Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 19:1

After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God;
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Hallelujah;   Praise;   Vision;   Thompson Chain Reference - Glorifying God;   The Topic Concordance - Judges;   Righteousness;   Servants;   Truth;   Vengeance;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Salvation;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Hallelujah;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Apocalyptic literature;   Babylon;   Hallelujah;   Persecution;   Propitiation;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Hosanna;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Alleluia;   Hallelujah;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Alleluia;   Tongues, Gift of;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Hallelujah;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Doxology;   Hallelujah;   Praise (2);   Salvation Save Saviour;   Voice;   Wandering Stars;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Allelula;   Babylon the Great ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Allelujah;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Alleluia;   Antichrist;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Alleluia;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Doxology;   Hallelujah;   Hosanna;   Nero;   Revelation of John:;   Writing;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Bat Ḳ;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven - The idolatrous city being destroyed, and the blood of the martyred saints being avenged, there is a universal joy among the redeemed of the Lord, which they commence with the word יה הללו Hallelu, praise ye Jah or Jehovah; which the Septuagint, and St. John from them, put into Greek letters thus: Αλληλουΐα, Allelou-ia, a form of praise which the heathens appear to have borrowed from the Jews, as is evident from their paeans, or hymns in honor of Apollo, which began and ended with ελελευ ιη, eleleu ie ; a mere corruption of the Hebrew words. It is worthy of remark that the Indians of North America have the same word in their religious worship, and use it in the same sense. "In their places of worship, or beloved square, they dance sometimes for a whole night always in a bowing posture, and frequently singing halleluyah Ye ho wah; praise ye Yah, Ye ho vah:" probably the true pronunciation of the Hebrew יהוה , which we call Jehovah. See Adair's History of the American Indians.

Salvation - He is the sole author of deliverance from sin; the glory of this belongs to him, the honor should be ascribed to him, and his power is that alone by which it is effected.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-19.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And after these things - The things particularly that were exhibited in the previous chapter. See the notes on Revelation 18:1.

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven - The voice of the worshippers before the throne.

Saying, Alleluia - The Greek method of writing “Hallelujah.” This word - ἀλληλούΐα allēlouia- occurs in the New Testament only in this chapter, Revelation 19:1, Revelation 19:3-4, Revelation 19:6. The Hebrew phrase - הללוּ יה haleluw Yah“Hallelujah” - occurs often in the Old Testament. It means, properly, “Praise Yahweh,” or “Praise the Lord.” The occasion on which it is introduced here is very appropriate. It is uttered by the inhabitants of heaven, in the immediate presence of God himself, and in view of the final overthrow of the enemies of the church, and the triumph of the gospel. In such circumstances it was fit that heaven should render praise, and that a song of thanksgiving should be uttered in which all holy beings could unite.

Salvation - That is, the salvation is to be ascribed to God. See the notes on Revelation 7:10.

And glory, and honour - notes on Revelation 5:12.

And power - notes on Revelation 5:13.

Unto the Lord our God - That is, all that there is of honor, glory, power, in the redemption of the world belongs to God, and should be ascribed to him. This is expressive of the true feelings of piety always; this will constitute the song of heaven.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-19.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And after these things,.... After the angel had declared the fall of Babylon, a voice from heaven had called the people of God out of her, and had ordered them to take vengeance on her; after the mournful lamentation of the kings, merchants, and seafaring men; after another voice had called upon the saints to rejoice at her overthrow, and a mighty angel had described the manner of it, and had expressed her ruin in the strongest terms, with the reasons of it, John heard the songs of the righteous, as follow:

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven: not literally taken, for these are not the innumerable company of angels, who are never called people; nor the spirits of just men made perfect, or the souls of departed saints, but men on earth; wherefore heaven designs the church, as in Revelation 18:20 and frequently in this book; the people are the same with the 144000 seen with the Lamb on Mount Zion, Revelation 14:1 and with those on the sea of glass, who had got the victory over the beast, Revelation 15:2 and are no other than God's covenant people, who are given to Christ, and made willing to be his in the day of his power; and though they are but a seed, a remnant, a small company, when compared with the world and carnal professors; yet are a large body of themselves, especially they will be at this time, when the nation of the Jews shall be born at once, and the fulness of the Gentiles will be brought in: and their voice on this occasion, the downfall of Rome, is said to be "great" partly on account of their number, who will join together in acclamations of praise, and partly on account of their great affection and vehemency of spirit, which will be raised hereby:

saying Alleluia; an Hebrew word, which signifies "praise ye the Lord". The Jews sayF14Yalkut Simeoni, par. 2. fol. 89. 1. T. Bab. Pesachim, fol. 117. 1. , that the book of Psalms consists of ten sorts of songs, but Hallelujah is the greatest of them, because it comprehends the name (Jehovah) and praise in one word: and it is observable that this word, which is often used in the Psalms, is first used when the Psalmist desires the utter consumption and destruction of sinners and wicked men on earth, and is here taken up by the saints at the destruction of the man of sin and son of perdition; see Psalm 104:35 and its being an Hebrew word shows that at this time the Jews will be converted, and that Jews and Gentiles will become one church state, and will worship and praise the Lord together; for the word is a call upon the saints to join together in solemn praise and thanksgiving; who is to be praised for the perfections of his nature, for the works of his hands, both of nature and grace; and for his righteous judgments on his and his church's enemies; and this is to be done in concert:

salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God: salvation, temporal, spiritual, and eternal, is of God; "salvation" from antichristian power and tyranny, and from all enemies, and the everlasting salvation of the soul; and the "glory" of it belongs to all the three Persons; they are glorious in themselves, and deserve all glory to be ascribed to them by man, and especially by the saints: "honour" is also their due; God the Father is to be honoured because he is the Father, and the Son is to he honoured as the Father is, and the Holy Spirit is not to be grieved, but to be highly esteemed and valued, and equally with the other two Persons: and "power" belongs to them all, and is seen in the works of creation, redemption, and sanctification.

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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-19.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And 1 after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, a 2 Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:

(1) This chapter has in summary two parts, one transitory or of passage to the things that follow, to the tenth verse, (Revelation 19:2-10), another historical of the victory of Christ over both the beasts, to the end of the chapter (Revelation 19:11-21), which I said was the second history of this argument, (Revelation 17:1). The transition has two places, one of praising God for the overthrow done to Babylon in (Revelation 19:4): and another likewise of praise and prophecy, for the coming of Christ to his kingdom, and his most royal marriage with his Church, thence to the tenth verse (Revelation 19:5-10). The former praise has three parts, distinguished after the ancient manner of those that sing: an invitation in (Revelation 19:1-2), a response or answer in (Revelation 19:3), and a close or joining together in harmony in (Revelation 19:4), all which I thought good of purpose to distinguish in this place, lest any man should with Porphyrius, or other like dogs, object to John, or the heavenly Church, a childish and idle repetition of speech.

(a) Praise the Lord. {(2)} The proposition of praise with exhortation in this verse, and the cause of it in (Revelation 19:2).

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-19.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Revelation 19:1-21. The Church‘s thanksgiving in heaven for the judgment on the harlot. The marriage of the Lamb: The supper: The bride‘s preparation: John is forbidden to worship the angel: The Lord and His hosts come forth for war: The beast and the false prophet cast into the Lake of Fire: The kings and their followers slain by the sword out of Christ‘s mouth.

As in the case of the opening of the prophecy, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:9, etc.; so now, at one of the great closing events seen in vision, the judgment on the harlot (described in Revelation 18:1-24), there is a song of praise in heaven to God: compare Revelation 7:10, etc., toward the close of the seals, and Revelation 11:15-18, at the close of the trumpets: Revelation 15:3, at the saints‘ victory over the beast.

And — so Andreas. But A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit.

a great voice — A, B, C, Vulgate, Coptic, and Andreas read, “as it were a great voice.” What a contrast to the lamentations Revelation 18:1-24 ! Compare Jeremiah 51:48. The great manifestation of God‘s power in destroying Babylon calls forth a great voice of praise in heaven.

peopleGreek, “multitude.”

AlleluiaHebrew, “Praise ye JAH,” or Jehovah: here first used in Revelation, whence Ellicott infers the Jews bear a prominent part in this thanksgiving. JAH is not a contraction of “Jehovah,” as it sometimes occurs jointly with the latter. It means “He who Is”: whereas Jehovah is “He who will be, is, and was.” It implies God experienced as a PRESENT help; so that “Hallelujah,” says Kimchi in Bengel, is found first in the Psalms on the destruction of the ungodly. “Hallelu-Jah” occurs four times in this passage. Compare Psalm 149:4-9, which is plainly parallel, and indeed identical in many of the phrases, as well as the general idea. Israel, especially, will join in the Hallelujah, when “her warfare is accomplished” and her foe destroyed.

Salvation, etc.Greek,The salvation  …  the glory  …  the power.”

and honour — so Coptic. But A, B, C, and Syriac omit.

unto the Lord our God — so Andreas. But A, B, C, and Coptic read, “(Is) of our God,” that is, belongs to Him.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

After these things (μετα ταυταmeta tauta). Often when a turn comes in this book. But Beckwith is probably correct in seeing in Revelation 19:1-5 the climax of chapter Rev 18. This first voice (Revelation 19:1, Revelation 19:2) ως πωνην μεγαλην ουχλου πολλουhōs phōnēn megalēn ouchlou pollou (as it were great voice of much multitude) is probably the response of the angelic host (Revelation 5:11; Hebrews 12:22). There is responsive singing (grand chorus) as in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14.

Saying (λεγοντωνlegontōn). Present active participle of λεγωlegō genitive plural, though οχλουochlou is genitive singular (collective substantive, agreement in sense).

Hallelujah (ΑλληλουιαAllēlouia). Transliteration of the Hebrew seen often in the Psalms (lxx) and in 3 Macc. 7:13, in N.T. only in Revelation 19:1, Revelation 19:3, Revelation 19:4, Revelation 19:6. It means, “Praise ye the Lord.” Fifteen of the Psalms begin or end with this word. The Great Hallel (a title for Psalm 104-109) is sung chiefly at the feasts of the passover and tabernacles. This psalm of praise uses language already in Revelation 12:10.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Hallelujah ( ἀλληλούΐ́α )

Hebrew. Praise ye the Lord. Only in Revelation and in this chapter. Fifteen of the Psalms either begin or end with this word. The Jewish anthem of praise (Revelation href="/desk/?q=re+1:6&sr=1">Revelation 1:6.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-19.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:

I heard a loud voice of a great multitude — Whose blood the great whore had shed.

