Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 14:8

And another angel, a second one, followed, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, she who has made all the nations drink of the wine of the passion of her immorality."
New American Standard Version
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Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Babylon;   Idolatry;   Vision;   Wine;   Thompson Chain Reference - Babylon;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Propitiation;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Order;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Babylon, Mystical;   Cuttings;   Number;   Prophet;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Babylon, History and Religion of;   Fornication;   Gentiles;   Immorality;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Babylon;   Quotations;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Harvest ;   Isaiah ;   Peter Epistles of;   Type;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Babylon the Great ;   Fornication;   Lamb;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Babylon;   Rome;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Bab'ylon;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Forehead;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Babylon in the New Testament:;   Crime;   Persecution;   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Babylon is fallen, is fallen - This is generally understood to be a prediction concerning Rome; and it is certain that Rome, in the rabbinical writings, is termed Babylon.

That great city - Among the same writers this city is styled רבתא קרתא karta rabbetha, the great city; and רבתא רומי Romi rabbetha, the great Rome. But which Rome is meant? Pagan or Papal Rome? Some parts of the description apply best to the former.

The wine of the wrath of her fornication - There is an allusion here to a custom of impure women, who give philtres or love potions to those whom they wish to seduce and bind to their will; and these potions are generally of an intoxicating nature, greatly inflaming the blood, and disturbing the intellect.

Fornication and adultery are frequently used in Scripture as emblems of idolatry and false worship.

The wine of the wrath is another expression for the envenomed or poisoned cup given by such women.

No nation of the earth spread their idolatries so far as the ancient Romans; they were as extensive as their conquests. And papal Rome has been not less active in disseminating her superstitions. She has given her rituals, but not the everlasting Gospel, to most nations of the earth.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-14.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And there followed another angel - That is, in the vision. It is not necessary to suppose that this would, in the fulfillment, succeed the other in time. The chapter is made up of a number of representations, all designed to illustrate the same general thing, and to produce the same general effect on the mind - that the gospel would be finally triumphant, and that, therefore, the hearts of the troubled and the afflicted should be comforted. The representation in this verse, bearing on this point, is, that Babylon, the great enemy, would fall to rise no more.

Babylon - This is the first time that the word “Babylon” occurs in this book, though it is repeatedly mentioned afterward, Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:21. In reference to the literal Babylon, the word is used, in the New Testament, in Matthew 1:11-13; Acts 7:43; 1 Peter 5:13. See Intro. to 1Peter, section 2. Babylon was a well-known city on the Euphrates (for a full description of which see the notes on Isaiah, analysis of chapters 13 and 14), and was, in the days of its pride and glory, the head of the pagan world. In reference to the meaning of the word in this place, it may be remarked:

(1) That the general characteristics of Babylon were, that it was proud, haughty, insolent, oppressive. It was chiefly known and remembered by the Hebrew people as a power that had invaded the Holy Land; that had reduced its capital and temple to ruins; that had destroyed the independence of their country, subjecting it to the condition of a province, and that had carried away the inhabitants into a long and painful captivity. It became, therefore, the emblem of all that was haughty and oppressive, and especially of all that persecuted the church of God.

(2) the word must be used here to denote some power that resembled the ancient and literal Babylon in these characteristics. The literal Babylon was no more; but the name might be properly used to denote a similar power. We are to seek, therefore, in the application of this, for some power that had the same general characteristics which the literal Babylon had.

(3) in inquiring, then, what is referred to here by the word “Babylon,” we may remark:

(a) that it could not be the literal Babylon on the Euphrates, for the whole representation here is of something future, and the literal Babylon had long since disappeared, never, according to the prophecies, to be rebuilt. See the notes on Isaiah 13:20-22.

(b) All the circumstances require us to understand this of Rome, at some period of its history: for Rome, like Babylon, was the seat of empire, and the head of the pagan world; Rome was characterized by many of the same attributes as Babylon, being arrogant, proud, oppressive; Rome, like Babylon, was distinguished for its conquests, and for the fact that it made all other nations subject to its control; Rome had been, like Babylon, a desolating power, having destroyed the capital of the Holy Land, and burnt its beautiful temple, and reduced the country to a province. Rome, like Babylon of old, was the most formidable power with which the church had to contend. Yet.

(c) it is not, I suppose, Rome considered as pagan that is here meant, but Rome considered as the prolongation of the ancient power in the papal form. Alike in this book and in Daniel, Rome, pagan and papal, is regarded as one power, standing in direct opposition to the gospel of Christ, resisting its progress in the world, and preventing its final prevalence. See the notes on Daniel 7:26-27.

(d) So it was understood among the early Christians. Mr. Gibbon, speaking of the expectations of the early Christians about the end of the world, and the glory of the literal reign of the Messiah, says, “While the happiness and glory of a temporal reign were promised to the disciples of Christ, the most dreadful calamities were denounced against an unbelieving world. The edification of the New Jerusalem was to advance by equal steps with the destruction of the mystic Babylon; and as long as the emperors who reigned before Constantine persisted in the profession of idolatry, the epithet of Babylon was applied to the city and to the empire of Rome,” vol. i. p. 263.

Is fallen - That is, an event appeared in vision as if a mighty city fell to rise no more.

Is fallen - This is repeated to give emphasis to the declaration, and to express the joyousness of that event.

That great city - Babylon in its glory was the largest city of the world. Rome, in its turn, also became the largest; and the expression used here denotes that the power here referred to would be properly represented by cities of their magnitude.

Because she made all nations drink of the wine - This language is probably taken from Jeremiah 51:7; “Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord‘s hand, that made all the earth drunken: the nations have drunk of the wine, therefore the nations are mad.” Babylon here, in accordance with the usual custom of the sacred writers when speaking of cities (see the notes on Isaiah 1:8), is represented as a female - here a female of abandoned character, holding in her hand a cup of wine to attract her lovers; that is, she allures and intoxicates them. This is a beautiful image to denote the influence of a great and corrupt city, and especially a city corrupt in its religion and devoted to idolatry and superstition, and may well be applied either to Babylon or Rome, literal or mystical.

Of the wrath - There seems an incongruity in the use of this word here, and Prof. Stuart proposes to render it “the inflammatory wine of her fornication”; that is, inebriating wine - wine that excited the passions and that led to uncleanness. He supposes that the word here used - θυμός thumos- means “heat, inflammation,” corresponding to the Hebrew חמה chēmaahThere are no instances, however, in the New Testament in which the word is used in this sense. The common and proper meaning is mind, soul, then mind agitated with passion or under the influence of desire - a violent commotion of mind, as wrath, anger, indignation (Robinson, Lexicon). The ground of the representation here seems to be that Yahweh is often described as giving to the nations in his wrath an intoxicating cup so that they should reel and stagger to their destruction. Compare Jeremiah 25:15; Jeremiah 51:7. The meaning here is, that the nations had drunk of that cup which brought on the wrath of God on account of her “fornication.” Babylon is represented as a harlot, with a cup of wine in her hand, and the effect of drinking that cup was to expose them to the wrath of God, hence, called “the wine of the wrath of her fornication” - the alluring cup that was followed by wrath on account of her fornication.

Of her fornication - Due to her fornication. The word “fornication” here is used to denote spiritual uncleanness; that is, pagan and superstitious rites and observances. The term is often used in the Scriptures as applicable to idolatry and superstition. The general meaning here is, that Rome - papal Rome - would employ all forms of voluptuous allurements to bring the nations to the worship of the beast and his image, and that the “wrath” of God would be poured out on account of these abominations. The design of this verse also is to impart consolation by the assurance that this great enemy - this mighty, formidable, persecuting power - would be entirely overthrown. This is everywhere held up as the brightest hope of the church, for with this will fall its last great enemy, and the grand obstruction to the final triumph of the gospel on earth will be removed.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-14.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And another, a second angel, followed, saying, Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, that hath made all the nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great ... The prophetic tense speaks not of what has already taken place, but of what is certain to occur in connection with the final judgment. As Roberts said, "This anticipates the fuller description"[43] later in the prophecy. Babylon the great is primarily the pagan city of Rome, the proud sea-beast, in the manifestation of its sixth head, the Roman empire, that was doomed by this heavenly pronouncement.

Remember that this was written in the first century, and possibly as early as 69 A.D., at a time when the pagan empire was supreme on the earth and would continue to be supreme for at least four centuries afterwards. It seems nearly incredible that so few writers dwell upon the dramatic fulfillment of this prophecy in 476 A.D. Rome did fall, as here prophesied; and in this clearly fulfilled prophecy, there is seen the absolute necessity of beholding, in at least some of its declarations, a definite revelation of historical events lying centuries in the future when Revelation was written.

