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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Bab'ylon. Babylon, in the Apocalypse, is the symbolical name by which Rome is denoted. Revelation 14:8; Revelation 17:18. The power of Rome was regarded by the later Jews as was that of Babylon by their forefathers. Compare Jeremiah 51:7 with Revelation 14:8.
The occurrence of this name in 1 Peter 5:13 has given rise to a variety of conjectures, many giving it the same meaning as in the Apocalypse; others refer it to Babylon in Asia, and others still to Babylon in Egypt. The most natural supposition of all is that by Babylon is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, which was largely inhabited by Jews at the time in question.
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Smith, William, Dr. Entry for 'Babylon'. Smith's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/sbd/b/babylon.html. 1901.