Saying, Hallelujah — This Hebrew word signifies, Praise ye Jah, or Him that is. God named himself to Moses, EHEIEH, that is, I will be, Exodus 3:14; and at the same time, "Jehovah," that is, "He that is, and was, and is to come:" during the trumpet of the seventh angel, he is styled, "He that is and was," Revelation 16:5; and not "He that is to come;" because his long-expected coming is under this trumpet actually present. At length he is styled, "Jah," "He that is;" the past together with the future being swallowed up in the present, the former things being no more mentioned, for the greatness of those that now are. This title is of all others the most peculiar to the everlasting God.

The salvation — Is opposed to the destruction which the great whore had brought upon the earth.

His power and glory — Appear from the judgment executed on her, and from the setting up his kingdom to endure through all ages.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-19.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

Salvation (See Scofield "Romans 1:16").

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 19:1". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-19.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:

Ver. 1. I heard a great voice] In obedience to that exhortation, Revelation 18:20, Rejoice over her, thou heaven, &c.

Saying, Alleluia] i.e. Praise the Lord. Was not he a wise man that gave this derivation of the word Al altissimus, le levatus est, lu lugebant apostoli, ia iam resurrexit? Acutum sane decompositum. This word is in the Old Testament first used, Psalms 104:35, where consuming of sinners is mentioned, as in the New Testament here, where the destruction of Antichrist is foretold. Praise is therefore here given to God in the Hebrew tongue, saith Mr Bulkly, because the Hebrews or Jews shall acknowledge the Lord Jesus with us.

Unto the Lord] Gr. Is the Lord’s, as Psalms 3:8. He is the true proprietary.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-19.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Revelation 19:1.— The prophesies relating to the third period, concluded with a severe punishment of Rome, for her pride, luxury, superstition, and idolatry; and especially for her cruel persecution of all who were found faithful to their duty in preserving the purity of the Christian doctrines and worship. When Rome thus fell, like ancient Babylon, to rise no more, the heavenly church is introduced as a choir to praise God for his righteous judgments. This excellent hymn of praise, sung by the united voices of angels and saints, the whole assembly of heaven, strongly represents to all Christians, and to every church on earth, what grateful sense they ought to have of God's faithfulness in their protection, and in punishing the persecutors of truth and religion. Though for wise reasons, and for a limited time, God may permit the righteous and faithful to suffer many things from the enemies of truth and righteousness, yet the final event of things shall surely shew God's faithfulness in the blessing of his people, and justice in the punishment of his enemies:—a sufficient reason for consolation, gratitude, and praise.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/revelation-19.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Note here, That the first which sing this song of thanksgiving for Babylon's destruction are glorified saints, called here much people in heaven; and they are said to sing with a great voice, expressing thereby their united zeal and fervent affection in this duty of thanksgiving, and they begin their song with an Hebrew word, Alleluia, which is a word of excitation, and signifies, laud ye in the Lord.

Some think that hereby the Christian church do invite the Jews or Hebrews to join with them in praising God, and that after Babylon's overthrow Christ shall be solemnly praised, as by the Gentile so by the Jewish church; the tenor of their song is much the same with that which we had before, Revelation 7:10 to wit,

Salvation, or deliverance from all evils, spiritual and temporal, (particularly from those which the church suffered under Babylon's tyranny,) and glory, honour, and power, be ascribed unto the Lord our God, and to him alone, who is the author of all good, and hath manifested his great power in destroying our enemies.

Learn hence, 1. That the church's salvation is entirely from God, and the special effect of his divine power.

2. That to him, upon that account, all possible honour and glory is due, as having shown himself his people's God: Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, be unto the Lord our God.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-19.html. 1700-1703.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 19:1. φωνὴν, a voice) Widely different from the complaints described in ch. 18— ἀλληλούϊα, Hallelujah) This is a most weighty cry, respecting which we deem it necessary to make some remarks.

§ 1. It is a Hebrew word הללו יה, compounded of הללו and יה.

§ 2. The name יָהּ occurs in hymns of the Old Testament; Exodus 15:2, Isaiah 38:11, Psalms 118:5; Psalms 118:14; Psalms 118:17-19, and elsewhere repeatedly, especially in this very Hallelujah, which the Apocalypse alone contains in the New Testament, and that in this one chapter, but repeatedly.

§ 3. Some derive יָהּ from יָאָה, and refer it to the Divine comeliness; but, as many acknowledge, under this name is rather denoted, He who is.

§ 4. Hiller, in his Onom. p. 262, supports the threefold repetition of the letter of breathing ההה, from which, by a change of the second radical into י or ו, the theme היה and הוה, and moreover the name אהיה and יהוה, are derived.

