems to imply that John was no longer in Patmos when he wrote.

Patmos

Now called Patmo and Palmosa. In the Aegean, one of the group of the Sporades, about twenty-eight miles S. S.W. of Samos. It is about ten miles long by six in breadth. The island is volcanic, and is bare and rocky throughout; the hills, of which the highest rises to nearly a thousand feet, commanding a magnificent view of the neighboring sea and islands. The bay of La Scala, running into the land on the east, divides the island into two nearly equal parts, a northern and a southern. The ancient town, remains of which are still to be seen, occupied the isthmus which separates La Scala from the bay of Merika on the western coast. The modern town is on a hill in the southern half of the island, clustered at the foot of the monastery of St. John. A grotto is shown called “the grotto of the Apocalypse,” in which the apostle is said to have received the vision. “The stern, rugged barrenness of its broken promontories well suits the historical fact of the relegation of the condemned Christian to its shores, as of a convict to his prison. The view from the topmost peak, or, indeed, from any lofty elevation in the islands, unfolds an unusual sweep such as well became the Apocalypse, the unveiling of the future to the eyes of the solitary seer. Above, there was always the broad heaven of a Grecian sky; sometimes bright with its 'white cloud' (Revelation 14:14), sometimes torn with 'lightnings and thunderings,' and darkened by 'great hail,' or cheered with 'a rainbow like unto an emerald' (Revelation 4:3; Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:21). Over the high tops of Icaria, Samos, and Naxos rise the mountains of Asia Minor; amongst which would lie, to the north, the circle of the Seven Churches to which his addresses were to be sent. Around him stood the mountains and islands of the Archipelago (Revelation 6:14; Revelation 16:20). When he looked round, above or below, 'the sea' would always occupy the foremost place … the voices of heaven were like the sound of the waves beating on the shore, as 'the sound of many waters' (Revelation 14:2; Revelation 19:6); the millstone was 'cast into the sea' (Revelation 18:21); the sea was to 'give up the dead which were in it' (Revelation 20:13)” (Stanley, “Sermons in the East”).

For the word of God ( διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ )

For is because of: on account of. The expression is commonly explained with reference to John's banishment as a martyr for Christian truth. Some, however, especially those who desire to overthrow John's authorship of the book, explain that he was in Patmos for the sake of preaching the word there, or in order to receive a communication of the word of God. Apart, however, from the general tone of John's address, which implies a season of persecution, the phrase for the word of God occurs in two passages where the meaning cannot be doubtful; Revelation 6:9, and Revelation 20:4.

Testimony ( μαρτυρίαν )

See on John 1:7.

Of Jesus Christ

Omit Christ.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

I John — The instruction and preparation of the apostle for the work are described from the ninth to the twentieth verse. Revelation 1:9-20 Your brother - In the common faith.

And companion in the affliction — For the same persecution which carried him to Patmos drove them into Asia. This book peculiarly belongs to those who are under the cross. It was given to a banished man; and men in affliction understand and relish it most. Accordingly, it was little esteemed by the Asiatic church, after the time of Constantine; but highly valued by all the African churches, as it has been since by all the persecuted children of God.

In the affliction, and kingdom and patience of Jesus — The kingdom stands in the midst. It is chiefly under various afflictions that faith obtains its part in the kingdom; and whosoever is a partaker of this kingdom is not afraid to suffer for Jesus, 2 Timothy 2:12.

I was in the island Patmos — In the reign of Domitian and of Nerva. And there he saw and wrote all that follows. It was a place peculiarly proper for these visions. He had over against him, at a small distance, Asia and the seven churches; going on eastward, Jerusalem and the land of Canaan; and beyond this, Antioch, yea, the whole continent of Asia. To the west, he had Rome, Italy, and all Europe, swimming, as it were, in the sea; to the south, Alexandria and the Nile with its outlets, Egypt, and all Africa; and to the north, what was afterwards called Constantinople, on the straits between Europe and Asia. So he had all the three parts of the world which were then known, with all Christendom, as it were, before his eyes; a large theatre for all the various scenes which were to pass before him: as if this island had been made principally for this end, to serve as an observatory for the apostle. For preaching the word of God he was banished thither, and for the testimony of Jesus - For testifying that he is the Christ.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-1.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Patmos. Exile to the small islands of the Egean Sea was a common mode of punishment in those times. Patmos was not very far from the coast of Asia Minor, nearly opposite to Miletus.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/revelation-1.html. 1878.

Scofield's Reference Notes

isle

From Revelation 1:1 to Revelation 1:20 the Seer is on the earth, looking at the vision of Christ; Revelation 2:1 to Revelation 3:22 he is on the earth looking forward through the church-age; Revelation 4:1 to Revelation 11:1 he is "in the Spirit" (Revelation 4:2; cf Ezekiel 3:12-14) observing things in heaven and on earth; Revelation 11:1 to Revelation 11:12 he is in Jerusalem with the two witnesses. Revelation 11:13 to the end he is in heaven observing and recording things in heaven and upon the earth.

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 1:9". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-1.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

9 I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

Ver. 9. In the kingdom and patience] Christ hath a twofold kingdom; 1. Of power; 2. Of patience. Nec nisi per angusta ad augusta, &c. I have no stronger argument against the pope’s kingdom, saith Luther, quam quod sine cruce regnat, than this, that he reigns without the cross. The glory of Christ’s Church (said George Marsh, martyr) stands not in outward shows, in the harmonious sound of bells and organs, nor yet in the glistering of mitres and copes, &c., but in continual labours and daily afflictions for his name’s sake. (Acts and Mon. fol. 1423.)

Was in the isle Patmos] He tells us not how he came thither, he boasteth not of his banishment. Virtus proprio contenta theatro, Virtue is no braggart. Eusebius telleth us that he was banished thither by Domitian; and that there he wrote his Revelation. In allusion whereunto, Luther called the place Patmos where he lay hidden by the elector of Saxony, when the emperor had proscribed him, and promised a great reward to any one that should bring him alive or dead to the court. Here it was that Luther translated the New Testament into Dutch, and wrote divers useful treatises, viz. at Wartburg, his Patmos. (Scultet. Annul.)

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-1.html. 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Revelation 1:9

The Fellowship of the Kingdom of Patience.

I. The ultimate basis of our fellowship we find where we find everything—"in Jesus," for such is the literal phrase of our text. But it is hard to say here whether the individual or the community comes first. Both are in Jesus; "the Head of every man is Christ," and "He is the Head of the body." Union with the Lord, personal union, is the precious secret and deep foundation of all our fellowship. "He that is joined to the Lord is one spirit." The spirit common to Him and to His people makes them partakers with Christ and all His interests, even as Christ becomes a Partaker with us and all that is ours. The Christian is no longer his own; he has come out of himself; he has a new life, breathes in a new world, the sun, and the air, and the nourishment, and the life, and the end of which is the Lord. He is a man still, but a man in Christ.

II. Christ's presence is in the Church of earth; His glory, and ornaments, and symbolic attributes are all taken from the lower sanctuary; His right hand is strong with the power of a human-angel ministry. The candlesticks that receive their light from Him reflect on Him their glory. Hence the fellowship of Christ's kingdom has its sphere in the visible Church or Churches established throughout the world—the Churches, for they are seven; the Church, for seven is, as we see by the seven spirits, the symbol of unity in diversity. All true Churches are one in the unity of this common object: the kingdom of Jesus.

III. Every one of us is a companion in the service of the kingdom of the Cross. Such it is now, whatever its coming glories may be. The service of this kingdom has for its fundamental law personal self-sacrifice; no law was more constantly, none more sternly, none more affectingly, enforced by our Lord than this. Only by much tribulation do we enter into the kingdom of God; only by much tribulation does it enter into us.

IV. Tribulation worketh patience, is a principle of personal religion which we may carry into our relation to the great fellowship. The kingdom is one of slow development, and all who serve it must wait in patience, which is, like charity, one of its royal laws. Our apocalyptic patience has to do with the future; it is the "waiting for the end." We must labour in the patience of uncertainty. The Lord is at hand; but we must be found labouring as well as watching.

V. The glorious consummation will surely come. The bright prospect precedes our text and sheds its glory on it. "Behold, He cometh!" was the inspiring assurance in the strength of which the last Apostle greeted the Church: "I John, your brother and companion in this hope." Then will the kingdom be revealed without its ancient attributes of tribulation and patience.

W. B. Pope, Sermons and Charges, p. 64.


The Kinghood of Patience.

That is a very remarkable phrase, "the kingdom and patience." Kinghood, instead of being dissevered from patience, is bound up with it; the kingly virtues are all intertwined with patience and dependent on it. The kingdom, the Divine kingdom, is inherited through faith and patience; and the kingly man is the patient man.