That Babylon here is a reference to the pagan empire, especially the city of Rome, hardly needs to be argued. See the discussion of this in the Introduction to 1Peter, in my Commentary to 1Peter, pp. 157,158. The ancient Babylon on the Euphrates had not existed for centuries, and there were many current references to Rome as "Babylon" in the secular literature of New Testament times. As a great enemy of the Old Testament Israel, which had taken God's people captive and mercilessly exploited them, Babylon was the idea1 type of oppressive, pagan, anti-Christian government.

The generation of John's day would not live to see Babylon fall, but this assurance to them from an apostle of Christ was comforting. They knew that, "The wrath of God was falling upon the pagan city and that her judgment was determined."[44]

That hath made all nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication ...

This combines two ideas: the wine used to intoxicate and to seduce to fornication, and the wine of God's wrath. Babylon had deceived and seduced all nations by the enticement of her wealth and luxuries; but this cup will turn out to be the cup of God's wrath.[45]

Only this cryptic mention of Babylon's fall is here, the first mention of her in Revelation; but John will return to this.

The announcement of the doom of great pagan Rome, mentioned here in close connection with the final judgment, must also be understood as a prophecy of the fall of all great wicked cities, or at least a very significant portion of them before the final judgment day itself. The "Babylon" in view here is not merely the one on the Tiber. We observed in connection with Revelation 11:13 that the collapse of urban civilization as opposed to God, will occur before the end; so "Babylon" here is understood as a type. "She has also reared palaces on the Seine, the Thames, and the Bosphorus."[46] And we might add, the Hudson, the Mississippi, the Rhine, and the Bayou that is called Buffalo. Wherever there is entrenched greed, indifference to God, hatred of Christ, and the worship of man, there also is Babylon the great.

[43] J. W. Roberts, The Revelation of John (Austin, Texas: R. B. Sweet Company, 1974), p. 120.

[44] Robert H. Mounce, op. cit., p. 274.

[45] George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 194.

[46] W. Boyd Carpenter, op. cit., p. 602.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-14.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And there followed another angel,.... A "second", as the Alexandrian copy, the Complutensian edition, and the Syriac version add; and the Arabic version reads, "and the second angel followed"; another set of Gospel ministers, who will immediately follow upon the former, proclaiming the fall of Babylon, which will be brought about through the preaching of the everlasting Gospel. Some think the Waldenses and Albigenses are here designed, who gave a great blow to Babylon, and laid a foundation for her ruin. Others have thought that Luther, and the reformers of his times, are intended, who gave a deadly blow to Babylon, and she has been falling ever since: but to me it appears, that a set of ministers in the spiritual reign of Christ are meant, who will not only signify the fall of Babylon to be certain, and near at hand, but will live to see and declare her actual fall, as follows:

saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city; which is to be understood not of the world in general, which will not now be come to an end, for all nations of the world are distinguished from this Babylon in the next clause, and is only represented as a city, though a great one; nor of Babylon in Chaldea, which was fallen many hundreds of years before this vision; nor is there any likelihood of its being restored, nor any reason to believe that it will ever more be the seat of empire over all the nations and kings of the earth, as the Babylon mentioned in this book is, Revelation 17:5 though undoubtedly the allusion is to that Babylon, and the very words are used which express the fall of it, and are taken from it; see Isaiah 21:9 but this is to be understood of Rome, which all along in this book is called the great city; see Revelation 11:8 and not of Rome Pagan, for that is fallen already; and the account of the fall of that is given before, at the opening of the sixth seal, and the casting the dragon out of heaven, upon the war there, between Michael and him, though Mr. Daubuz is of opinion that this is here meant; but of Rome Papal, called Babylon the great, Revelation 16:5 and so the Alexandrian copy, the Vulgate Latin, Syriac and Arabic versions, read here; and the Romish antichrist is so called, because that city was famous for its pride and haughtiness, for its tyranny and cruelty, and for its idolatry; and indeed its name, which signifies "confusion", well agrees with the Papacy, which is a confused mixture of Judaism, Paganism, and Christianity: so Rome is called Babel in some ancient writings of the JewsF15Zohar in Numb. fol. 103. 4. & Raya Mchimna, apud ib. in Exod. fol. 49. 3. , where some copies read "Babel", others read "Rome"; and Tertullian, who wrote long before the appearance of the Romish antichrist, saysF16Adv. Judaeos, c. 9. & Adv. Marcion. l. 3. c. 13. , with our John, Babylon is a figure of the Roman city: and of this it is said, that it "is fallen, is fallen"; which words are repeated for the certain confirmation of it, as matter of fact; for the fall of antichrist will certainly be in the spiritual reign of Christ, in the Philadelphian church state; See Gill on Revelation 3:9 now will Babylon come in remembrance before God, and he will pour out the vials of his wrath upon her, and will give men an aversion to her; and through the preaching of the Gospel she will fall, just as the walls of Jericho fell at the sounding of the rams' horns: the reason of which fall will be,

because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication: by her "fornication" is meant the idolatry of the church of Rome; so the idolatry of Israel and Judah is often expressed in the Old Testament by fornication and whoredoms; see Jeremiah 3:6 and the wine of it designs the alluring methods used to draw into it; such as the riches and honours, and pleasures of this world, promised to men, and the great appearances of holiness and religion, the deceivableness of unrighteousness, the miracles, signs, and lying wonders done by them, by which men are made sottish and stupid, and induced to believe a lie; just as wine intoxicates, and inclines and excites to lust: and by "the wrath" of it is meant either the heat of lust unto it, or the wrath of God against them which is stirred up by it; and now the aggravation of her sin is, that she not only drinks of this wine herself, or commits idolatry, being instigated to it by the allurements of it, though she hereby incurs the displeasure and wrath of God, but she draws all nations into the same idolatrous practices.

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Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-14.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the a wrath of her fornication.

(a) Of her fornication, by which God was provoked to wrath.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-14.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

another — So Vulgate. But A, B, Syriac, and Andreas add, “a second”; “another, a second angel.”

Babylon — here first mentioned; identical with the harlot, the apostate Church; distinct from the beast, and judged separately.

is fallen — anticipation of Revelation 18:2. A, Vulgate, Syriac, and Andreas support the second “is fallen.” But B, C, and Coptic omit it.

that great city — A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit “city.” Then translate, “Babylon the great.” The ulterior and exhaustive fulfillment of Isaiah 21:9.

because — So Andreas. But A, C, Vulgate, and Syriac read, “which.” B and Coptic omit it. Even reading “which,” we must understand it as giving the reason of her fall.

all nations — A, B and C read, “all the nations.”

the wine of the wrath of her fornicationthe wine of the wrath of God, the consequence of her fornication. As she made the nations drunk with the wine of her fornication, so she herself shall be made drunk with the wine of God‘s wrath.

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-14.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Another, a second angel (αλλος δευτερος αγγελοςallos deuteros aggelos). This second angel “followed” (ηκολουτησενēkolouthēsen first aorist active indicative of ακολουτεωakoloutheō) and interpreted in part the first one.

Fallen, fallen (επεσεν επεσενepesenπιπτωepesen). Prophetic aorist active indicative of πεπτωκεν πεπτωκενpiptō repeated as a solemn dirge announcing the certainty of the fall. The English participle “fallen, fallen” is more musical and rhythmical than the literal rendering “fell, fell.” The language is an echo of Isaiah 21:9, though B in the lxx has αβυλων η μαγαληpeptōkenμεγαληpeptōken (perfect).

Babylon the great (αβυλωνBabulōn hē magalē). The adjective πεποτικενmegalē occurs with ποτιζωBabulōn each time in the Apocalypse (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:21) as a reminder of Nebuchadrezzar. There is no doubt that Rome is meant by Babylon, as is probably seen already in 1 Peter 5:13. As a prisoner in Patmos John can speak his mind by this symbolism.

Hath made to drink (ποτοςpepotiken). Perfect active indicative of potizō old causative verb (from potos drinking, 1 Peter 4:3), as in Matthew 25:35. The remarkable phrase that follows seems based on Jeremiah 51:8 (Jeremiah 25:15). It is a combination also of Revelation 14:10 (the wine of God‘s wrath, also in Revelation 16:19; Revelation 19:15) and Revelation 17:2. There is no doubt of the dissoluteness of the old Babylon of Jeremiah‘s day as of the Rome of John‘s time. Rome is pictured as the great courtesan who intoxicates and beguiles the nations to fornication (Revelation 17:2, Revelation 17:4, Revelation 17:6), but the cup of God‘s wrath for her and her paramours is full (Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 18:2).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-14.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Another

Add δεύτερος asecond.