§ 5. In the same manner is formed ייָהּ by י for ה (as in עֹטְיָה for עֹטְהָה and אֶהֱמָיָה for אֶהֱמָהָה) and by הּ marked with the mappik:(207) for as from the final הּ is formed the middle ה, in like manner from the middle ה is formed the final הּ, as in נֹהַּ from נהה, and in other words, which Cocceius has well remarked upon in his Lexicon, col. 284.

§ 6. I obtrude this analysis upon the attention of no one: no one, however, will readily deny, that He, Who is, is called יָהּ; and that remains firm, even though you should derive it with Hiller from יהי, the future; for the phrase, καὶ ἐρχόμενος, has already before been given for the pause (close of the formula): see above on ch. Revelation 11:17. In the three clauses, ἦν καὶ καὶ ἐρχόμενος, the times had to be accurately distinguished; but when the יָהּ is found separately, the derivation from יהי does not remove the force of present time, as is seen in so many proper names of men. The LXX. use the name, ὢν, Exodus 3:14, and (where there was less occasion for it) Jeremiah 1:5 (6), Jeremiah 14:13, Jeremiah 32:17 : and יָהּ itself has the same meaning as ὢν, Euthymius explaining it in Fuller, Miscell. pp. 486, 487. Add Drusius on this passage.

§ 7. That the name יָהּ is not curtailed from the name יְהֹוָה, is evident from this, that יְהֹוָה is used much more frequently than יָהּ, and that it is quoted sometimes jointly יָהּ יְהֹוָה.

§ 8. As God commanded by Moses that He should be called יְהֹוָהּ, immediately upon the very coming out of Egypt, the name יָהּ was also introduced in the Song of Moses, Exodus 15:2, in these words: עזי וזמרת יה ויהי לי לישועה, where, from a most present feeling of that most saving Divine work, the Lord is called יָהּ, ὤν. Hence this name is quoted only in Songs. Isaiah is in harmony with the Song of Moses, introducing the people thus speaking: כי עזי וזמרת יה יהוה ויהי לי לישועה, ch. Isaiah 12:2. The same has בטחו ביהוה עדי עד כי ביה יהוה צור עולמים, ch. Isaiah 26:4. But in both passages Isaiah at the same time exhorts to trust in God for the future, and on this account he calls the Lord יהוה and יה יהוה, and by this very circumstance he teaches us the difference between the two names.

§ 9. God is called יה, because He is; He is called יהוה, because He will be, and Is and Was: He is called יה יהוה, because, for instance, in the Song of Isaiah He is celebrated, as He has shown Himself a present God in the very act itself, and at the same time He is with all confidence declared as about to show Himself (similarly) for the future. The name, יהוה, was frequently used in the times of promises drawing towards their accomplishment: יה is adapted to all times which are gladdened with present aid, and therefore especially to the last times. Thus the consideration of time future, and also of former time (Jeremiah 23:7), coalesces with the present: and He who was before called ὢν καὶ ἦν καὶ ἐρχόμενος, is at length called ὢν καὶ ἦν, and ὤν.

§ 10. Hallelujah therefore is again and again suitable to this song, Revelation 19, and in it the name יָהּ, ὢν, Being.

§ 11. The observation which is found in Kimchi is everywhere quoted, that Hallelujah resounds, in the place where it first occurs in the Psalms, upon the destruction of sinners and the ungodly: Psalms 104:35. More instances from the Rabbis to the same purport, comp. Proverbs 11:10, have been collected by Cartwright, l. iii. Melif. Hebr. c. 8.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-19.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

REVELATION CHAPTER 19

Revelation 19:1-5 God is praised in heaven for judging the great whore, and

avenging the blood of his saints.

Revelation 19:6-9 The triumph because of the marriage of the Lamb.

Revelation 19:10 The angel who showed John these things, refuseth to

be worshipped.

Revelation 19:11-16 The vision of the Word of God sitting upon a white

horse, and followed by his armies.

Revelation 19:17-19 The fowls called to feast on the flesh of those that

took part with the beast.

Revelation 19:20,21 The beast and false prophet cast into the lake of

fire and brimstone; and the rest slain.

And after these things; after the pouring out of the fifth vial upon the seat of the beast, Revelation 16:10; for Revelation 17:1-18:24, as we have formerly hinted, is but a parenthesis to the history. God, in this chapter, more fully describes the effects of the pouring out that vial.

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying: it may be understood either of the third heavens, or the heaven upon earth, the church of God; for the church triumphant and militant both will concur in praising God for the ruin of antichrist’s power.

Alleluia is a Hebrew word, and signifies: Praise ye the Lord.

Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God: all these are but terms of honour and praise given unto God, acknowledging that the church’s salvation is from him, the effect of his power; and that to him, upon that account, all honour and glory imaginable is due, as having shown himself his people’s God.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-19.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

После сего Это временной ключ: т.е. после крушения Вавилона, в конце годины искушения, накануне установления Царства (гл. 20). Эта глава соединяет годину искушения и Тысячелетнее Царство.

многочисленного народа Вероятно ангелов, так как святые придут позже (ст.5 и послед.; ср. 5:11, 12; 7:11, 12). Неизбежное второе пришествие Господа Иисуса Христа вызывает этот взрыв восхваления.