I. In Jesus there are these two elements: dominion and patience. Nothing is more beautiful than the patience of Christ as related to His uncompromising fidelity to His standard of duty and of truth, His holding by His principles while He holds on at the same time to those slow, backward pupils in the school of faith and of self-sacrifice. Christ's mission, in its very nature, involved long, patient waiting. It was the mission of a sower, sowing seed of slow growth. The harvest of Christ's ideas was not going to be reaped in three years, nor in a hundred. He was content to await the slow growth of the Gospel seed, the slow pervasion of the Gospel leaven, to wait for the consummation of a sovereignty based on the spiritual transformation wrought by the Gospel. His course in this stands out as the sublimest illustration of patience in all time, and stamps Him as the true King of the ages.

II. Christ therefore by His own example, no less than by His word, commends to us this kingly virtue of patience. Each morning we wake to a twofold fight: with the world outside and with the self within. God help us if patience fail; God help us if there be not something within which keeps firm hold of the exceeding great and precious promises, which will not suffer faith to fail that He that hath begun a good work will perfect it, which is not disheartened at slow progress, and which, spite of the tears and the dust, keeps our faces turned toward the place where we know the crown and the glory are, though we cannot see them.

M. R. Vincent, The Covenant of Peace, p. 234.


I. Note the common royalty: "I John am a partaker with you in the kingdom."

II. Note the common road to that common royalty. "Tribulation" is the path by which all have to travel who attain the royalty.

III. Note the common temper in which the common road to the common royalty is to be trodden. "Patience" is the link, so to speak, between the kingdom and the tribulation.

A. Maclaren, The Unchanging Christ, p. 247.


References: Revelation 1:9.—J. M. Neale, Sermons for the Church Year, vol. i., p. 50. Revelation 1:9-16.—Homilist, 3rd series, vol. v., p. 266.

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Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/revelation-1.html.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Revelation 1:9. I John, The apostle, in this and the subsequent verses, mentions the place where the Revelation was given, and describes the manner and circumstances of the first vision: the place was Patmos. Ecclesiastical history tells us, that St. John was here employed in digging in a mine, being banished hither by Domitian the emperor, after he had come unhurt out of a cauldron of boiling oil; but the historical evidence produced for this latter event is very uncertain. Bishop Newton is of opinion, that St. John was banished by Nero.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/revelation-1.html. 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

9.] Description of the Writer, and of the place where the Revelation was seen. I John (so again ch. Revelation 22:8; so Daniel 8:1; Daniel 9:2; Daniel 10:2) your brother (no inference can be drawn against the apostleship of the Writer from this his designation of himself. Indeed from his entire silence respecting himself in his Gospel, we may well believe that here, where mention of his name was absolutely required, it would be introduced thus humbly and unobtrusively), and fellow-partaker in the tribulation and kingdom and endurance in Jesus (the construction and arrangement are peculiar. The conjunction of these terms seems to be made to express, a partaker, as in the kingdom, so in the tribulation and endurance which are in and by Christ: but the insertion of βασιλείᾳ between θλίψει and ὑπομονῇ is startling, and the effect of it must be to make the construction zeugmatic, ἐν χρ. . not properly belonging to βασιλείᾳ. It can hardly be that the words are, as De W., “ordnungslos neben einander gestellt.” More probably, the tribulation brings in the kingdom (Acts 14:22), and then as a corrective to the idea that the kingdom in its blessed fulness was yet present, the ὑπομονή is subjoined. “Tres hæreditatum uncias introducit Johannes, quibus se participem ostendit. Sed media harum, i. e. regnum, possideri non potest, nisi et hic tribulatio exercuerit, et illic patientia defenderit.” Ambr(8) Ansbert), was (“befand mich:” not = ἦν, which announces the simple fact. When an event is notified with ἐγένετο, we express the meaning by “came to pass:” when a person, we have no word which will do it) in the island which is called Patmos (see Prolegomena, § ii. par. 4) on account of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus (the substantives form the same expression as occurred before Revelation 1:2, where see note. There they indicated this portion of the divine word and testimony, of which John was a faithful reporter. Whether their meaning is the same here, will depend partly on what sense we assign to the prep. διά. In St. Paul’s usage, as in reff., it would here signify for the sake of, i. e. for the purpose of receiving: so that the Apostle would thus have gone to Patmos by special revelation in order to receive this ἀποκάλυψις. Again, keeping to this meaning of διὰ, these words may mean, that he had visited Patmos in pursuance of, for the purposes of, his ordinary apostolic employment, which might well be designated by these substantives. And such perhaps would have been our acceptation of the words, but that three objections intervene. 1) From what has preceded in this verse, a strong impression remains on the mind that St. John wrote this in a season of tribulation and persecution. Why should he throw over his address this tinge of suffering given by the θλῖψις and ὑπομονή, if this were not the case? De W. will not allow this: but to my mind Hofmann is quite right in pressing it (Weiss. u. Erfull. ii. 308). 2) The usage of our Writer himself in two passages where he speaks of death by persecution (reff.) shews that with him διὰ in this connexion is “because of,” “in consequence of.” De W. naively says that had it not been for these parallel places, such a meaning would never have been thought of here. We may as simply reply, that owing to those parallel places, it must be accepted here. St. John’s own usage is a better guide in St. John’s writings than that of St. Paul. And Origen’s ear found no offence in this usage, for he incorporated it into his own sentence, … κατεδίκασε τὸν ἰωάννην μαρτυροῦντα διὰ τὸν τῆς ἀληθείας λόγον εἰς πάτμον τὴν νῆσον. See the passage, Prolegg. § i. par. 12. 3) An early patristic tradition relates that St. John was banished to Patmos. See the authorities in the Prolegg. ut supra, and the question discussed, whether we are justified in ascribing this tradition solely to our present passage. These considerations, mainly those arising from the passage itself, compel us, I believe, to understand the words of an exile in Patmos).

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/revelation-1.html. 1863-1878.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

The preface being ended in the foregoing verses, here begins the body or visionary part of this book; the first vision is here before us, concerning the seven Asian churches.

In which vision we have observable, 1. The person that received it, he is described by his name, John, I John; by his spiritual relation, I John your brother; by his then present condition, your companion in tribulation, undergoing like sufferings with you; your companion in the kingdom of Christ, that is, in expecting of, and hoping for, the same kingdom of heaven and glory which ye expect; and I am also your companion in patience, called the patience of Jesus Christ, because in his word he requires it, because by his Spirit he produces it, because in his own example he gave us a pattern of it: and perhaps principally because the present state of the kingdom of Christ in this world calls for it.

Observe, 2. The place where St. John received this vision; in the isle of Patmos, not far from the Asian churches, into which the emperor Domitian banished him, having, as is said, cast him first into a caldron of burning oil, out of which he miraculously escaped. Ecclesiastical history says, St. John was very near an hundred years old, when he was by that bloody emperor banished into Patmos, for preaching the word of God, and for bearing testimony for this truth, that Jesus Christ was the Saviour of the world.

Learn, That the greatest honour which an apostle, an aged apostle, a beloved apostle, can be admitted to the participation of, is to suffer banishment and death for bearing a faithful testimony of Jesus Christ.

Observe, 3. The time when St. John had this glorious vision of Christ, communion with him, and communications from him: it was upon the Lord's day; I was in the Spirit, that is, in spiritual meditation, in spiritual ecstasy, in a transporting rapture by the Spirit, under his more immediate illumination and powerful influences; on the Lord's day, namely, the first day of the week, so called, because Christ at his resurrection took possession of it for his own, and because applied to his special worship and service, and as such religiously observed by the apostles, Acts 20:7 and by the universal church, ever since the apostle's days.

In that St. John, in a solitary island, kept the Christian Sabbath, we learn, that the religious observation of the Lord's is a duty incumbent upon all persons and in all places.

Learn, 2. How Christ owned his own day, and encouraged St. John in his religious and strict observation of it, by the influence of his Holy Spirit upon him, and by communicating extraordinary revelations to him; I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice.

Observe, 4. The vision and revelation itself, which began with his hearing a loud voice like a trumpet; that is, the voice of like a trumpet; that is, the voice of Christ, full of majesty and power, spake unto him, saying, What thou seest, that is what thou shalt see and hear, write in a book, and send it to the seven churches.

Here note, 1. That the book of the Revelation was written by Christ's own direction, therefore warranted to be of divine authority.