Is fallen ( ἔπεσεν )

Lit., fell. The prophetic aorist expressing the certainty of the fall. Compare Isaiah 21:9; Jeremiah 51:7, Jeremiah 51:8.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-14.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

And another angel followed, saying, Babylon is fallen — With the overthrow of Babylon, that of all the enemies of Christ, and, consequently, happier times, are connected.

Babylon the great — So the city of Rome is called upon many accounts. Babylon was magnificent, strong, proud, powerful. So is Rome also. Babylon was first, Rome afterwards, the residence of the emperors of the world. What Babylon was to Israel of old, Rome hath been both to the literal and spiritual "Israel of God." Hence the liberty of the ancient Jews was connected with the overthrow of the Babylonish empire. And when Rome is finally overthrown, then the people of God will be at liberty. Whenever Babylon is mentioned in this book, the great is added, to teach us that Rome then commenced Babylon, when it commenced the great city; when it swallowed up the Grecian monarchy and its fragments, Syria in particular; and, in consequence of this, obtained dominion over Jerusalem about sixty years before the birth of Christ. Then it began, but it will not cease to be Babylon till it is finally destroyed. Its spiritual greatness began in the fifth century, and increased from age to age. It seems it will come to its utmost height just before its final overthrow. Her fornication is her idolatry; invocation of saints and angels; worship of images; human traditions; with all that outward pomp, yea, and that fierce and bloody zeal, wherewith she pretends to serve God. But with spiritual fornication, as elsewhere, so in Rome, fleshly fornication is joined abundantly. Witness the stews there, licensed by the Pope, which are no inconsiderable branch of his revenue. This is fitly compared, to wine, because of its intoxicating nature. Of this wine she hath, indeed, made all nations drink - More especially by her later missions. We may observe, this making them drink is not ascribed to the beast, but to Babylon. For Rome itself, the Roman inquisitions, congregations, and Jesuits, continually propagate the idolatrous doctrines and practices, with or without the consent of this or that Pope, who himself is not secure from their censure.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-14.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

angel

(See Scofield Hebrews 1:4).

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 14:8". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-14.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

8 And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

Ver. 8. And there followed another angel] Martin Luther with his book De Captivitate Babylonia, which when Bugenhagius first read, he rashly censured for the most pestilent book that ever was written; but upon better deliberation he retracted his former sentence, and became a means to convert many others.

Of the wine of the wrath] Of the intoxicating, enraging wine, that sets men a madding after her:

" Nam Venus in vinis, ignis in igne furit."

There is a story of Walter Mapes, sometime Archdeacon of Oxford, who relating the pope’s gross simony, {a} concludes his narration thus, Sit tamen Domina materque nostra Roma baculus in aqua fractus: et absit credere quae vidimus. Rome had ravished this man out of his wits.

{a} The act or practice of buying or selling ecclesiastical preferments, benefices, or emoluments; traffic in sacred things. ŒD

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-14.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Revelation 14:8. There followed another angel, saying, Babylon, &c.— By Babylon was meant Rome, as all authors of all ages agree; but it was not prudent to denounce the destruction of Rome in open and direct terms; it was for many wise reasons done covertlyunder the name of Babylon, which was the great idolatress of the earth, and enemy of the people of God in former, as Rome has been in later times. By the same figure of speech that the first angel cried, The hour of his judgment is come, Revelation 14:7 this second angel proclaims, that Babylon is fallen: the sentence is as certain as if it was already executed. For greater certainty too it is repeated twice, as Joseph says that the dream was doubled, Genesis 41:32. The reason is then added, of this sentence against Babylon, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath, or rather, the inflaming wine of her fornication. Hers was a kind of Circean cup with poisoned liquor, to intoxicate and inflame mankind to spiritual fornication. St. John, in these figures, follows the ancient prophets. In the same manner, and in the same words, did Isaiah foretel the fate of the ancient Babylon; (Isaiah 21:9.) and Jeremiah has assigned much the same reason for her destruction; Jeremiah 51:7. As by the first angel calling upon men to worship God, we understand the opposers of the worship of images in the eighth and ninth centuries; so by this second angel proclaiming the fall of mystic Babylon, or Rome, we understand particularly Peter Valdo, or those who concurred with him,—the Waldenses and Albigenses; who were the first heralds of this proclamation, as they first of all in the twelfth century pronounced the church of Rome to be the apostolic Babylon, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth, and, for this cause, not only departed from her communion themselves, but engaged great numbers also to follow their example, and laid the first foundation of the Reformation. Rome then began to fall; and as the ruin of Babylon was completed by degrees, so likewise will that of Rome; and those holy confessors and martyrs first paved the way to it.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/revelation-14.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Here we have the second angel's proclamation, denouncing the fall of Babylon, whose fall is in the prophecy threatened, and in the threatening ingeminated, Babylon is fallen, is fallen; to show the certainty of her downfall.

And it is observable how this comes in immediately after the restoring of the gospel, mentioned in the foregoing verses, I saw an angel fly, having the everlasting gospel to preach, Revelation 14:6. And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, Revelation 14:8.

Whence learn, That it is the zealous and faithful preaching of the gospel which is the ruin of antichrist, and the means of his downfall and destruction: this is the breath of the Lord's mouth, by which he is consumed: Babylon is fallen, is fallen.

Quest. What is here meant by Babylon?

Ans. All agree that literal Babylon is not here meant, which was the chief city of Chaldea, but spoken figuratively, and it is generally agreed that by Babylon is Rome here intended: some will have it Rome Pagan, under the heathen emperors, others Rome Papal, under the antichristian tyranny, and that she is paralleled with Babylon for her idolatry and cruelty, yea, far exceeding her in both, for in her is found the blood of the prophets, of the saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth, Revelation 18:24.

Observe next, Her ruin declared in the present tense, is fallen; as if already accompolished; and ingeminated, is fallen, is fallen; which repetition denotes both the certainty of her fall, and the joy which the church should express upon that occasion: though Babylon be never so great, yet she shall fall, she shall assuredly fall; and it is the church's duty to pray, that as it is in the prophecy, so it may be in the history, that Babylon is fallen, and to express the highest joy upon that great occasion.

Observe lastly, the cause of Babylon's ruin is here assigned, she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

Where note, 1. That by fornication her errors, idolatries, and false worship, are understood.

Note, 2. That these are compared to wine upon several accounts. Is wine pleasant to the palate? so is idolatry to corrupt nature, which is hugely pleased with a pompous worship and a sensual religion. is wine inflaming: so is idolatry; inflaming themselves with idols, Isaiah 57:5 Does the wine deceive, and insensibly steal upon the drinker, and intoxicate him ere he is aware of it: so doth error and idolatry grow upon persons by insensible degrees; and accordingly, Revelation 13:14 the beast is said to deceive them that dwell on the earth: in a word, as persons drunk with wine are altogether incapable of counsel and advice from their best friends, in like manner such as are drunk with error and idolatry, with the wine of the whore's fornication, are besotted, benumbed, will not acknowledge their error, nor receive instruction.

Note, 3. That this wine, as sweet as it is, is called the wine of wrath, partly because it inflames them that are drunk therewith with rage and cruel fury against sincere worshippers, and partly because it brings the wrath of God upon them that drink it: little do idolaters think of this, because it is a worship of their own invention, it pleases them because it feasts their outward senses, it is grateful as wine unto them; but they forget that it is wine mixed with wrath, even with the wrath of God, the dregs of which shall be wrung out, and all idolaters shall drink them up.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-14.html. 1700-1703.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 14:8. It is a characteristic of the dramatic vividness of the scene, that every new point, which is to be proclaimed, is committed to a special angel.(3487) The angel now coming forward is distinguished by the compound formula ἄλλος δεύτερος from the ἄλλος ἄγγ. mentioned in Revelation 14:6.(3488)

ἔπεσεν, ἔπεσεν βαβυλών ΄εγάλη. The cry,(3489) in a prophetical way, represents the sure and near impending judgment as already fulfilled.(3490) The name of the O. T. secular power is transferred to that of the N. T.,(3491) i.e., to Rome,(3492) by not only indicating by means of this name its ungodly nature,(3493) but also by the adjective ΄εγάλη, especially emphasizing how extent and fulness of power(3494) are powerless for the protection of the vain foundation of self-assertion(3495) from complete overthrow.(3496)