(19:1-6)аллилуия! Побуквенная передача этого еврейского слова встречается четыре раза в этой главе (ст. 1, 3, 4, 6). Это восклицание, означающее «Славьте Господа!», часто встречается в Ветхом Завете (ср. Пс. 103:35; 104:45; 105:1; 110:1; 111:1; 112:1; 115:10; 116:2; 134:1, 21; 145:10; 147:9; 148:14; 149:9; 150:6). Обозначены пять причин для восхваления: 1) освобождение Богом Своих людей от врагов (ст. 1); 2) Божие восстановление справедливости (ст. 2); 3) подавление Богом греховного человеческого бунта (ст. 3); 4) суверенность Бога (ст. 6) и 5) забота Бога о Его людях и общение с ними (ст. 7).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-19.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

The apostle hears the multitude of the heavenly hosts rejoicing over the fall of Babylon, and sees the bride, the Lamb’s wife, arrayed in white linen, ready for the consummation of her marriage to her Lord. After this he has another vision, of the final conflict between Christ and the powers of darkness, which ends in their utter overthrow and the ushering in of the age of millennial peace and glory.

Alleluia; in Hebrew, hallelujah; meaning, praise ye the Lord.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-19.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

This Chapter opens with an Account of the Joy in Heaven, in the View of the Lord's Triumphs over Antichrist upon Earth. The Church in Heaven celebrates Christ's Marriage with his Church. A blessed and glorious View of Christ. The Beast and false Prophet cast alive into a Lake of Fire burning with Brimstone.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/revelation-19.html. 1828.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

SECTION VI

(Revelation 19)

REV:19

In this chapter, the judgment of the beast ridden by the harlot is presented, the presentation reaching its climax in the final destruction of both in Revelation 19:19-21, where the harlot is also mentioned again under the figure of the false prophet. This is the central one of three chapters, each of which is concluded with a description of the judgment day.

Revelation 18 ends with the desolated whore at the judgment.

Revelation 19 ends with the beast destroyed at the judgment.

Revelation 20 ends with the dragon (Satan) destroyed at the judgment.

This is the exact reverse order of their appearance in Revelation, beginning at Revelation 12:1. This book of Revelation is very neatly and skillfully organized, and the structure of it is a marvel of logical design and synchronization. The chronology of these three chapters is identical, each of them dealing with the entire Christian dispensation between the two Advents of Christ. The "forty-two months," the "one thousand two hundred and three score days," and the "one thousand years" are three different symbolical terms used in the successive chapters as the designation of the same chronological period, the entire dispensation, each of them reaching its terminus at the judgment.

This chapter, therefore, is not "the beginning of the millennial age."[1] The only connection that it has with the millennium is that it prophesies of events throughout the whole current dispensation, which is the 1,000 years, the 42 months, or the 1,260 days, each of these expressions meaning the same thing. Thus, each of the three chapters (Revelation 18; Revelation 19; and Revelation 20) covers the same period of time ending at the judgment, as do also other sections of the prophecy.

Prior to the narration of the destruction of the kings (the beast in his final phase, the period of the ten horns), presented in Revelation 19:11-31, there are two proleptic scenes of praise, the first (Revelation 19:1-5) looking backward to the destruction of the harlot, and the second (Revelation 19:6-10) looking forward to the destruction of the beast. Many commentators, notably Beckwith and Bruce, treat the first five verses as actually a part of the preceding chapter; but it makes little difference, for both outbursts of praise in heaven are very similar to other parenthetical and anticipatory scenes scattered throughout the prophecy.

This chapter dealing with the sea-beast in the later phase of his existence, the period represented by the ten horns, is of very great significance, for it places the complete fulfillment of Revelation at least half a millennium later than this first phase which ended with the collapse of the pagan empire in 476 A.D. The narrow preterist view that all of Revelation was fulfilled in the time of the first generation receiving it is totally denied by this, as also by the fact that a period of time represented by a full thousand years is also represented as intervening prior to the final judgment in Revelation 20. The final judgment day is the key to understanding Revelation, for it appears no less than seven times within these 22 chapters. The greatest misunderstanding of Revelation apparent in the works of so many writers is their efforts to get rid of the various depictions of the final judgment. Every conceivable device of doing this has been utilized; but none of them, nor all of them, can remove the stark dramatic language which simply cannot logically apply to anything else except the judgment day.

ENDNOTE:

[1] James William Russell, Compact Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1964), p. 650.

After these things I heard as it were a great voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, Hallelujah; Salvation, and glory, and power, belong to our God: (Revelation 19:1)

Plummer thought that, "A new phase of the vision begins here";[2] and perhaps this is correct, since the recapitulation of the whole time between the two Advents is again presented, this time with the focus upon the destruction of the sea-beast in his final manifestation of the ten horns.

Hallelujah; Salvation, and glory and power ... "The only times that Hallelujah actually appears in Scripture are on the four occasions in this chapter."[3] Like "Abba," "Hosanna," and a few others, it is a transliterated word from the Hebrew. It is also found in some translations of the Old Testament, where "Praise the Lord" is also used instead of it.