Note, 2. That what Christ commanded St. John carefully to write, it becomes us heedfully to read; for though what St. John wrote and sent concerned the seven Asian churches at that time, and had a particular respect to their present state; yet all scripture is written for our learning, and we are to beg spiritual wisdom from God to make a right use and holy improvement of what is written.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-1.html. 1700-1703.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 1:9. ἐγὼ ἰωάννης. The name as in Revelation 1:3. [See Notes on Introduction, pp. .] The combination of the ἐγώ with the name(667) is after the manner of Daniel.(668) In the same way, the authors of 4 Ezra(669) and the Book of Enoch(670) conform to Daniel’s model. The formula must not be regarded as determined by the intention of the composer to distinguish himself from the speaker in Revelation 1:8.(671)

John not only calls himself the brother of the readers, in the sense justified by the communicative style of Revelation 1:5-6,(672) but especially emphasizes what is supposed in the relation of a brother: καὶ συγκοινωνὸς ἐν τῇ θλίψει, κ. τ. λ. The inner combination of this idea with ἀδελρὸς ὑ΄ῶν is to be inferred from the fact of the non-repetition of the article. The έν(673) designates the θλῖψις, etc., as the sphere in which the fellowship(674) occurs, in distinction from the objective conception of the customary genitive. So, too, the ἐν stands in the ἐν ἰησοῦ, belonging to all three terms, θλιψ., βασιλ., and ὑπομ., whereby the Lord and Saviour represents himself as the personal ground of the tribulation and kingdom and patience of all those to whom Revelation 1:5-6 pertain. A comparison has here been incorrectly made with the dissimilar ideas of Colossians 1:24, 2 Corinthians 1:15.(675) Cf., on the other hand, Philippians 2:1, παράκλησις ἑν χριστῷ.

The θλῖψις ( ἐν ἰησοῦ) is the affliction,(676) which, “for the name of Christ,”(677) has been infallibly prepared for believers, on the part of the hating and persecuting world.(678) But, as this suffering, so also does the royal glory possessed already by believers, and yet hoped for(679) in its full manifestation, lie “in Jesus” himself. Hence, e.g., Revelation 3:21, the promise in the mouth of Christ.

Finally John adds yet the ὑπομονή ( ἐν ἰησοῦ), as the item ordinarily mediating between the two preceding,(680) which, therefore, is an important subject of the prophetic exhortation.(681) There is no hendiadys, either in the first or the last of the two conceptions.(682)

In connection with the self-designation of the composer as ἀδελφὸς ὑμῶν, the entire expression καὶ συγκοιν.

ἰησ., whose fundamental universality is marked by the three terms θλῖψις, βασιλεία, and ὑπομονὴ, cannot be decisive as to the words ἐγενόμην

μαρτυρίαν ἰησοῦ having definite reference to the θλῖψις just mentioned, and therefore being understood necessarily of the banishment of John, whether of the apostle(683) or another John.(684) The incorrect emphasizing and specializing of the θλῖψις likewise leads N. de Lyra to think of the legend according to which the apostle was cast into seething oil. As most plausible for the traditional explanation, the usage of the δία, Revelation 6:9, Revelation 20:4, is cited: but in these passages we find the determinative expressions ἐσφραγμ., πεπελεκισμ.; and a comparison may also be made with Matthew 13:21; Matthew 24:9; John 15:21. But the exposition proposed by Bleek, Lücke, and De Wette, according to which the δία indicates that John was in Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus,—i.e., to receive the same [see Notes on Introduction, p. 91],—is decided to be correct by: (1) The in any case near parallelism of Revelation 1:1-2. (2) The circumstance that μαρτυρία ἰησοῦ, according to the usage of the composer of the Apoc., cannot in any way be “the testimony concerning Jesus:”(685) for what Wolf remarks on 1, 2, is entirely wrong; viz., “As often as the word μαρτυρία occurs in the Apoc., so often does it signify the testimony concerning Christ given by others.” But the genitive with μαρτυρία is always subjective; so that the expression μαρτ. ἰησοῦ signifies regularly(686) that given by Jesus (the faithful witness, Revelation 1:5), and the μαρτ. αὐτῶν the testimony given by the αὐτοί,(687) in which latter case the contents of the μαρτυρία are synonymous. This firm rule, Revelation 6:9(688) by no means invalidates. The testimony proceeding from Jesus, because of which John was in Patmos,(689)—according to Volkmar, only an item in the account,—is, thus, that which he was to receive(690) in the Spirit.(691) Thus, even in an exegetical way, the opinion(692) is incorrect, that John had gone to Patmos in order to preach, which even in itself would be highly improbable on account of the character of the small, sparsely inhabited island. John himself intimates that the island is insignificant, by writing ἐν τῇ νήσῳ τῇ καλουμένῃ.(693) Patmos, to-day called Patino or Palmosa, belongs to the Sporades. Tournefort(694) found on it only a small town; there is pointed out, besides a sarcophagus with John’s remains, the grotto in which the apostle is said to have received the Apoc.(695) By the aorist form ἐγενόμην,(696) it is clearly implied,(697) that when John wrote the Revelation he was no longer on Patmos. To make the command (Revelation 1:11) conflict with this conception,(698) is only to say,(699) that, “as the revelation came to an end, the book also was finished.” Regard for the readers(700) cannot explain(701) the aor. ἐγενό΄ην, because in this word there is no reference to writing.

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-1.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 1:9. ἐν τῇ θλίψει, in tribulation) This book has most relish for the faithful in tribulation.(16) The Asiatic Church, especially since its most flourishing time under Constantine, set too little value upon this book. You can scarcely find any trace of a quotation from the Apocalypse in the doctors of Constantinople: where it is quoted in the works of Chrysostom, this very fact is a proof of interpolation. The African Church, more exposed to the cross, always valued this book very highly.— καὶ βασιλείᾳ καὶ ὑπομονῇ, and in the kingdom and in patience) These things are also joined together, 2 Timothy 2:12. Patience of hope (1 Thessalonians 1:3) has abundant nourishment in the Apocalypse. The order of the words is worthy of notice: affliction, and the kingdom, and patience: together with the first and third of these, the second also is given.— ἐγενόμην ἐν τῇ νήσῳ) γενέσθαι ἐν ῥώμῃ, is to arrive at Rome, 2 Timothy 1:17. John therefore in this passage conveys the idea, that he had been conveyed to the Isle of Patmos, and that, after his arrival, he had heard and seen these things, which he relates. Nor does the past time here used prevent us from thinking that the Apocalypse was written in Patmos: for the ancients, in writing, adapted the tenses of the verbs to the time at which the writing was read, and not to that at which it was written: Acts 15:27, We have sent. This appears an unimportant observation, but it applies a remedy to great errors.— τῇ καλουμένῃ, which is called) There are some who omit this participle; and rightly so, as it seems.(17) Whether you read it or not, Patmos; although near to Asia, was not known to all the inhabitants of Asia: therefore John mentions that Patmos is an island. But Cyprus, a celebrated island, is mentioned by itself, Acts 13:4; nor is it called the island Cyprus; much less, the island which is called Cyprus.— πάτμῳ, Patmos) (John) was there in the time of Domitian and Nerva. Artemonius (in L. de Init. Ev. John, 350) thinks that the opinion held respecting the life of John, as continuing until the close of Domitian’s reign, or the commencement of Trajan’s, is false indeed, and had its origin in a confounding of two Johns. But Peter suffered martyrdom under Nero: and John long survived Peter: John 21:22. But he wrote the Apocalypse not long before his death. For you cannot say that one part of it was written under Claudius, another under Domitian or Nerva, since it is one Apocalypse, one prophecy, one book. Nor is Epiphanius, who thinks that it was published under Claudius—that is, before the death of Peter under Nero—alone of the ancients to be preferred to Irenæus and all the rest. The title of the Syriac version is still more recent. But you will ask, Why does John use more Hebraisms in the Apocalypse than in the Gospel? Was it not at the time of his writing the Apocalypse that he became accustomed at length to the Greek language? For he wrote the Gospel before the destruction of Jerusalem, but the Apocalypse after it. But in fact the whole style of John, and especially in the prophetical parts, takes its form, not from accustomed habit, but from Divine dictation, the resources of which are boundless.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

I John, who also am your brother; the same mentioned Revelation 1:4, the apostle of Jesus Christ, yet he disdaineth not to call those his brethren whom his Lord so called.

And companion in tribulation: the pagan persecutions were now begun. Nero first began them about twenty-three years after Christ was ascended into heaven, but he died within three years’ time after he had began that course. Then the Christians had some rest for twelve years, by reason of the short reigns of Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, and the kindness of Flavius and Titus Vespasianus; but about eighty-two years after Christ began Domitian to reign, and to persecute the Christians about the year 90. He lived not long, for he was slain Anno 97, but in those seven years he put to death, imprisoned, and banished many. John is said to have been banished by him, Anno 91, and to have had this revelation, 94 and 95. Domitian lived but four or five years after this. After his death John is said to have come back to Ephesus, and to have died there three years after, about the year 98. But for five years John was the Christians’ companion in tribulation.

And in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ; either the kingdom of grace, a member of the Christian church; or the kingdom of glory, which is to be arrived at both by patient waiting and by patient suffering for Jesus Christ, or waiting for the second appearance of Christ, in order to his glorious kingdom.

Was in the isle that is called Patmos: this island, geographers tell us, was an island in the Icarian or Ægean Sea, about thirty-five miles in compass, one of those fifty-three islands called the Cyclades.