ἐκ τοῦ οἵνου, κ. τ. λ. As in the ancient prophets, alongside of the threatenings of punishment, the precise charges on which those threats rest are generally presented, so also here the guilt of great Babylon is established. The view portrayed in Revelation 17:2; Revelation 17:4, Revelation 18:3, lies here already at the foundation. Babylon-Rome appears as a harlot who has seduced all the dwellers on earth to commit fornication with her: “She made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.” The expression in Revelation 18:3 is incorrectly explained, if the θυμοῦ be regarded otherwise than in the firmly established sense of “wrath,” Revelation 14:10.(3497) According to the linguistic usage of the Apoc., it is the glow and rage of wrath,(3498) and not any other passion, which is designated by θυμός. But it is impossible to seek this wrath in the harlot Babylon herself, and then to understand the πορνεία of cunning arts, dissembling love, with which wrathful Babylon destroys the nations.(3499) With perfect correctness, De Wette says that the entire expression depends upon a combination of two ideas: the wine of fornication,(3500) wherewith Babylon has intoxicated the nations, is at the same time characterized as a οἰνος τοῦ θυμοῦ (viz., of the Divine wrath), and it is, consequently, represented(3501) how the wine offered by the harlot Babylon to the nations, with which she has intoxicated them and led them to fornication with her, is also a wine which, because of the Divine wrath, has caused that drunkenness in the nations. It is analogous to what is instructively said in Romans 1:21. The πορνεία is the idolatry practised with great Babylon, the all-ruling secular power.(3502)

(3487) “Quot res nunciandæ, totidem nuncii” (Grot.).

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-14.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 14:8. ἔπεσεν ἔπεσε) See on ch. Revelation 18:2.— βαβυλὼν μεγάλη) Thus all the MSS.; thus also Copt. Thus ch. Revelation 16:19, Revelation 17:5, Revelation 18:2, and LXX., Daniel 4:27. But πόλις(159) is inserted between by Erasmus, from ch. Revelation 18:10; Revelation 18:21. An epithet is often added to a proper name, without an appellative substantive. Babylon the great, put absolutely, has a somewhat grander sound, than Babylon the great city.— ἐκ, of) Asyndeton.— τοῦ οἴνου) This is the reading of a few, but ancient witnesses, of the Greek and Latins, to whom is added Cassiodorus. Because in those passages, where the wrath of God is treated of, οἶνος τοῦ θυμοῦ is usually said; for that reason here, and in ch. Revelation 18:3, where the fornication of Babylon is treated of, οἶνος τοῦ θυ΄οῦ has also been inserted by the copyists.(160) But see App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. Under the figure of a draught is often described the anger of God, and often the impurity of [spiritual] whoredom. It is in the former draught, and not the latter, that the word τοῦ θυμοῦ is used.— πεπότικε, hath made to drink) Luther says in the preface to Robert Barns’ Lives of the Pontiffs, “I indeed at first, who am not greatly versed or skilled in histories, attacked the Papacy, a priori, as the saying is, that is, from the Sacred Scriptures. Now I wonderfully rejoice, that others do the same a posteriori, that is, from histories. And I seem to myself altogether to triumph, when, as the light appears, I understand that histories are in agreement with the Scriptures.” And thus the history of the affairs of Rome, which is more and more brought forward into the light, serves to confirm the preaching of this second angel. But, laying aside party zeal, it is right that we should here especially weigh the things which were carried on in the East at the beginning of this century, by missions sent from Rome, rather than the Pontiff; and, on the other hand, the things which began to be carried on by evangelical missions. The impure draught given to the nations is followed by a purer draught.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-14.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The apostle is shown, that other messengers of God should come forth, during the reign of antichrist, that should declare his ruin as certainly as if it were already effected.

Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city: these words are taken from Isaiah 21:9, Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath brokers unto the ground. So Jeremiah 51:8, Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed. There is no doubt but both the prophets spake of that Babylon into which the Jews were carried captive; but that Babylon was typical of another Babylon, called here the

great city, and great Babylon, Revelation 16:19 17:5 18:10,21; and the mother of harlots, Revelation 17:5. There neither is, nor ever was, any city in the world to whom these things could agree, but to Rome, rightly enough called the mother of harlots, and abominations of the earth, Revelation 17:5, both in respect of carnal filthiness there tolerated to make the bishop of Rome a revenue, and spiritual whoredom, which is idolatry: called also Sodom and Egypt, Revelation 11:8, the former of which was famous for beastly lusts, the latter for idolatry, and oppression of God’s Israel. The ruin of old Babylon is denounced by the prophet, Isaiah 21:9, because of her idolatry in image worship, for which the new Babylon is every whit as famous.

Because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication: the word translated wrath, though it oft so signifies, yet should rather be here translated poison, as we translate it, Deuteronomy 32:33 Job 20:16. The LXX. in those texts use the same word that is here used, yumov; so the sense is, with the poisonous wine of her idolatry, intimating to us the venomous condition of Romish superstitions and idolatries, to entice ignorant people to be in love with them; as harlots use with their philters, or poisoned cups, to make men in love with them. If we better approve of our translation of the term wrath, the wine of the wrath of her fornication signifieth her fornication which brings wrath upon them that join with her in it.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-14.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

пал Вавилон Так как первый Ангел не получил ответа на свое послание, второй Ангел вынужден был произнести этот приговор. Вавилон означает политическое, экономическое и религиозное царство антихриста целиком (ср. 16:17-19 – подробности падения). Первоначально город Вавилон был местом зарождения идолопоклонства; его жители желали построить башню – памятник непокорности Богу и лжерелигии. Это идолопоклонство постепенно распространилось, когда Бог смешал людские языки и рассеял людей по земле (ср. Быт. 11:1-9).

яростным вином блуда своего Здесь показан Вавилон, чьи удовольствия подействовали опьяняюще на весь мир и ввергли его в оргию бунтарства, ненависти и идолопоклонства, вместо преданности и поклонения.

блуда Речь идет о духовной продажности лжесистемы антихриста, которая падет из-за такого беззакония.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-14.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Babylon; compare Isaiah 21:9. Babylon was the chief seat of persecution against the church of God under the Old Testament; and this name is given to the chief seat of such persecutions under the New Testament.

Is fallen; an announcement of the overthrow of this great persecuting power.

Drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication; Babylon is compared to a harlot holding in her hand a wine-cup of wrath, and making all nations drunk with it. The figure is taken from Jeremiah 25:15-28, where God, through the literal Babylon, administers to the nations the wine-cup of his fury. The meaning is, that the mystic Babylon, by seducing the nations to commit spiritual fornication with her, brings upon them the wrath of God. For this sin her doom is here foretold.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-14.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

Here is the second Embassy, and reaching to a period still further remote, looking indeed into those times, when the heresy of the West, under the Pope, should begin to give way. I do not presume to ascertain the period; but I find some have, and fixed it to about the opening of the fifteenth century. The fall of mystical Babylon, meaning Rome, began much about this time. The Lord raised up certain characters from among her own communion, which began to call her authority in question..

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/revelation-14.html. 1828.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And another, a second angel, followed, saying “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great which has made all the nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication”.’

The idea and wording connects with Isaiah 21:9, ‘Babylon is fallen, is fallen’ where it relates to idolatry, and with Jeremiah 51:7-8 from where he obtains the picture of her making the earth drunk with her ideas. The doom of this great city, with all it represents of pride and rebellion, which has drawn on itself God’s wrath because of its idolatry and sexual misbehaviour, and has led others to do the same, has at this stage already taken place (details are given later in chapters 17-18, which see). The time of final judgment now fast approaches. Let those called on consider that all ‘Babylon’ has done for them is to lead them into uncleanness and make them drink the wine of God’s wrath, and that now that Babylon has met its inevitable doom, they need to reconsider their ways.

John may well have thought of ‘Babylon’ here especially in terms of Rome, simply because in his day Rome epitomised all that Babylon stood for, but to the spiritual beings who spoke of it and proclaimed it, it represents that which first began when Cain first ‘built a city’, and then at the tower of Babel and continued in great Babylon and in all great cities that sought to conquer and to enforce idolatry, the occult and sexual perversion on others. It is only Rome to him because he sees in Rome a fulfilment of the idea that all who in their pride set themselves up against God and seek to live and build up riches without taking Him into account, as had Babylon before it, will fall (compare what is said to the Laodicean church (Revelation 3:15-17)). They are doomed to destruction. Had he known what we know he would have known that it meant more than Rome.