[2] A. Plummer, The Pulpit Commentary, Vol. 22, Revelation (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1950), p. 447.

[3] William Barclay, The Revelation of John (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976), p. 169.

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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-19.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

This first song praises God for judging the harlot. After John received the revelation about the destruction of commercial Babylon, he evidently heard another angelic chorus singing loudly in heaven (cf. Revelation 4:8; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 5:12-14). "Hallelujah" means "Praise the Lord." Its only four occurrences in the New Testament are in this pericope ( Revelation 19:1; Revelation 19:3-4; Revelation 19:6), though it occurs frequently in the Psalm. One writer called this section "heaven"s Hallelujah Chorus." [Note: Ford C. Ottman, The Unfolding of the Ages, p402.] In the Old Testament "hallelujah" usually has some connection with the punishment of the ungodly, as it does here (e.g, Psalm 104:35). God is worthy of praise because He has all salvation (cf. Revelation 7:10; Revelation 12:10), glory (cf. Revelation 15:8), and power (cf. Revelation 4:11; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 12:10; 1 Chronicles 29:11).

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-19.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 19:1. The heavenly hosts are the first to sing. Their keynote is Hallelujah, a word meaning ‘Praise the Lord,’ and found in the New Testament only here and in Revelation 19:3-4; Revelation 19:6 of this chapter. So in one song of heaven which has no termination closes the Book of Psalms, that ‘great book of the wars of the Lord,’ when the wars have ceased for ever (comp. Neale and Littledale on Psalms 150).

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-19.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

we enter upon a new scene. Babylon the great is fallen. The saints are here represented rejoicing over the woman which was drunk with the blood of the saints. (Chap. xvii. 6.) (Calmet) --- The voice of many multitudes....saying: Alleluia. In these visions, when the martyrs have triumphed and overcome persecutors, are sometimes represented their praises of God in heaven. Here in the Protestant translation, are retained Alleluia and Amen, which as St. Augustine takes notice, used not to be changed or translated in any language. (Witham)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-19.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

And. Omit.

after, &c. See Revelation 4:1.

heard. The texts add "as it were".

in. App-104.

heaven. See Revelation 3:12.

Alleluia. See Psalms 104:35.

Salvation = The salvation.

glory = the glory. See p. 1511.

and honour. The texts omit.

power = the power. App-172.1 and Revelation 176:1.

unto, &c. The texts read "of our God".

Lord. App-98.

God. App-98.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:

As in the opening of the prophecy (Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:9, etc.), so now, at one of the closing events in the vision, the judgment on the harlot (described, Revelation 18:1-24), there is a song of praise in heaven to God: cf. Revelation 7:10, etc., toward the close of the seals, and Revelation 11:15-18, at the close of the trumpets; Revelation 15:3, at the saints' victory over the beast.

And. So Andreas; but 'Aleph (') A B C, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, omit.

A great voice. 'Aleph (') A B C, Vulgate, Coptic, Andreas, read, 'as it were a great voice.' What a contrast to the lamentations, Revelation 18:1-24! Compare Jeremiah 51:48. The great manifestation of God's power in destroying Babylon calls forth a great voice of praise in heaven.

People - `multitude.'

Alleluia - `Praise ye JAH:' here first in Revelation, whence Elliot infers the Jews bear a prominent part. Yaah (Hebrew #3050) is not a contraction of Yahweh (Hebrew #3068), since it sometimes occurs with the latter. It means 'He who IS:' Yahweh, 'He who will be, is, and was.' It implies God experienced a PRESENT help; so that 'Hallelujah,' says Kimchi, is found first in Psalms on the destruction of the ungodly. 'Hallelu-Jah' occurs four times here. Compare Psalms 149:4-9, plainly parallel, identical in many phrases, as well as the general idea. Israel, especially, will join in the Halleluia, when 'her warfare is accomplished' and her foe destroyed.

Salvation - `The salvation ... the glory ... the power.'

And honour. So Coptic; but 'Aleph (') A B C, Syriac, omit.

Unto the Lord our God. So Andreas; but 'Aleph (') A B C, Coptic, read, '(Is) of (belongs to) our God.'