For the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ: he tells us how he came to be in Patmos, viz. for preaching the word of God, and those truths to which Christ had given testimony: he did not voluntarily go thither to preach the gospel, (for those isles have in them few inhabitants), but he was banished thither by the emperor Domitian’s officers. Banishment was a very ordinary punishment amongst the Romans, in case of what they would call sedition. Eusebius tells us, that one Flavia Dometilla, though she was niece to the consul, was banished upon the same account at this time.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-1.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

в скорби и в царствии и в терпении Иоанн и его верующие читатели имели характерные черты, которые сближали их: 1) их преследовали за веру; 2) они состояли в общине искупленных, над которой Бог был Господом и Царем; 3) они неустанно ожидали прихода славного тысячелетия Его царствования на земле и 4) они проявляли стойкость и упорство, несмотря на трудные времена.

на острове, называемом Патмос Расположенный в Эгейском море, недалеко от берегов Асии (современная Турция), и входящий в состав группы из 50 островов, Патмос – это бесплодный, каменистый, имеющий форму полумесяца остров, около 10 миль (16 км) длиной и менее 6 миль (9,6 км) в самом широком месте. Он был штрафной колонией Римской Империи. Как утверждает ранний христианский историк Евсевий, освободил Иоанна с острова Патмос император Нерва (96– 98 по Р.Х.).

(1:9-17) Этот образ Христа по своей грандиозности эквивалентен только картине Его второго пришествия как Царя царей и Господа господствующих (19:11-16).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-1.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Brother-companion; a fellow-Christian, who, with others, was suffering persecution on account of his religion.

Patmos; a desolate island in the Aegean sea.

For the word of God; on account of my fidelity in preaching it. He had been banished to Patmos by the persecutors of Christianity.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-1.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

THE FIRST VISION.

‘I John, your brother, and partaker with you in the tribulation and kingdom and patient endurance in Jesus, was in the isle that is called Patmos for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.’

Now begins the first vision. It is written by John to the seven churches of Asia Minor. He is on the isle of Patmos, a small island in the Aegean sea. He describes himself as their brother. This is significant because it is an indication of how closely he is aligning himself with them in what is to come.

He is a ‘partaker with you in the tribulation and kingdom (kingly rule) and patient endurance which are in Jesus’. Thus he aligns himself with them in what lies ahead. Tribulation and patient endurance are ever the lot of the Christian (Acts 14:22; Romans 5:3), and this is a main theme of the book. The intermission of the idea of the ‘kingdom’ (kingly rule) stresses that present experience of the kingdom is tied up with tribulation and patient endurance. What they endure for Christ’s sake is confirmation that they are in the kingdom. (We could translate ‘the tribulation of the kingdom’, for that is what is in mind).

He was there ‘for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus’. This refers back to Revelation 1:2 where he was there to ‘bear witness of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus, even of all things that he SAW’. So the word of God and the testimony of Jesus of which he speaks is descriptive of the things that he ‘saw’, the things that are about to be described. It refers to the coming revelation which he is there to see and receive. But that it sums up Christian testimony is seen by the fact that the people of God who have already died in persecution also did so ‘for the word of God and for the testimony that they held’ (Revelation 6:9).

But bearing witness to the word of God through his visions includes bearing witness to Him Who is the Word of God (Revelation 19:13 compare John 1:1-14; 1 John 1:1). Indeed, in view of the fact that both John’s Gospel and John’s general epistle begin with He Who is ‘the Word’, it may well be we should see ‘the word of God’ in Revelation 1:2 and here as referring to Him Who is ‘the Word of God’. Either way it includes Him for He is the central element in the word of God.

Whether John was there by choice or as a prisoner of the Roman Empire we do not know, although later external testimony suggests the latter. His reference to being a ‘partaker with you in the tribulation’ may hint at this also. But whatever brought him there he is stressing that he was essentially there in God’s purpose, that he might receive God’s revelation.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-1.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

John now addressed directly the seven churches to which he sent this epistolary prophecy. He described himself to his readers as their brother in Christ and a partaker with them in three things. These were, first, the religious persecution they were presently experiencing as a result of their faith in Jesus Christ. This is a reference to the general tribulations that all Christians experience (cf. Matthew 20:22-23; John 16:33; Acts 12:2; Acts 14:22; Romans 8:17; 2 Timothy 2:12; 2 Timothy 3:12), not to the Tribulation yet future (cf. Revelation 2:22; Revelation 7:14). Second, they shared in the present and future kingdom of Jesus Christ (cf. ch20; Luke 12:32; Luke 22:29; 1 Thessalonians 2:12; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; James 2:5). Third, they were persevering as they remained steadfast in the midst of affliction.

"This illustrates the broad spectrum of other areas, besides afflictions, that are shared by believers, but fellowship in suffering is one of the most frequent, if not the most frequent, among the stock of primitive Christian ideas. This is an indispensable element of Christian discipleship and following the example of Jesus ( 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 4:13; cf. also 2 Corinthians 1:7; Philippians 3:10; 1 Peter 5:1)." [Note: Thomas, Revelation 1-7, p85.]

John was on Patmos as a result of his witness, not primarily to receive this revelation from God (cf. Revelation 6:9). [Note: Henry Alford, The Greek Testament, 4:553.] According to the writings of several early church fathers (i.e, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Victorinus), the Romans sent John as a prisoner from Ephesus, where he pastored, to the island of Patmos in A.D95. [Note: See Beckwith, pp434-35; Smith, p49; Walvoord, p41; et al.] There he worked in the mines (quarries). Patmos stood in the Aegean Sea just southwest of Ephesus. It was10 miles long and six miles wide at its widest (northern) end, and it served as a penal colony for political prisoners of Rome. John remained there until shortly after the Emperor Domitian died in A.D96. Domitian"s successor, Nerva, allowed John to return to Ephesus. [Note: Johnson, p424. See Appendix1, "Roman Emperors in New Testament Times," at the end of these notes.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-1.html. 2012.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

III THE PREFATORY VISION (Chapter 1:9-18)

(1) The place of the vision.

The location of the vision was "in the isle that is called Patmos." This island has been described as a small rocky and rugged region off the barren coast of Asia Minor, approximately twenty-five miles from the mainland in the Aegean sea--a gulf of the Great Sea (the Mediterranean), which formed the coastal provinces of Mysia, Lydia, Phrygia and Caria, and in which were situated all the seven churches of Asia, mentioned in the vision. Tradition claims that John was banished by the Roman government and exiled on Patmos. There is no conclusive scriptural evidence nor verified factual history to sustain this traditional claim, and it stands somewhat on the same basis as the Petrine tradition that the apostle Peter once resided in Rome. It is not said in the text, nor necessarily implied in the contents of Revelation, that John was a prisoner on Patmos. If John was a prisoner on Patmos, as Paul was a prisoner in Rome, it is singularly strange, if not unaccountable, that no mention was made of it, and no reference was made to it, by himself or in any other New Testament epistle.

(2) The purpose of the vision.

"For the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ"--1:9.

The English preposition for in this passage is dia, which Professor Terry states that, by its established usage with the accusative, means for the sake of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ. It gives the ground or the reason for John's presence on Patmos: that the reason for being there was no other than to receive the revelation, that is, for the vision itself--for "the testimony of Jesus Christ" and "of all things that he saw," and not because of banishment and exile. The coupling of the testimony with the vision in verse 2, supports the view that he was there to receive the things that he saw, and that these things were themselves the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ, for which he was there.

A further evidence of this concept in John's own statement, in chapter 10:11, of his intention to leave Patmos for an active itinerary among the people of many nations, to carry to them in personal evangelism the testimony of this apocalypse. If John had been prisoner in exile, no such liberty existed on which to base such an announcement, for he was imprisoned on Patmos, and his status would have been no different from Paul's imprisonment in Rome.

Further comparisons in the context will support the purpose, not the consequence, of the determinative expression for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ. It is worthy of notation here that the similar expressions "for the word of God" and "for the witness of Jesus," in Revelation 6:9; Revelation 20:4, are in another context and carry another connotation, therefore do not warrant the same construction as in Revelation 1:2; Revelation 1:9. In one the testimony was being received; in the other it was being upheld.

(3) The companionship of suffering and citizenship.

1. "I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation"--1:9.

The common ground of fellowship between John and the members of the Asian churches was not his apostleship. It was the brotherhood relation and the mutual participation in the sufferings existing and anticipated. He was speaking not of the incident of his presence on Patmos, or of imprisonment there, but rather to the threat of the gathering and darkening clouds of persecution, such as mentioned in the letters to Smyrna, Thyatira and Philadelphia; particularly as related to its then present and incipient stage; and as in Hebrews 10:31-39, the portent of the things to come.

2. "And in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ" --1:9.