It was not just Rome or Babylon, but the idea that Babylon and Rome epitomised that would be destroyed. Indeed all the prophets see the destruction of the great cities of the world which set themselves up against God as inevitable. They see them as all doomed to total destruction in the end. This is not second guessing what will be but the inevitable consequence of what they are. They know that Babylon, Rome and all other such cities, and what they represent, exist only to be destroyed. They are anti-Christ, seeking to replace Him in men’s minds, therefore they can have only one end. In every period there is another ‘Babylon’ also doomed to destruction. There will be one in the final days. For Babylon represents man over against God, laden with sin and indulgence.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-14.html. 2013.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

3. And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication-- 14:8.

The second angel of this vision was the angel of doom-signifying the message of doom on Babylon-which here referred to apostate Jerusalem--and the eminent fall of the once holy city.

In chapter 11:8 apostate Jerusalem was designated spiritually as Egypt and Sodom to symbolize her state of apostasy. The reference to Jerusalem was made indisputable by the identifying phrase "where also our Lord was crucified." The prophet Isaiah referred to apostate Jerusalem as "the faithful city become an harlot ! it was full of judgment; righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers." (Isaiah 1:21) The Lord's lament over the spiritual desolation of Jerusalem is recorded in Matthew 23:34-37, climaxed with the impassioned appeal: "0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not."

The name Babylon had come to symbolize the ultimate in corruption, and the fallen Babylon of verse 8 is figurative of the spiritual degradation of Jerusalem--"the faithful city turned harlot," and "which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified." Rome was never a faithful city" to "turn harlot," but these phrases are a fitting description of Jerusalem before and during the time of Christ.

The fornication of verse 8 compares with the use of the same term in reference to Israel's unfaithfulness to God in their Old Testament history. The wine of the wrath of her fornication denoted the drunkenness of spiritual idolatry resulting from the wine of wrath, the evil deeds of which called down the condemnation of God which brought the end in the destruction of the city and its temple.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-14.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The fall of Babylon14:8

The fact that separate and succeeding angels make these announcements stresses their importance and their sequential relationship. A second angel followed the first with the message that Babylon had fallen. This is another proleptic message, in this case given before Babylon falls. It anticipates that event (ch18; cf. Revelation 11:7 and Revelation 13:1-8). [Note: Newell, p235.] The repetition of "fallen" is for emphasis, and the aorist tense of this verb stresses the imminence of Babylon"s fall.

One popular view concerning the identity of "Babylon" is that it is a code word (atbash) for Rome, which the Christians used to disguise references to Rome, especially when Rome was persecuting Christians. That use occurs elsewhere in the New Testament (cf. 1 Peter 5:13). The other view is that "Babylon" is literal Babylon on the Euphrates River. The second option is better in Revelation because in this book place names describe literal locations (cf. Revelation 1:9; Revelation 2:1; Revelation 2:8; Revelation 2:12; Revelation 2:18; Revelation 3:1; Revelation 3:7; Revelation 3:14) unless specifically identified as figurative (e.g, Revelation 11:8). Furthermore "the great," Nebuchadnezzar"s description of Babylon (cf. Daniel 4:30), always modifies the literal Babylon elsewhere in Revelation. Viewing this place as literal Babylon does not exclude further implications of the religious and political systems that have arisen from the city, which become the focus of the revelation later (chs17, 18). [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, p207; Walvoord, The Revelation . . ., p218.] "Babylon" will epitomize ungodliness in the world during the Tribulation, as it has throughout human history since the tower of Babel ( Genesis 11:1-9). Like "Hollywood" the name represents the world system as well as being the name of a particular city.

The angel personified Babylon as a temptress who gives wine to a man to seduce him to commit fornication (cf. Revelation 17:2; Revelation 17:4). The man would not choose to drink this wine without her influence. [Note: Robert Wall, Revelation, p185.] However what this man drinks comes ultimately from the cup of God"s wrath that He gives, through Babylon, to those whom He will punish (cf. Revelation 14:10; Psalm 60:3; Psalm 75:8; Isaiah 51:17; Isaiah 51:22). This wine not only leads all who drink it to commit sexual licentiousness but every kind of excess that expresses unfaithfulness to God (cf. Revelation 17:1-2; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 17:15-16; Revelation 18:3; Revelation 18:9; Revelation 19:2). [Note: Hughes, p162.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-14.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 14:8. And another, a second, angel followed. He is second to the angel in Revelation 14:1.

Saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, which hath made all the nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication. The proclamation is simply anticipatory of what is to be more fully described hereafter. Till we come, therefore, to that description (chap. 18) it may be well to defer inquiry into the meaning of the word ‘Babylon.’ In her ungodly influence Babylon is spoken of as making ‘all the nations to drink,’ etc. (comp. Jeremiah 51:7). A third angel follows.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-14.html. 1879-90.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Revelation 14:8. And there followed another angel — As the admonitions of the first angel had not the proper effect upon the kingdom of the beast, a second angel is commissioned to proclaim the fall of the capital city, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city — By Babylon is meant Rome, including the antichristian kingdom, the papal hierarchy seated there. Rome, considered in this light, is called Babylon, upon many accounts. Babylon was magnificent, strong, proud, powerful. So was Rome also. Babylon was first, Rome afterward, the residence of the emperors of a great part of the world. What Babylon was to Israel of old, Rome hath been both to the literal and spiritual Israel of God. Hence the liberty of the ancient Jews was connected with the overthrow of the Babylonish empire. And when Rome is finally overthrown, then the people of God will be at liberty. Whenever Babylon is mentioned in this book, the great is added, to teach us that Rome then commenced Babylon when it commenced the great city; when it swallowed up the Grecian monarchy and its fragments, Syria in particular; and, in consequence of this, obtained dominion over Jerusalem, about sixty years before the birth of Christ. Then it began, but it will not cease to be Babylon, till it is finally destroyed. Its spiritual greatness began in the fifth century, and increased from age to age. It seems it will come to its utmost height just before its final overthrow. Her fornication is her idolatry, invocation of saints and angels, worship of images, human traditions, with all that outward pomp, yea, and that fierce and bloody zeal, wherewith she pretends to serve God. But with spiritual fornication, as elsewhere, so in Rome, fleshly fornication is joined abundantly. Witness the stews there, licensed by the pope, which are no inconsiderable branch of his revenue. This is fitly compared to wine, because of its intoxicating nature. Of this wine she hath, indeed, made all nations drink — More especially by her later missions. We may observe, this making them drink is not ascribed to the beast, but to Babylon. For Rome itself, the Roman inquisitions, congregations, and Jesuits, continually propagate their idolatrous doctrines and practices, with or without the consent of this or that pope, who himself is not secure from their censure. But, as Bishop Newton observes, though Rome, with the antichristian power above described, was evidently here intended, it would not have been prudent to predict and denounce its destruction in open and direct terms; it was for many wise reasons done thus covertly under the name of Babylon, the great idolatress of the earth, and enemy of the people of God in former times. By the same figure of speech that the first angel cried, that the hour of his judgment is come, this second angel proclaims that Babylon is fallen; the sentence is as certain as if it was already executed. For greater certainty too it is repeated twice, Babylon is fallen, is fallen; as Joseph said, Genesis 41:32, that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice, because the thing was established by God. The reason then is added of this sentence against Babylon; because she made all nations drink of the wine of her wrath, or rather, of the inflaming wine, of her fornication — Hers was a kind of Circean cup with poisoned liquor, to intoxicate and inflame mankind to spiritual fornication. St. John, in these figures, copies the ancient prophets. In the same manner, and in the same words, did Isaiah foretel the fate of ancient Babylon, (Isaiah 21:9,) Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and Jeremiah hath assigned much the same reason for her destruction, (Jeremiah 51:7,) Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord’s hand, that made all the earth drunken: the nations have drunken of her wine; therefore the nations are mad. As by the first angel calling upon men to worship God, we understand the opposers of the worship of images in the eighth and ninth centuries, so by this second angel proclaiming the fall of mystic Babylon or Rome we understand particularly Peter Valdo, and those who concurred with him among the Waldenses and Albigenses; who were the first heralds, as I may say, of this proclamation, as they first of all, in the twelfth century, pronounced the Church of Rome to be the apocalyptic Babylon, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth; and for this cause not only departed from her communion themselves, but engaged great numbers also to follow their example, and laid the first foundation of the Reformation. Rome then began to fall; and as the ruin of Babylon was completed by degrees, so likewise will that of Rome; and these holy confessors and martyrs first paved the way to it.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/revelation-14.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Another Angel,...saying:...She is fallen, she is fallen, that great Babylon. By Babylon, as observed before, may very probably be signified all the wicked world in general, whom God will punish and destroy after the short time of this mortal life: or may be signified every great city, and perhaps Rome returned to idolatry in the time of antichrist, a little before the end of the world: or may be signified the idolatry of heathen Rome, in the fourth age [century], when the Christian religion, under Constantine and his successors, began to triumph over paganism, i.e. according to those interpreters followed by Alcazar, Bossuet, P. Alleman, &c. which exposition Dr. Hammond thus expresseth: "the whole impure city of heathen Rome, under the title of Babylon, that old idolatrous city that had lain so heavy upon the people of God....should speedily be destroyed, for advancing the heathen worship." (Witham) --- It is probable that here by the great Babylon is meant the city of the devil; that is, the universal society of the wicked: as Jerusalem is taken for the city and the Church of God. (Challoner)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-14.html. 1859.