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:
after
18:1-24
I heard
11:15; 18:20
Alleluia
3,4,6; Psalms 106:1; 111:1; 115:18; 146:1; 148:1; 149:1; 150:1; *marg:
Salvation
4:10,11; 5:9-13; 7:10-12; 11:15; 12:10; 1 Chronicles 29:11; Psalms 3:8; Jonah 2:9; Matthew 6:13; 1 Timothy 1:16,17
Reciprocal: Exodus 14:4 - I will be;  Exodus 15:2 - my salvation;  Exodus 15:11 - fearful;  Exodus 15:21 - Sing ye;  Exodus 18:10 - GeneralJudges 5:1 - Sang Deborah;  1 Samuel 25:39 - Blessed;  1 Samuel 28:16 - Wherefore;  2 Samuel 18:28 - Blessed;  2 Kings 11:14 - all the people;  2 Chronicles 20:26 - blessed;  2 Chronicles 23:21 - GeneralJob 22:19 - righteous;  Psalm 5:11 - But;  Psalm 21:13 - so will;  Psalm 36:12 - There;  Psalm 47:1 - shout;  Psalm 48:11 - because;  Psalm 52:6 - righteous;  Psalm 58:10 - righteous;  Psalm 62:11 - power;  Psalm 65:5 - righteousness;  Psalm 66:8 - make;  Psalm 89:5 - in the congregation;  Psalm 96:7 - glory;  Psalm 96:11 - the heavens;  Psalm 97:8 - because;  Psalm 98:4 - GeneralPsalm 101:1 - I will sing;  Psalm 104:35 - sinners;  Psalm 118:15 - voice;  Psalm 126:3 - GeneralPsalm 138:5 - for great;  Psalm 145:7 - sing;  Psalm 147:1 - and praise;  Proverbs 11:10 - when;  Isaiah 5:16 - the Lord;  Isaiah 12:1 - O Lord;  Isaiah 12:5 - Sing;  Isaiah 13:3 - them that;  Isaiah 14:3 - GeneralIsaiah 14:7 - they;  Isaiah 24:16 - glory;  Isaiah 25:9 - it shall;  Isaiah 26:1 - this song;  Isaiah 35:1 - be;  Isaiah 35:10 - and come;  Isaiah 44:23 - Sing;  Isaiah 48:20 - with a voice;  Isaiah 51:3 - joy;  Isaiah 51:11 - the redeemed;  Isaiah 55:12 - the mountains;  Isaiah 60:18 - but;  Isaiah 65:18 - GeneralJeremiah 31:4 - again;  Jeremiah 50:34 - that he;  Jeremiah 51:10 - let us;  Jeremiah 51:36 - take;  Jeremiah 51:48 - the heaven;  Ezekiel 28:22 - I will;  Ezekiel 38:23 - and I;  Ezekiel 43:2 - and his voice;  Daniel 4:37 - all;  Zephaniah 3:14 - shout;  Zechariah 4:7 - shoutings;  Luke 19:38 - glory;  Romans 11:36 - to whom;  Romans 16:27 - God;  Hebrews 13:15 - the sacrifice;  James 5:13 - let him sing;  Revelation 1:7 - Even So;  Revelation 5:12 - to receive;  Revelation 12:12 - rejoice;  Revelation 13:6 - and them;  Revelation 14:2 - a voice;  Revelation 15:2 - having

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-19.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

For several verses the vision will show the heavenly hosts rejoicing together over the victory that has been won over Babylon by the work of the Reformation. Alleluia means "praise ye the Lord," and the exclamation is made in view of His great works. Salvation is to be ascribed to the Lord because no other has the power to save, and for that reason we should give all honor to Him and acknowledge that all power belongs to Him.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-19.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 19:1

Revelation 19:1 And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:

After these things

that Isaiah, after the ruin of the church of Rome, the city of Rome, the judgement of the great whore, mystical Babylon, Pope, and papists,

I heard a great voice of much people in Heaven

viz. of the prophets, apostles, martyrs, and all the saints in glory;

Saying, Alleluia

praise ye the Lord. Psalm 68:4

They ascribed

salvation, and glory, and honour, and power unto the Lord our God.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-19.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 19:1. After these things I heard as a voice of a great multitude in heaven, who said, Hallelujah! The salvation, and the glory,[Note: The expression: and the praise, which is added in some MSS., and which Luther adopts, has been taken from ch. 4:11.] and the power is our God's. The saints, who were called on to rejoice in ch. Revelation 18:20, that God had avenged their judgment on Babylon, here express their joy in an act of praise for this great display of his grace. Even from that passage it is clear of what elements the great multitude in heaven is composed, of saints with apostles and prophets at their head. We are led also to the same result by Revelation 19:4, where the four and twenty elders appear as the kind of elite of the great multitude in heaven. To the church of the just made perfect belongs also the great voice in heaven, in ch. Revelation 12:10. So also the great voice that said, in ch. Revelation 11:15, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his anointed, and he will reign for ever and ever;" and the voice of the great multitude here in ver.6. What more is to be understood of the great multitude is to be derived from ch. Revelation 7:9 : "After these things I looked, and behold a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations and tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes and palms in their hands."

John hears as a voice of a great multitude. The as, which is wanting in Luther, here and in Revelation 19:6 (as also in ch. Revelation 4:6) points to the visionary character of the scene, and serves to distinguish between what was internally seen and the reality. The expression, "in vision," in ch. Revelation 9:17, has a corresponding import. It is enough if only here and there allusion is made to the difference between the vision and the reality. In substance these allusions belong to ‘the whole. The powerful voice of the great multitude did not actually sound, but there was only the likeness of it expressed to the mind of the Seer. That an as enters here essentially into the nature of the discourse is plain from the consideration that a victory is celebrated, which in the reality did not belong to the time then present, but to the distant future. In the reality the great voice only sounds then, when God has judged the great whore.