The preposition in with the conjunction and--that is, the phrase in tribulation and the kingdom and the patience of Jesus Christ--joins the three together as existing and present. It follows that if John was not in the kingdom then, and if we are not in the kingdom now--then John was not in Jesus Christ then, and we are not in Jesus Christ now. But the apostle, in Colossians 1:13-14, declares that all the Colossians who were delivered from darkness had thereby been translated into the kingdom when they received redemption in Christ.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-1.html. 1966.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 1:9. Again the apocalyptic writer, after the manner of the prophets, especially Daniel, names himself (comp. Daniel 7:15, Daniel 8:1; Daniel 8:15, Daniel 9:2, Daniel 10:2, Daniel 12:5). But he is not only a prophet: he is not less personally concerned than those to whom he writes in the revelation which he is to declare. He is their brother, and he is a fellow-partaker with them in the things of which he speaks. In what a touching light does St. John thus present himself to the afflicted Church! But the words which he uses are more than touching. They take for granted that all who read are feeling as acutely as himself; and such is the nature of the Apocalypse, that, unless we either are or put ourselves as far as possible into his position, we shall never understand the book. For an afflicted Church, and not for a Church in worldly prosperity and ease, it has its meaning. The things spoken of by the apostle are three in number, and they are bound together into one conception, although the first is the main particular to be dwelt on, the other two being only additional and explicative (comp. on John 14:6). The first is tribulation, ‘the tribulation’ through which the followers of the Lord in every age must pass; but the mention of it is followed by that of the kingdom, the present, not the future kingdom; and the patience, the stedfast endurance which holds out to the end amidst all sorrow, the patience of which we are so strikingly told by our Lord in Luke 21:19, that in it we shall ‘win our souls’ (later reading; comp. Revised Version). These, too, are in Jesus,—not ‘of’ Jesus as if only His spirit were made ours, nor ‘for’ Jesus as if only we were suffering and rejoicing and enduring for His sake, but ‘in’ Him, believers being one with Him, and therefore partakers of His trials, His royalty, and His heavenly strength.

Was; literally, ‘became,’ passed into, an expression, be it noted, that supports, though it could not have originated, the tradition of the writer’s banishment.

In the isle that is called Patmos, a small and barren island in the Egean Sea, such as those to which it was customary at that period to banish prisoners. To this island it is generally supposed that St. John was exiled in the time of the Roman Emperor Domitian, and the following words are in harmony with the supposition that this was the explanation of his being there.

Because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. The ‘word of God’ is that which comes from God, the ‘testimony of Jesus’ that which is given by Jesus; but they cannot be limited here, as at Revelation 1:2, to the revelation of this book (comp. also chaps. Revelation 6:9, Revelation 20:4). All revelation may be so described. Revelation 1:10.

Was; literally, ‘became,’ see on Revelation 1:9. It was not his ordinary condition (comp. Ezekiel 2:2).—In the spirit. The expression occurs four times in the book, each time at a great crisis in the development of the visions (chaps. Revelation 1:10, Revelation 4:2, Revelation 17:3, Revelation 21:10). It denotes removal in thought from this material scene, elevation into the higher region of spiritual realities, transportation into the midst of the sights and sounds of the invisible world.

On the Lord’s day. Certainly not the last day, the great day of judgment, known in the New Testament by a different expression, ‘the day of the Lord,’ and before which, not on which, the events of the Apocalypse take place, but the first day of the week (comp. the expression used by St. Paul, ‘the Lord’s Supper,’ in 1 Corinthians 11:20). Yet the words are not to be regarded as a simple designation of the first day of the week in its distinction from the others. The nature and character of the day are to be kept particularly in view. It is the day of the ‘Lord,’ the risen and glorified Lord, the day of Him who, thus risen and glorified, had founded that Church against which no enemies shall prevail. Wrapt therefore in contemplation of the glory of this Lord; not simply with the peaceful influences of the day of rest diffused over his soul, but dwelling amidst the thoughts of that authority and power which are possessed by the risen Jesus at the right hand of the Father, St. John receives the revelation which is here communicated to him.

Thus, then, we have both the outward and the inward circumstances of the Seer; and it will be observed that they correspond closely to the condition of the Lord Himself. St. John is at once in a state of humiliation and of exaltation. He has the marks of suffering upon him, but he is also in possession of a glory which enables him to triumph over suffering: he is ‘in Jesus.’

The vision follows, and the first part of it is the hearing of a great voice as of a trumpet. There can be little doubt that the trumpet spoken of is that so frequently alluded to in the Old Testament, the Shophar, the trumpet of war and judgment (see more fully on chap. Revelation 8:2), not the trumpet of festal proclamation; therefore not merely (as most commentators) one with a strong and clear sound, but with a sound inspiring awe and terror, and corresponding in this respect to the distinguishing characteristic of the Lord in the further details of the vision.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-1.html. 1879-90.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Revelation 1:9. I John — The instruction and preparation of the apostle for the work are described from the 9th to the 20th verse: your brother — In the common faith: and companion in tribulation — For the same book peculiarly belongs to those who are under the cross. It was given to a banished man; and men in affliction understand and relish it most. Accordingly, it was little esteemed by the Asiatic churches after the time of Constantine; but highly valued by all the African churches; as it has been since by all the persecuted children of God. In the tribulation, and kingdom, and patience of Jesus Christ — The kingdom stands in the midst. It is chiefly under various afflictions that faith obtains its part in the kingdom. And whosoever is partaker of this kingdom, is not afraid to suffer for Jesus, 2 Timothy 2:12. I was in the isle that is called Patmos — A desolate island in the Archipelago, now called Palmosa, mountainous, but moderately fruitful, especially in wheat and pulse, though defective in other commodities. The whole circumference of the island is about thirty miles; and on one of its mountains stands a town of the same name, having on the top of it a monastery of Greek monks; and on the north side of the town the inhabitants, by tradition, show a house in which the Apocalypse was written, and, not far off, the cave where it was revealed; both places of great esteem and veneration with the Greeks and Latins. To this island, after he had come unhurt out of a caldron of boiling oil, he was banished for the word of God — Namely, for preaching it; and for the testimony of Jesus — For testifying that he is the Christ: in other words, he was banished for the confession of the gospel. This, according to the testimony of Irenæus, who was the disciple of Polycarp, who had been the disciple of St. John, was in the reign of the Emperor Domitian; and, if we may credit ecclesiastical history, he was here employed in digging in a mine. But the historical evidence produced for this is very uncertain. One thing, however, is certain, that it was in this island he received the wonderful discoveries which make the subjects of this book. There he saw and wrote all that follows. And it was a place peculiarly proper for these visions. He had over against him, at a small distance, Asia and the seven churches; going on eastward, Jerusalem and the land of Canaan; and beyond this, Antioch, yea, the whole continent of Asia. To the west he had Rome, Italy, and all Europe, swimming as it were in the sea; to the south Alexandria and the Nile, with its outlets; Egypt and all Africa; and to the north, what was afterward called Constantinople, on the straits between Europe and Asia. So he had all the three parts of the world which were then known, with Christendom, as it were before his eyes: a large theatre, for all the various scenes which were to pass before him: as if this island had been made principally for this end, to serve as an observatory for the apostle.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/revelation-1.html. 1857.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

who also am. Omit.

companion = partaker, as Romans 11:17. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:7; &c.

tribulation = the tribulation. Here; Revelation 2:9, Revelation 2:10, Revelation 2:22; Revelation 7:14.

in the. The texts omit.

kingdom and patience. With this "kingdom" the "tribulation" is specially connected. Figure of speech Hendiatris (App-6). See Acts 14:22.

patience. Occurs seven times in Rev. Compare Luke 21:19. 2 Thessalonians 3:5.

of. The texts read "in" (Greek. en).

Jesus. App-98.

Christ. The texts omit.

was = came to be.

Patimos. An island (mod. Patino) about thirty miles south-west of Samos.

for. App-104. Revelation 1:2. Nothing to indicate that John had been "banished".

for. The texts omit.

Christ. The texts omit.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

I John - so 'I Daniel' (Rev. ; 9:2; 10:2 ). One of many resemblances between the Old and the New Testament apocalyptic seers. No other Scripture writer uses the phrase.

Also. 'Aleph (') A B C omit "also." In his gospel and letters he mentions not his name, though describing himself as "the disciple whom Jesus loved." Here, with similar humility, he mentions his name, but not his apostleship.

Companion, [ sungkoinoonos (Greek #4791)] - 'fellow-partaker in the tribulation;' which is preliminary to 'the kingdom.' It must be borne with 'persevering endurance.' 'Aleph (') A B C omit "in the before "kingdom." All three are inseparable: joined by one article: the tribulation, kingdom, and endurance.

Patience, [ hupomonee (Greek #5281)] - 'persevering endurance' (Acts 14:22): 'the queen of graces' (virtues) (Chrysostom).

Of. 'Aleph (') C, Vulgate, read 'IN Jesus;' A, 'in Christ;' B, 'in Christ Jesus.' It is IN Him that believers have the right to the kingdom, and spiritual strength to endure perseveringly for it.