A Study of the Prophetic Book of Holy Scriptures

SECOND ANGEL .

Revelation 14:8.

"And there followed another angel, saying BABYLON IS FALLEN, IS FALLEN, that great City, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication."

Here is proof that the City of Babylon is to be rebuilt. For further proof see chapter eighteen. As to the fall and destruction of the literal City of Babylon this proclamation is anticipative, but as a declaration that Babylon had fallen to fearful depths of wickedness and apostasy, and had become "the habitation of demons, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird," as described in chapter, it was already true, for the City of Babylon

will have been rebuilt at the time when this Angel utters his proclamation. The Angel"s warning was that God"s people might hear His voice saying: "Come out of her, MY PEOPLE, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues." Revelation 18:4.

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Larkin, Clarence. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". A Study of the Prophetic Book of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/clr/revelation-14.html.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

God is so sure of victory that he announces it before the battle has begun. Babylon the great city must be Rome and all her pagan vices. The rest of the world had joined her in idolatrous worship, especially of Caesar, and would come to realize the cup of their rebellion would also become the cup of God"s wrath.

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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-14.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

there, &c. Read "another (Revelation 14:6), a second angel, followed".

Babylon . . . city = Fallen, fallen (is) Babylon the great. Compare Revelation 18:2 and Isaiah 21:9.

city. The texts omit.

because she. The texts read "which".

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-14.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

Another. So Vulgate; but 'Aleph (') A B, Syriac, Andreas, 'another, a second angel.'

Babylon - here first: the harlot, the apostate church: distinct from the beast: judged separately.

Is fallen. Anticipation of Revelation 18:2. A, Vulgate, Syriac, Andreas, support the second "is fallen;" B C, Coptic, omit.

That great city. A B C, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, omit "city." 'Babylon the great.' The ulterior fulfillment of Isaiah 21:9.

Because. So Andreas; but A C, Vulgate, Syriac, read, 'which;' B, Coptic, omit. 'Which' gives the reason of her fall.

All nations. A B C, 'all the nations.'

The wine of the wrath of her fornication - the wine of God's wrath, the consequence of her fornication. As she made the nations drunk with her fornication, so she herself shall be made drunk with God's wrath.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-14.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(8) And there followed . . .—The gospel angel is followed by the angel that proclaims the downfall of Babylon. Better, And another, a second, angel followed, saying, Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, who has given all the nations to drink of, &c. The second angel follows on the first: the doom of the world-city, the metropolis of the empire of the world-power, follows the proclamation of the gospel. The principles of Christ’s gospel must undermine the world-power; the fall of some Babylon principle has almost always succeeded the age of spiritual revival. Pagan Rome goes down before the gospel. Civil freedom follows the wake of religious freedom, for Babylon belongs not to one age. Pagan Rome was Babylon to St. John; papal Rome was often Babylon to a later age. Dante, Savanarola, Tauler, Luther, felt her to be so in the days when their eyes were enlightened; but Babylon was not on the Euphrates alone: she has reared palaces on the Seine, and on the Thames, Tiber, and on the Bosphorus. She may yet erect her power in more imposing form; but faith in that gospel which is the power of God, will cast her down along with everything that exalts itself against the knowledge of God. The influence of Babylon is declared in this: that she has given all nations to drink of deadly wine—the wine alike of her sin and of her doom, of her fornication and of the wrath which will overtake it. Babylon, then, is clearly an emblem of some principles which have been more or less accepted by all nations, and which will more or less involve all in the consequences of her fall. (Comp. Revelation 16:19; Revelation 16:17, where the features of this Babylon are more fully developed.)

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-14.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.
Babylon
16:19; 17:5,18; 18:2,3,10,11,18-21; Isaiah 21:9; Jeremiah 51:7,8,64
because
11:8; 17:2-5; 18:3,10,18,21; 19:2; Jeremiah 51:7; Ezekiel 16:15-22; Nahum 3:19
wrath
13:15-17; 17:6
Reciprocal: Psalm 97:7 - Confounded;  Psalm 137:8 - who art;  Isaiah 14:23 - make;  Jeremiah 25:16 - GeneralJeremiah 27:7 - until;  Jeremiah 29:11 - thoughts;  Jeremiah 50:2 - Babylon;  Jeremiah 51:45 - go;  Daniel 7:22 - the Ancient;  Acts 5:29 - We;  Revelation 9:21 - nor of their fornication;  Revelation 15:3 - and the song;  Revelation 17:4 - golden;  Revelation 17:8 - go

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-14.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

III. — THE FALL OF BABYLON.

Revelation 14:8. — "And another, a second angel, followed, saying, Great Babylon has fallen, has fallen, which of the wine of the fury of her fornication has made all nations drink." It will be observed that there are three specific angelic announcements (vv. 6, 8, 9). The first and the third are proclaimed with a "loud voice." Not so the second. Babylon, civil and religious, figures largely in Bible history. Whether viewed as a city (Jeremiah 51:1-64), or as a religious system (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 17:1-18; Revelation 18:1-24), it is a vast consolidated system and the enslaver of God's people. Babylon of old was the first and only Gentile power on which God directly conferred governmental authority (Daniel 2:37). Its doom, and the deliverance of Judahfrom the seventy years' captivity were associated events. It will be so at the end. The Beast of the Apocalypse, which inherits the civil and political power of ancient Babylon, perishes at the Coming (Revelation 19:1-21), and God's people are delivered. But what is before us now is the mystic Babylon, that huge system of spiritual adultery and corruption which holds sway over the whole prophetic scene. It is scarcely possible to conceive of a huge system of wickedness eagerly embraced by the nations once called christian. It will nevertheless be so. Babylon here is the full development of the state of things under the Thyatiran condition of the Church (Revelation 2:18-23). Protestantism as a system is destroyedat the Coming (Revelation 3:3). Babylon falls before the Coming (Revelation 17:1-18).

Babylon, the city of old, was the oppressor of the nations, and the centre and stronghold of the world's pride and idolatry. Satan stamped his own character upon it. But Israel and her renowned capital, Jerusalem, should have been the people and city from whence the knowledge of Jehovah and power over the nations emanated. But Israel, having falsified her position as set on earth to administer righteous government in headship over the nations, and also having proved unfaithful to her mission in making known the character of the true and only God,is set aside. Babylon is the contrast to what Israel should have been, and, in fact, to what she will be when under the new covenant (Jeremiah 31:1-40). The Church should have been a witness to God's character as light and love, instead of which she has shown herself an unfaithful steward of the truth, and has failed as a witness to God and to Christ.Then, consequent on the moral ruin of the Church, the ground is prepared for Satan to introduce the mystic Babylon, the corruptress of the earth, and the spiritual enslaver of the nations who are madly intoxicated with her adulteries and corruptions. Her meretricious charms are gilded chains; her cup is full. The nations have yielded to her seductions, and have eagerly drunk out of her golden cup. Here her downfall is intimated, and that with intensity of utterance. The repetition of the word "fallen" must not be regarded as a mere Hebraism. The fall of the literal, as of the mystic, Babylon is similarly announced (Isaiah 21:9; Revelation 18:2).

In the passage before us we have merely the fact announced that Babylon has fallen. It is regarded as an accomplished judgment. Particulars are reserved.The character, doom, and human instruments of her destruction are specified in chapters 17 and 18, while her utter and everlasting ruin is grandly celebrated in Heaven in the first three verses of Revelation 19:1-21, and that as preliminary to the marriage of the Lamb. The whore is destroyed, and then the bride is displayed.

8. — "The wine of the fury (or wrath) of her fornication" drunk by all nations is a singular expression, and exceeds what is said of the Euphratean city (Jeremiah 51:7). The Babylon of the Apocalypse has by herseductions, unholy allurements, and incitements to evil enthralled the nations. Their passions have been fearfully roused, and they are not only mad (morally, of course), but her illicit intercourse with them has wrought them up to frenzy. In the height of the ungodliness and folly of the unholy union between the corrupt Church and the equally corrupt nations, the welcome message falls upon our ears, "Babylon has fallen, has fallen." In every respect the Babylon of the Apocalypse may be termed "great " in contrast to the city of old.