Was, [ egenomeen (Greek #1096)] - 'came to be.'

In ... Patmos - now Patmo, or Palmosa. See 'Introduction' on John's exile to it under Domitian, from which he was released under Nerva. Restricted to a small spot on earth, he is admitted into the wide heaven and its secrets. Thus, John drank of Christ's cup, and was baptized with His baptism (Matthew 20:22).

For, [ dia (Greek #1223)] - 'on account of the Word of God and testimony.' A C h, Vulgate, omit the second "for," thus joining closely "the Word of God" and "testimony of Jesus." But 'Aleph (') B read it. 'Aleph (') A C, Vulgate, omit "Christ." The Apocalypse has been always appreciated most in adversity. Thus the Asiatic church, from the flourishing times of Constantine, estimated it less. The African church being more exposed to the Cross, made much of it (Bengel).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-1.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.
John
4
companion
2:9,10; 7:14; John 16:33; Acts 14:22; Romans 8:17; 1 Corinthians 4:9-13; Philippians 1:7; 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:8; 2:3-12
in the
3:10; 13:10; 14:12; Romans 2:7,8; 5:3,4; 8:25; 2 Thessalonians 1:4,5; 3:5; Hebrews 10:36; James 5:7,8
for the word
2; 6:9; 11:7; 12:11,17; 19:10
Reciprocal: Daniel 11:33 - yet;  Matthew 10:2 - John;  Matthew 10:18 - for a;  Matthew 20:23 - Ye;  Matthew 23:8 - all;  Mark 10:39 - Ye;  Mark 13:9 - take;  Luke 21:19 - GeneralJohn 15:27 - ye also;  Acts 9:16 - for;  Acts 16:23 - they cast;  Romans 10:17 - and hearing;  Romans 16:7 - kinsmen;  1 Corinthians 1:6 - the;  1 Corinthians 2:1 - the testimony;  2 Corinthians 5:6 - we are always;  2 Corinthians 6:4 - in much;  2 Corinthians 10:1 - 1Paul;  1 Timothy 3:3 - patient;  2 Timothy 2:12 - we suffer;  2 Timothy 3:12 - shall;  Hebrews 12:1 - with patience;  Hebrews 13:7 - word;  1 Peter 4:13 - ye are;  1 Peter 5:1 - a partaker;  1 Peter 5:9 - the same;  2 Peter 1:6 - patience;  Revelation 1:1 - John;  Revelation 2:3 - hast patience;  Revelation 20:4 - the witness;  Revelation 21:2 - I

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-1.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

THE GLORIOUS VISION OF CHRIST (Revelation 1:9-20).

9. — "I John, your brother and partaker with you in the tribulation, and kingdom, and patience in Jesus." Daniel, more than any other of the Hebrew prophets, deals with subjects which come within the range of the visions beheld by John. There are numerous points of similarity between the two. Thus both the Prophet and the Seer unfold the character of the last holder of the civil imperial power of Rome; both disclose the last phase of the revived empire, as also its awful end (compare Daniel 7:1-28 with Revelation 17:1-18).

"I John" reminds us of "I Daniel" (Daniel 7:15, etc.). The former is not a borrowed style of announcement from the latter, but is an independent statement of quiet yet conscious dignity, befitting the character of the visions about to be disclosed.

John next intimates a common fellowship in life and suffering with God's sorely afflicted people. The Neronian and Domitian periods of martyrdom were, perhaps, the most bitter of any of the pagan persecutions, which, with an occasional lull, lasted about 250 years. According to some, John was a sufferer under Nero; others would rank him in the noble army of martyrs under Domitian. It is unimportant which tradition is true. {*The date generally assigned to "The Revelation" is as in our English Bible, A.D. 96, during the reign of Domitian. Some, however, assign a much earlier date. It has been put in the time of Claudius, A.D. 41-54, and by others in the reign of Nero, A.D. 54-68. The earlier date is extremely improbable.} It should be noted that neither as an apostle nor as an elder does John here speak, but as a "brother and partaker" (or companion) with the saints in "the tribulation, and kingdom, and patience in Jesus."

"The tribulation" points to a definite character of trial, and not merely to the ordinary difficulties of Christian life. There are three great periods of determinate suffering: (1) Under pagan Rome; (2) under papal Rome during the Dark or Middle Ages; (3) under the joint persecution of the future civil and ecclesiastical powers (Revelation 6:13).

The "kingdom" is next introduced as that in which John had a common participation with those to whom he writes. There are four distinct phases in which the kingdom is presented in the Scriptures: (1) In responsibility as presented to the Jews, the king being rejected (Matthew 1:1-25; Matthew 2:1-23; Matthew 3:1-17; Matthew 4:1-25; Matthew 5:1-48; Matthew 6:1-34; Matthew 7:1-29; Matthew 8:1-34; Matthew 9:1-38; Matthew 10:1-42; Matthew 11:1-30; Matthew 12:1-50); (2) In mystery among the Gentiles as developed in Matthew 13:1-58; (3) in tribulation as detailed in the central part of the Apocalypse; and (4) in power at the Coming of the Lord in glory (Matthew 25:31), the great and grand subject of the prophets of old.

"Patience," or endurance, follows, for evil yet reigns unchecked in the world and in the Church. The petition, "Thy kingdom come," daily arising from the hearts and lips of thousands, is yet unanswered. Tribulation is the appointed path to the kingdom. The life of some is one of almost uninterrupted suffering, of others one of active service, while for the greater number it is one of weary routine of daily duty. Thus the need of patience by all in the hourly doing of God's will. The dreariness and solitude of Patmos called for "much patience," an essential characteristic of every true minister of God (2 Corinthians 6:4). Press on, wearied saint, till morning breaks, when God shall openly and publicly appear on the behalf of all who, in the meantime, in weakness cling by faith to His blessed Name.

But not only have we fellowship with the aged and honoured apostle in those three things, namely, "the tribulation," the "kingdom," and "patience," {*"The three words, ‘tribulation,' and ‘kingdom,' and ‘patience,' are intimately connected, being brought together under one head by one article in the Greek." J. N. D.} but the Lord has His part in them, and a distinguished one too. These things are "in Jesus." The introduction of the Name of sweetest import to the ear and heart of believers is brimful of comfort and solace to suffering saints.

THE ISLE CALLED PATMOS.

9. — "Was in the island that is called Patmos, for the Word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus. " The place of John's banishment was almost unknown even by name; hence we are informed that it was an "island," and called "Patmos." This exceedingly dreary and inhospitable isle in the Aegean sea, lying off the south coast of Asia Minor, is about fifteen miles in circumference. In the Middle Ages it was known as Palmoso, now known as Patino. Its present population is about 4000, all Greek Christians. The ignorant and lazy monks possess a valuable library which they are unable to use. Says Tischendorf, that indefatigable Bible scholar: "Silent lay the little island before me in the morning twilight. Here and there an olive breaks the monotony of the rocky waste. The sea was still as the grave. Patmos reposed in it like a dead saint. John — that is the thought of the island. The island belongs to him; it is his sanctuary. The stones speak of him, and in every heart he lives." How fitting the geographical position! John in Patmos was, as it were, in the very centre of the prophetic situation. Jerusalem lay south, Rome lay behind the Seer to the west, Babylon to the east, and the land of Magog (Russia) to the north, while on the coast in front of him lay the seven Asiatic assemblies, whose history he was about to relate.

Moral superiority in his circumstances is expressed in the simple statement: "I was in the isle called Patmos." Not a word of reproach nor of complaint. The arrest, trial, and proceedings before the savage emperor Domitian are passed over in absolute silence as deemed unworthy of notice.

Tradition, not a safe instructor, has supplied us with interesting accounts of a legendary character, more numerous and truth-like than those related of the distinguished apostles, Peter and Paul. {*"Gloag, in his ‘Introduction to the Johannine Writings' (Nisbet & Co.) discusses these legendary accounts in a calm and reverent spirit. There may be a basis of truth in some of them, but certainty there is not."}

God made the wrath of the haughty emperor to praise Him. The circumstances were just what was needed to introduce John into the visions of God, one of which pictured the downfall of Rome's imperial greatness, its future revival, and final doom (Revelation 17:8; Revelation 19:20), while she was still in the zenith of her glory the unchallenged mistress of the world.

The same power which gave its legal sanction to the crucifixion of our Lord branded "the disciple whom Jesus loved" as a criminal. Here, however, the real cause of offence is stated in precise terms to be "the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus." These will ever incur the world's hostility.

John, although destitute of human learning (Acts 4:13), and speaking in the rude vernacular of Galilee, fearlessly and faithfully preached and taught in public and private the Word of God. The apostles had not learned the art — a highly finished one in these days, — of trimming the truth to suit the varied tastes of people. In proportion as the Word of God is made known in its fulness and integrity, and the claims of God are pressed upon the conscience, the enmity of the world is roused into action,

9. — "The testimony of Jesus" is here especially regarded in its prophetic aspect. The birth of the King of the Jews awakened the cruel jealousy of Herod, and stirred Jerusalem to its centre (Matthew 2:1-23). The testimony to the royal rights of Jesus was a crime which neither the laws of Rome nor imperial greatness could brook, so Rome crucified Peter, beheaded Paul, and banished John.

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Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-1.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

John says he is in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ. It is impossible to be in something that does not exist, hence the kingdom of Christ was in existence in John"s day; that disproves the heresy of premillennialists. Patmos. A number of reference works give a description of this place which agrees in substance. I shall quote from the Rand-McNally Bible Atlas as follows: "Patmos, to which the apostle John was banished. This lies20 miles south of the island of Samos, 24miles west of Asia Minor, and about70 miles southwest of Ephesus. It is about20 miles in circumference, and is rocky and barren. Its loneliness and seclusion made it a suitable place for the banishment of criminals; and to it the apostle John was banished by the emperor Domitian, near the close of the first Christian century." John says he was in this isle for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ. The word for is from DIA, which the Englishman"s Greek New Testament translates "because of." In other words. John was banished to this lonely spot as a punishment by the Roman emperor. because of his preaching the Word of God.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-1.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 1:9

Revelation 1:9 " 1 John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ."

"I John"

a servant of Jesus Christ, and apostle of Christ Matthew 10:2 and an elder. 1 Peter 5:1-2; John 1:1

"Who also am your Brother"

in the faith and fellowship of the gospel, called the Brotherhood. 1 Peter 2:17 Why should not John, as well as Jesus, Christ's ministers as well as their Lord, call the saints brethren? Hebrews 2:11-12 He was not ashamed to call them brethren,

"And Companion in Tribulation"

fellow citizens with the saints are fellow sufferers with the saints Ephesians 2:19, with Philippians 1:29, also 2 Thessalonians 1:3-7; and Hebrews 10:33.

"And in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ"

They that are fellow heirs with the saints in the kingdom of glory, must be fellow sufferers in the kingdom of patience trough tribulation. Acts 14:22

"Was in the Isle that is called Patmos, for the Word of God, and for the Testimony of Jesus"

Patmos is an island in the Aegean Sea, near the coast of the lesser Asia, into which island John was banished in the reign of Domitian a Roman, pagan emperor; not for treason, nor rebellion, nor any other crime against civil government; but for the word of God, which he preached, and the testimony of Jesus Christ that John bare. John 21:24 This is the disciple who testified of those things, and we know that his testimony is true.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-1.html.

D.S. Clark's Commentary on Revelation

V:9. "I, John, your brother and companion in tribulation," — that was a winsome address. He stood with them on common ground. Every hardship they bore, he endured. Every prospect of martyrdom they faced, he had already contemplated. He was even in the vanguard bearing the first baptism of fire and blood. They would listen to the words of one who suffered in their sufferings, and stood in the forefront of their dangers.

Patmos--a small rocky island off the coast from Ephesus, eight miles by one, fit place for meditation, with the sound of many waters ever murmuring on the rock bound shore.

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Harold Norris' Commentary on the Book of Revelation

Verse9.

" 1 John, your brother, who shares with you in Jesus the tribulation . . ." The language proves that the22chapters of the book of Revelation is not dealing only with FUTURE events. John was sharing the tribulations described in this book when he wrote it.

At the time of John"s writing there was fierce persecution of the Christian church. Imperial Rome held sway over the world and required that all people worship the emperor of Rome as both king and God. Christians worshipped Christ as King and God. Christians refused to worship the Roman emperor.

John himself was a prisoner of Rome on the island of Patmos separated from his beloved fellow Christians. He wanted to get a message to his fellow persecuted Christians to encourage them,--to remind them that Caesar worship was wrong--that Caesar was not eternal--and that Jesus Christ will prevail. He wanted to tell Christians that Caesar worship would come to an end. John"s message would be regarded as treason by his Roman captors if they understood it. A message such as John --had to give would have been confiscated by the Roman authorities before it left Patmos if written in plain ordinary language. So John wrote his message in CODE the symbols of which were based in the Jewish Old Testament scriptures and which Christians versed in the scriptures would understand. They had the Key to the code in their understanding of the Old Testament symbols. But the pagan Roman authorities not having this KEY to the code would not understand the message. John"s Apocalypse is written in the same manner as modern armies who use codes. If the enemy lacks the KEY to the code the message is only understood by those for whom it is intended.

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Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 1:9. I John, your brother and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ. The "I John" is in imitation of Daniel's style, who alone among the prophets says, "I Daniel," Daniel 7:28, Daniel 8:1, Daniel 9:2, Daniel 10:2. While John in this manner attaches himself to Daniel, he presents himself as having a similar position to his, and so indirectly designates himself as an apostle. For prophets standing on a footing of equality with the canonical writers of the Old Testament could only be found in the circle of the apostles It is not accidental, nor to be explained from a mere subjective predilection, that John attaches himself in so very peculiar a manner to the last more eminent prophets of the Old Testament, to Ezekiel, Daniel, Zechariah. This is rather to be considered as having its ground in the serial character of the sacred writings generally, and those of the prophets in particular. As certainly as Scripture is no fortuitous assemblage, but an organic whole, John had the double purpose in view of connecting what he wrote at once with his New Testament predecessors, and with the last prophets of the Old Testament, whom in a sense he immediately followed as the author of the first and only prophetical book of the New Testament. John speaks of himself as the brother of those to whom he wrote. He might also have called himself their father, as in his epistles he addresses them as his children, 1 John 2:1, 1 John 2:18, 1 John 2:28, 3 John Revelation 1:4. But it was more fitting here to bring out the point of similarity, which is made sensible to the heart by nothing more readily than a common participation in suffering. Reference had already been made in Revelation 1:1 to the distinguished dignity of John. The also, which many critical authorities shove in, has arisen from a feeling of solicitude, as if John must here have somehow indicated the distinction betwixt himself and his readers.

The tribulation could only consist in persecution. For John, the companion in tribulation, is on the island of Patmos, for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus. Besides, the "Jesus Christ" belongs not merely to the patience, but to all the three, the tribulation, the kingdom, and the patience. But the question may be asked, what is to be understood by the tribulation of Jesus Christ? The answer is, that here, as in the fundamental passage of Colossians 1:24, "Now I rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up in my body what is still wanting (to me) in the tribulations of Christ," (John writes to the same circle of readers, and the whole verse before us is full of references to Paul's epistles):—in both alike, the tribulation denotes what Christ suffered partly in person and partly in his members, and what he still has to suffer. We must not with Luther think merely of the first, the personal sufferings of Christ: "Paul calls his own sufferings the tribulations of Jesus Christ, because they were the same sufferings as those by which Jesus Christ was affected. John designates himself a companion of the tribulations, which Christ had formerly suffered." In that case, Paul could not have called his sufferings tribulations of Christ without some farther explanation. And here the tribulation and the patience, or stedfastness, are manifestly the personal tribulation or stedfastness of John and of those to whom he wrote. A companion ( συνκοινωνό ς only found in Paul and here in John) is one, who partakes along with others. But one cannot partake of the tribulation, which Christ himself has suffered. Had it been Christ's personal sufferings merely that was meant, the natural thing here would have been a mere compassion, which would not be suitable. The sufferings of Christ also in 1 Peter 4:13, are not merely the sufferings which Christ personally endured. When we have determined the tribulation of Christ, we can no longer doubt what is to be understood by the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ. Accordingly, the kingdom or empire of Jesus Christ can only be that which belongs to him, partly in person, partly in his members. In like manner, the patience of Christ is that, which he has personally manifested, and manifested in his members; and of explanations, such as Ewald's, according to which the patience of Jesus Christ must be the patient hope respecting Christ, require no further notice. Under the patience, according to the remark of Bengel, is to be understood, "not only a good will, but a spiritual force and energy, whereby one is fortified to endure something, and bears up under it." It is the stedfast endurance of things contrary to the faith and truth of the gospel—comp. 2 Timothy 2:12, where the patience stands in opposition to the denying, and Luke 8:15, where those who bear fruit in patience are contrasted with those, who believe for a time, and in the time of temptation fall away. The same three things as here are united also together in Acts 14:22, where it is said of Paul and Barnabas, that they confirmed the souls of the brethren, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that through much tribulation they must enter into the kingdom of God; comp. also 2 Timothy 2:12, Romans 8:17. In regard to the order here, the tribulation, the state of humiliation, has placed in immediate connection with it the kingdom, the state of exaltation; and then the patience will be thought of with an emphatic N.B, because the contrast presented by it to the natural connection between the tribulation and the kingdom of Christ has been torn asunder, and the bitterly won fruits of the former reaped. The mention of the patience is at the same time a reminiscence, and an indirect though important admonition. Bengel: "The things mentioned are singularly woven together. The kingdom stands in the middle, the tribulation before, and the patience after. This is the form of Christianity in this life. Through the tribulation the kingdom is pervaded with the patience of Christ, till the tribulation shall have been overcome, and no more patience shall be required. With carnal men, who have not entered into the kingdom of Christ, tribulation brings no patience, but rather occasions impatience. A raging wild beast, if it is not irritated, may be quiet as a lamb, but when any thing has excited it, it breaks forth in its fury."[Note: The reading ἐ ν ἰ ησοῦ has proceeded from those who could not understand the genitive, which has been munch tortured by expositors. The fundamental passage is against it, as also ch. 3:10.]From the words, "I was in the isle Patmos," the conclusion has often been drawn, that at the time John wrote the Revelation he was no longer in Patmos. And certainly the I was, if isolated, must appear remarkable, and cannot be explained by what was stated on Revelation 1:2 in reference to the expression: who has testified. John could not take for granted that the sojourn in the isle Patmos, at the time when his book was being read, had already come to a close. But the abrupt beginning in Revelation 1:10 shews[Note: One might have expected καὶ with the second ἐ γενό μην, but it is the very omission of this which serves to indicate the inseparable connection of the double ἐ γενό μην.]that we have here a mere Hebrew sort of connection between the clauses, which, with things that run into each other in meaning, simply puts them after one another: I was upon the isle Patmos, I was in the Spirit, for, when I was upon the isle Patmos, or during my sojourn there, I was in the Spirit. Comp. a quite similar synchronical Imperfect in Jonah 3:3. So that there remains only the second I was to be explained. But the remark already made at Revelation 1:2 is perfectly applicable here. The state of ecstacy was long since gone when the Book came to be read by the churches of Asia. That the Revelation in Patmos, besides, had not merely been received, but also written down, is evident simply from the send in Revelation 1:11. Only an arbitrary disposition and want of simplicity could have sought to separate what are most intimately associated together. How the writing was immediately joined to the hearing and seeing, may be discovered from ch. Revelation 10:4, Revelation 22:7; Revelation 22:9-10.