Delete the word "city," erroneously inserted in the text of the Authorised Version (v. 8). It is almost unanimously rejected by the authorities.

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E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

A result of the everlasting gospel which the preceding angel announced is then stated by another angel, namely, Babylon is fallen. The reader is reminded that the term Babylon in this part‘ of the great drama means the institution that was formed by the union of church and state. It is here called that great city because its head was the city of Rome where both the emperor and pope resided. Wine of the wrath of her fornication is a figurative phrase combining the false teaching and idolatrous practices of Rome. As long as the people were kept in ignorance of the Bible, they could be made to drink of this wine. The announcement that Babylon is fallen means that the union of church and st-ate was dissolved as a result of the information brought to the people through the Bible, translated in their native language so they could read it for themselves, and form conclusions independent of Rome.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-14.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 14:8

Revelation 14:8 And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

Now that the light of the everlasting gospel is broken forth in all the earth, and the ministers of Christ begin to prophesy again before kings, people, and nations, as Revelation 10:10-11. See the exposition. See KNOLLYS: Revelation 10:8 & See KNOLLYS: Revelation 10:11 This next sort of angels, that Isaiah, ministers, { Revelation 1:20} proclaim the fall and ruin of mystical Babylon, that great city, the whole Roman papal state.

Babylon is fallen, is fallen.

It is doubled to note the certainty of it, as Revelation 18:2. And the reason of her destruction followeth;

because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

Therefore will God give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. { Revelation 16:19; Revelation 18:3}

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-14.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 14:8. And there followed another angel, a second, who said, She is fallen, she is fallen, Babylon the great, which made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication. In the preceding verse the judgment generally was announced, upon all the beastʼs forms of manifestation, from those that existed in the prophetʼs time, till the resuscitation of the beast in Gog and Magog; here, on the other hand, what is specially set forth is the judgment on that particular phase of the power of the beast, by which the members of the church were then harassed and tempted to apostacy. If we were to understand here by Babylon the ungodly power of the world in general, the messages of the two angels would not be properly distinct from each other. But as Babylon here is brought into view only as an individualphase of the anti-christian power, what is said more immediately of it, undoubtedly holds good in substance of the other phases that are to follow. The second ( δεύ τερος) was left out by several critical helps, which Luther follows, merely because it was regarded as superfluous after another. This, however, is by no means the case; it indicates, as does also the following (not coming), that the angels, although different, still were connected together, and that their messages bore respect to each other. "With a loud voice, it is said in regard to the first and third angel, but not in regard to the second." That the expression should be wanting here is certainly not accidental. As the announcement in this case stands related to the preceding one, only as the particular to the general, the loud voice here was not necessary; the message of the first angel was still, in a manner, sounding in the ear. In the message of the third angel, when a rise is made from the particular back to the general, it appears again. That Rome is to be understood by Babylon, is almost universally agreed, and admits, indeed, of no doubt. But that we are to think only of heathen Rome, and not, with the older Protestant expositors, of Christian Rome, is abundantly plain from ch. Revelation 18:20, alone, where we are told, that God avenges on Babylon his apostles and prophets. It was heathen Rome alone that had to do with the apostles, who were, at the same time, prophets (see vol. i. p. 41.) It slew Peter and Paul, and sent John into banishment. The same thing is clear also by comparing the fundamental passage, 1 Peter 5:13. The connection, too, leads in this direction. That the heathen worldlypower is the object of the judgment announced by the first angel we have already seen. But the message of the second angel stands related to that of the first, as the particular to the general. Then, Babylon is only a particular aspect, under which the beast manifests itself, and the beast cannot possibly be the Papacy. Finally, the addition, "which made all nations drunk with the wine of the wrath of her fornication," does not snit papal Rome; and those, who have adopted this interpretation, have found themselves driven to a forced explanation of these words. It is the case, not rarely, in the Old Testament, that the worldly powers of the present and the future are described under the names of those of the past. Zechariah, for example, after the return from the Babylonish exile, designates the place destined for the reception of the Jews, when the measure of their sins should have again become full, and they should once more be expelled from their land, by the name of the land of their former exile; in Zechariah 10:11, he speaks of their future oppressors under the name of Assyria and Egypt (see the Christology there, where other examples are produced). This transference of names carries with it a strong emphasis. It makes the whole of God's earlier procedure start forth to life again. The word of God, which has once already passed into fulfilment, cannot now be treated as a vain imagination. In the New Testament the name of Babylon was first applied to heathen Rome in 1 Peter 5:13, "the co-elect in Babylon greets you, and Marcus my son." It is inexplicable, that persons should still always insist upon Babylon being taken here in the literal sense. What difficulties they thus involve themselves in need not be stated at length. The only reason which has been urged for it of any weight, is disposed of by the remark, that the epistles of the New Testament are not entirely written in common prose, and that the poetical character of a large portion of the sacred books, necessarily exercised an influence on the rest. The co-elect is the associated church, according to 1 Peter 1:1, 1 Peter 2:9;1 John 5:13;—the co-elect in Babylon can only be such an one as had there a settled abode—not a person who happened to be there by accident. Marcus is the spiritual son of Peter; how, in such a connection, could Babylon be the literal Babylon? The contents of the epistle, also, are in perfect accordance with this view. It was written when Rome had just begun to tread in the footsteps of Babylon. The designation of Rome as Babylon corresponds to the passage, Be vigilant, and sober, for your adversary the devil goeth about as a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour." Comp. Jeremiah 51:38. Here we have the first rise of the designation. The word, written in the true prophetical spirit, gave much cause for reflection. As the Nicolaitans in John point to the second epistle of Peter (2 Peter 2:15), so does Babylon to the first; nor are there wanting in the Apocalypse other references to the same epistle (see vol. i., p. 78). Among the Jews also Rome went by the name of Babylon.[Note: Buxtorf Lex. P. 2230, Schöttgen Horae, vol. i, p. 1125.] Whether this was done before the time of Peter and John, we can allow to remain undecided. The probability certainly is, that it was. But for Christians, at any rate, Rome first became Babylon, when it entered on the persecution of the true people of God. Not what it inflicted on the mere fleshly Israel; but only what it inflicted on the true, could have justified its being called by that name. In this first did the spirit fully display itself, which had impelled it during its earlier career. If, in the case of the beast, the blasphemy against the name of God and his tabernacle, and those who dwell in heaven, is essentially the war against the saints (ch. Revelation 13:6-7), the same also must hold in respect to Babylon. In ch. Revelation 18:20, it is represented as the chief feature in Babylon's guilt, what she had done against the apostles and prophets. The other only became manifest in this. Also, in the Old Testament, whatever the great monarchies of the world might do in regard to merely worldly kingdoms, it was only when the same came to be practised against the Lord's people, that it appeared as the occasion of divine judgment; see, for example, Habakkuk 2.—"As often as a delineation is given of Babylon in this book, it has the epithet of the great city, or simply the great, which still conveys an idea of magnificence." (Here it is called merely the great; the "city," which Luther retains, is wanting in the best manuscripts, and to be deleted). The designation is taken from Daniel 4:27, where Nebuchadnezzar speaks of Babylon the great. But the permanence of the designation, as if it formed a component part of the proper name, cannot but appear somewhat strange. It is to be explained from an allusion to the name Rome, strength, which still plainly discovers itself in ch. Revelation 18:2. That it is not called the strong- but the great, was on account of the fundamental passage of Daniel.

Babylon the great, is fallen. Allusion is made to Isaiah 21:9, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon." Comp. Jeremiah 50:2, Jeremiah 51:8. The fundamental passage shews, that the omission of one of the expressions, "it is fallen," in some copies, has arisen from negligence. In that passage also, the preterite is a prophetical one, denoting the certainty of the overthrow, which had already as good as taken place. With an intentional repetition it is again said in ch. Revelation 18:2-3, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon— because she has made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication." The preterite there is an actually historical one: what is predicted here, is represented there as fulfilled, as also in ch. Revelation 16:19, it is the actual overthrow of Babylon that is treated of. In the description of the fulfilment the words of the prophecy are again repeated, only some further enlargement is given to them.