Instead of: on the isle, which is called Patmos, several have merely: on the isle Patmos. But the omission was made by those who had in view the renown which Patmos had acquired throughout Christendom by this very Revelation of John. That till then it was exceedingly obscure, is manifest, as Bengel has justly remarked, not only from the clause "which is called," but even from the designation of the place as an island, while in Acts 13:4, for example, we have simply the name Cyprus. Fiction would never have laid the scene in so obscure a corner.

The proof that the words, "for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ," refer to the martyr-sufferings of John, has already been given in the Introduction. In regard to the testimony of Jesus, comp. on ch. Revelation 1:2.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-1.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

PART FIRST.

THE CHRISTOPHANIC APOCALYPSE, Revelation 1:9 to Revelation 3:22.

The Christophany, and first prophetic commission, Revelation 1:9-20.

The Apocalypse proper now commences. St. John gives a narrative of the first Christophany, or appearance of Christ to him, 9-11, describes his person, 12-18; and recites his own commission, from the Saviour received, 19, 20. This is the first of John’s three commissions; the second is at chapters 4, 5; the third at chapter x; forming the threefold Apocalypse.

9.1 John—After the “I Daniel,” of Daniel 7:28; Daniel 9:2; Daniel 10:2. So the Apocalypse is a carrying out and completion of the prophecies of Ezekiel, Daniel, and Zechariah. And thus he equalizes himself to the prophets of the Old Testament, assuming that his book is to take a parallel canonical stand; an assumption impossible to be successful for any one but an apostle.

Your brother—For he had no need, like Paul, to thunder forth his apostolic title after his name.

Tribulation’ kingdom’ patience—Between the two sad words tribulation and patience the joyous word kingdom bravely sparkles forth. It is a kingdom in the midst of sorrow and struggle. It is a reminder of triumph and power in the very centre of trial. The tribulation, or persecution, is in these sad days the condition of the present kingdom, and the patience, the firm persistence, is the condition of its fuller final realization, to which John’s whole Apocalypse points and at last attains. Of—True reading, in Jesus

[image]

Christ.

Was in the isle—Literally, became in the isle. How he became, by whom sent, he forbears to mention. Clement and Origen call the sender “the tyrant:” and all the early Christian writers named no other than Domitian. But no resentful feeling prompts John to say more than that he became there.

Called Patmos—Commentators agree that the word called indicates the entire obscurity of this island-rock before this Apocalypse covered it with a solemn glory. Well known islands, like Crete and Cyprus, have no such prefix.

For the word’ testimonyFor means, on account of; and the words unquestionably signify that John became in Patmos in consequence of his maintaining God’s word and Christ’s testimony to the world. It is true the same words in Revelation 1:2 designate this Apocalypse, just because this Apocalypse is the continuance and reproduction, in written form and in new spirit, of that same word and testimony which he had heretofore maintained at the expense of exile.

[image]

At six leagues distance to the S.W. The Apocalyptic Monastery of St. John is seen surmounting the distant heights represented in the central part of the view.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-1.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 1:9. The personality of the seer is made prominent in apocalyptic literature, to locate or guarantee any visions which are to follow. Here the authority with which this prophet is to speak is conditioned by his kinship of Christian experience with the churches and his special revelation from God. (cf.Revelation 6:11, Revelation 12:10): for its pagan use as = fellow-member of the same (religious) society, cf.C. B. P. i. 96 f., and Dittenberger’s Sylloge Inscr. Graec. 474, 10 ( ). , put first as the absorbing fact of their experience, and as a link of sympathy between writer and readers; , the outcome of in the messianic order: distress no end in itself; , patient endurance the moral condition of participation in and , by which one is nerved to endure the presence of the former without breaking down, and to bear the temporary delay of the latter without impatience. While is the absence of resentment at wrong, = not giving way under trials. See Barn, ii., “the aids of our faith are fear and patience, long-suffering and self-control are our allies”; also Tertullian’s famous aphorism, “ubi Deus, ibi et alumna eius, patientia scilicet”.— (a Pauline conception, only repeated in Apocalypse at Revelation 14:12), either with all three substantives or merely (cf.2 Thessalonians 3:5) with . In any case . is closely linked to .; such patience, as exemplified in Jesus, and inspired by him, was the cardinal virtue of the Apocalypse and its age. In the early Christian literature of this period “we cannot name anything upon which blessedness is so frequently made to rest, as upon the exercise of patient endurance” (Titius, 142). (“I found myself in”: implying that when he wrote he was no longer there), not by flowing waters (as frequently, e.g., En. xiii. 7), but in the small, treeless, scantily populated island of Patmos, one of the Sporades, whither criminals were banished sometimes by the Roman authorities (Plin. Hist. Nat. iv. 12, 23). Relegatio to an island was not an infrequent form of punishment for better-class offenders or suspects under the black régime of Domitian, as under Diocletian for Christians (cf. Introd. § 6). No details are given, but probably it meant hard labour in the quarries, and was inflicted by the pro-consul of Asia Minor. Why John was only banished, we do not know. As “the word of God and the witness of Jesus” are not qualified by any phrase such as (Revelation 1:2, and thereby identified with the present Apocalypse), the words indicate as elsewhere (cf. , . . ., reff.) the occasion of his presence in Patmos, i.e., his loyalty to the gospel (cf. ), rather than the object of his visit. The latter could hardly be evangelising (Spitta), for Patmos was insignificant and desolate, nor, in face of the use of , can the phrase mean “for the purpose of receiving this revelation” (Bleek, Lücke, Düsterdieck, Hausrath, B. Weiss, Baljon, etc.). Either he had voluntarily withdrawn from the mainland to escape the stress of persecution (which scarcely harmonises with the context or the general temper of the book) or for solitary communion (cf.Ezekiel 1:1-3), or, as is more likely, his removal was a punishment (cf. Abbott, 114–16). The latter view is corroborated by tradition (cf. Zahn, § 64, note 7), which, although later and neither uniform nor wholly credible, is strong enough to be taken as independent evidence. It can hardly be explained away as a mere elaboration of the present passage (so, e.g., Reuss, Bleek, Bousset); the allusion to is too slight to have been suggested by the darker sense of martyrdom, and it is far-fetched to argue that the tradition was due to a desire to glorify John with a martyrdom. Unless, therefore, the reference is a piece of literary fiction (in which case it would probably have been elaborated) it must be supposed to be vague simply because the matter was perfectly familiar to the circle for whom the book was written. It is to those exercised in prudence, temperance, and virtue that (according to Philo, de incorrupt, mundi, § 1, cf. Plutarch’s discussion in defect. orac. 38 f.) God vouchsafes visions, but John introduces his personal experience in order to establish relations between himself and his readers rather than to indicate the conditions of his theophany.

 

 

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Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 1:9". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-1.html. 1897-1910.