Babylon, the great, has made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.[Note: The original reading is: which, ἥ, bus made drunk. The ἥ, on account of the cacophony, an ἥ immediately preceding, and on account of ch. 18:13, was by many copyists changed into ὅ τι. Others have nothing, either to avoid the cacophony, or because on account of the first ἥ they overlooked the second, or, perhaps, because they were perplexed by the vacillating of the MSS. between ἥ and ὅ τι. This is the worst reading. The asyndeton is harsh and without any occasion, and against ch. 18:8. The ὅ τι there jis related to the ἥ here, as πέ πωκε to πεπό τικε. Scripture delights in such intentional repetitions to introduce some unimportant alterations.] The wine of the wrath is the wine, which consists of wrath. As wine makes the drinkers helpless, so does her wrath the nations. The making the nations drunk with wine is a very common image in the Old Testament. The point of comparison is always the impotence, the helplessness, misery, degradation, shamefulness of the condition (see my Comm. on Psalms 9:5). In Habakkuk 2:15-16, it is said of the king of Babylon: "Woe to thee, who dost give thy neighbour drink, pouring out thy wrath, and makest him drink that thou mayest see their nakedness. Thou shalt be filled with shame for glory. Drink thou also, and be uncovered, and let shame come upon thy glory." The sense of Habakkuk 2:15 is: Woe to him, who in his wrath makes his neighbour impotent, in order to take advantage of his humiliation. The wrath is the wine—comp. Jeremiah 25:15. This figure is likewise applied to Babylon in Jeremiah 51:7, "The golden cup of Babylon is in the hand of the Lord (to be now presented to herself, according to Jeremiah 25:26, while hitherto in executing the Lord's commission she had presented it to others), that makes all the world drunk; the nations have drunk of her wine; therefore have the nations become mad." Comp. also Nahum 3:11, where it is said of Nineveh, "Thou also shall be drunken, be hid" (the latter expression gives the meaning of the figure; accordingly the drunkenness denotes the impotence, the total degradation, the utter vanishing); and Obad. Obadiah 1:16, And all the heathen drink continually, and they drink and swallow down, and they are as if they were not."

The wine of the wrath of which Babylon has made the heathen to drink, is more particularly described as that of her fornication. By the image of fornication is denoted in some passages of the Old Testament the selfishness, that under the veil of love disguises itself, and in this form seeks the gratification of its own lust. In Isaiah 23:15, ss. Tyrus is named a whore on account of its commercial alliances, and its commercial gain is represented as the hire of a whore.[Note: The words: She whores with all the kings of the earth, is rendered by the LXX.: καὶ ἔσται ἐμπόριον πάσαις ταῖς βασιλείαις τῆς οἰκουμένης.] The point of comparison is the making one's self agreeable, feigning love for the sake of gain. In Nahum 3:4, the term fornication is employed to denote the diplomatic arts of the Assyrian power, by which she insinuated herself upon the nations', in order to ensnare and destroy them under the semblance of love. Among conquering nations there always goes along with their rough power a hypocritical love and friendship, by which they endeavour to wheedle the nations and make them subservient to their purposes. What is described as fornication in Nahum 3:4—"Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the well-favoured harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her witchcrafts"—is in Nahum 3:1 described as deceit. The point of comparison is quite the same in Nahum as in Isaiah, viz., selfishness concealing itself behind the appearance of love. The difference simply is, that the gain sought for is there represented as gain of merchandise, here of countries. In the same way we are to explain here, "her fornication." It is added to give additional strength and elevation to the meaning. Without it we might have thought merely of rude force, which here is relatively the least of the bad qualities. It is as much as, "Her wrath has made the nations poor, and that (not merely by means of rude force, but also) under the fair covering of love, inveigling her neighbours to their greater destruction, whom she was bound in truth to protect, by means of an artful and cunning diplomacy." The terrible character of this fornication of Rome, John had probably learned from his own experience. It shewed itself also in the treatment of Christians. In the history of her persecutions we are not so much shocked at their ferocity as at the cunning, by which under the semblance of love it was tried to seduce Christians into apostacy to the faith.

The common supposition is, that the giving to drink of the wine of her fornication, means seduction to the service of idolatry. So Bengel: "This fornication is also mentioned in ch. Revelation 17:2; Revelation 17:4, Revelation 18:3; Revelation 18:9, Revelation 19:2; and hence Babylon herself is called the whore, the great whore, the mother of harlots, ch. 17. Such fornication is properly the false worship of God, even with a Christian name and appearance; and it is compared to wine, on account of its pleasantness and its power to make drunk." But this interpretation makes shipwreck on the circumstance, that the subject is the wine of the wrath, or the wrath-wine of her fornication. It is impossible to shew, in regard to fornication of that sort, how it proceeds from the principle of wrath. The different ways, in which commentators have tried to meet this argument, only shew how invincible it is. Several, with Bengel at their head, cut the knot, and declare the expression, "of the wrath," to be spurious. The omission of it, however, in some manuscripts, which Luther has followed, can lend them no support; it merely shews, that there were already scribes, who did not know what to make of it. Others have tried to help themselves by an explanation. Most have gone in with the assertion, that wrath stands here for glow or for poison; the wrath-wine denotes drink that is heating, burning, that is, filling or poisoning the mind with zeal for idols. But this interpretation is contrary to the ascertained signification of θυμό ς, wrath,[Note: Bengel already remarked: Supersedemus labore illo, quo nonulli vocabulo θυμό ς significationem aestus conficere conantur.] and especially against the constant use of it in the Apocalypse; more particularly against Revelation 14:10, where the wrath of God refers back to the wrath of Babylon here. Others, still again, abide by the signification of wrath, but the wrath must not be that of Babylon, it must belong to the drunkards: the wine, which turns into wrath. But the wine must here, as in Revelation 14:10, belong to the party, who gives the wine to be drunk. All these shifts, however, are at once put to shame by Habakkuk 2:15. And even apart from the expression, "of the wrath," which places an insuperable barrier against the explanation of the clause that would understand it of seduction to idolatry, it is also quite opposed to the common usage of the figure of making drunk with wine in the Old Testament, and to Revelation 14:10, where the figure is likewise employed in the description of the recompense. Further, that the fornication here can only be feigned love for the sake of self-interest, is clear from the undeniable reference of the parallel passage, ch. Revelation 18:3, to Isaiah 23. And in that same passage, since "the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her," is coupled with, "and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies," it would be impossible to make out any proper connection, if we should understand idolatry by fornication. Finally, in ch. Revelation 19:2 it is said, "He has judged the great whore, who corrupted the earth through her fornication." From the words that immediately follow, "And has avenged on her the blood of his servants," and from the parallel passage, ch. Revelation 11:18, it cannot be spiritual corruption that is meant here, but only material, and such judgment as carries along with it complete destruction.

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Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-14.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

2. Second angel defines the object of these war manifestoes—Babylon, Revelation 14:8.

8.Babylon’ fallen—Or, with the elegant inversion of the Greek: Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the great. It is the prophetic future-preterite. Here first occurs in the apocalypse the name of “great BABYLON.” It carries our thought back to the Babel built by the survivors of the flood on the plains of the Euphrates, where was first developed in history, under Nimrod, the type of mighty but godless nationality. It next appears in sacred history under one of the greatest princes of antiquity, Nebuchadnezzar, as the conqueror and leader into captivity of beloved Jerusalem. Then commenced the antithetical typology which is unfolded in the apocalypse. Babylon was then the great profane empire city, hostile to the city of God, in which a false religion dominates the world and persecutes the followers of Jehovah. But Babylon is now transferred westward and impersonated in Rome. And this new Babylon first is dragon or pagan, and then, semi-Christianized, is bestial or papal. It was first anti-God, and so anti-Christ; it is now specifically anti-Christ. And under the victorious career of Christ it must finally fall; fall embracing in itself all the profane traits of its typical national predecessors; fall followed by the destruction of all Babylonianism, secular and ecclesiastical.

Wine of the wrath of her fornication—A very pregnant expression. Her fornication is at once a seductive wine and a destructive wrath; wine to the appetite, wrath upon the soul and body.

 

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-14.html. 1874-1909.

The Bible Study New Testament

8. A second angel. The angel identifies Babylon, the third of Satan’s agents. Babylon symbolizes the world as a center of anti-christian seduction [the glamour, glitter, romance, etc., which leads many to “sell their soul” because they are in love with this present world (2 Timothy 4:10)]. Babylon is described more completely in chapters 1719. She has fallen! So certain is the destruction of Babylon, that the angel uses the “historic future” to speak of the event as though it had already happened! This is a warning to all who love this world! The “strong wine of her immoral lust” brings only death! The Good News is that Jesus offers a way to escape the Wrath of Judgment!

 

 

 

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Bibliographical Information
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 14:8". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-14.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.