Hallelujah is found in the whole of the New Testament only here, where it occurs four times, in reference to the victory of God over the earth, the signature of which is four. It is borrowed from the Psalms, of which fifteen either begin or end with Hallelujah. In Psalms 104:35 it has its original place; and there can scarcely be a doubt that allusion is here made especially to that passage. It is there said, "The sinners shall be consumed from the earth, and the wicked shall be no more. Praise the Lord, my soul, Hallelujah." The sinners are the wicked heathen host, that had gathered together against the Lord and his kingdom. By her hallelujah the church of the Lord, amid the great tribulations which she had to suffer from the world, had stirred herself up to faith and confidence; it was the shield which she held up against despair; and now with it the heavenly church celebrates the victory over one of the particular phases of the worldly power. The triumphant hallelujah looks back to that which was of old sung in the vale of tears. The preservation of the Hebrew word, as in the case also of Amen and Hosanna, serves like a visible finger-post to mark the internal connection between the church of the New Testament and that of the Old, in like manner as the "vater unser," at which only an unchurch-like pedantry could take offence, points to the historical connection between the Christianity of Germany and that of the Latin church (Paternoster).

The salvation, etc. Amid the troubles of this life they had often doubted, whether salvation did then truly belong to their God. That the great whore with impunity destroyed the earth with her fornication, and was drunk with the blood of saints, seemed to be a mighty proof to the contrary. But now all these clouds are dispersed. The destruction of the destroyer, and the redemption therewith connected of the suffering church, has proved the Lord to be the only possessor of salvation. There is an allusion here, as at ch. Revelation 7:10, to Ps. 3:9, "Salvation is the Lord's." There the prayer is grounded upon this principle; here its answer is celebrated in the bestowal of salvation. But the whole doxology rests here upon the doxology of the Lord's prayer in Matthew 6:13, "For thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory for ever, Amen;" for the genuineness of which this very passage affords decisive evidence, and shows that the omission in copies, certainly both numerous and important, only arose from its having been omitted by Luke, and from the immediately following context apparently being such as to render a concluding formula out of place. There redemption out of evil is grounded in the power and glory of God, here the power and glory are deduced from the redemption out of evil. We have here the same use of the three as there, only instead of the kingdom, which still had not fully come into being, there stands here anticipatively salvation. But the allusion to the kingdom follows in Revelation 19:6, as also in Revelation 19:3 there is the for ever, and the Amen in Revelation 19:4. The inverting of the order of the words, "the glory and the power," is in itself a matter of small moment. But the other arrangement: the power and the glory, has here also important authorities on its side. The allusion to Matthew 6:13 has also on its side the analogy of the reference to Psalms 3:8; grant us salvation, for salvation is thine—thine is the salvation, for thou hast granted us salvation; deliver us from the evil, for thine is the power and the glory—thine is the power and the glory, for thou hast delivered us from evil. So, too, is the analogy of the hallelujah, which is also taken from the mouth of the militant church. Then, there is the fact, that even in ch. Revelation 12:10 there is an allusion to the doxology of the Paternoster. After the completion of the work of redemption a loud voice there proclaims in heaven, "Now is come the salvation and the power, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ." The realization of the doxology in the Paternoster is there anticipated by faith. Here it has in part entered in the reality, only the kingdom, the dominion still awaits its full realization. There, too, a three number. While the glory is wanting there, here the kingdom is wanting. There is, again, an allusion to the doxology in ch. Revelation 11:15, where the great voice proclaims from heaven, "The kingdom of this world has become the kingdom of the Lord, and of his anointed, and he will reign for ever and ever." The expression it has become there, rests upon the it is of the Lord's prayer. Finally, we should be the less disposed to resist the idea of an allusion here to the first Gospel, since such allusions pervade the whole of the Apocalypse—see, for example, at ch. Revelation 1:7, Revelation 2:7, Revelation 3:3; Revelation 3:5, Revelation 6:12, Revelation 11:11-13, Revelation 14:11, Revelation 18:21. An allusion specially to Matthew was the more natural here, as among the three first Gospels this of the fellow-apostle of John, everywhere occupies the foreground in the Apocalypse; which is a remarkable fact, and fraught with important results. From the thine is in the fundamental passage, we are here also not to render: the salvation, etc. be, but must understand, is. So also, the reading, of our God, is shewn by the fundamental passage to be the correct one, in opposition to the reading: God the Lord, κυριῷ τῷ θεῷ which besides has little external support. The word shoved in by Luther also—the praise—is against the fundamental passage.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-19.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

5. Song of triumph over the destruction of the harlot, (Revelation 19:1-5;) and the coming of the pure bride, (Revelation 19:6-10;) Revelation 19:1-10.

1.And after these things—We are carefully to note here, as at Revelation 18:1, these explicit declarations of consecutiveness. The jubilations of this coming paragraph are not to be confused with those of the last chapter, which are closed. The last chapter celebrates the overthrow of the city; this paragraph the destruction of the great whore. Hence we must not (as Dusterdieck) literally identify the harlot with secular and material Rome upon the Tiber.

Much people—Much multitude of saints and angels.

Alleluia—Greek form of the Hebrew hallelujah, praise Jehovah. Its euphony in English, together with its sublime import, has made it a vocal favourite with joyous Christians.

Salvation’ God—A rapturous exclamation; rightly translated by Stuart, “Hallelujah! the salvation, and glory, and power, of our God.” A trinal ascription to the Triune.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-19.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 19:1. Here only in N.T. (after the ruin of sinners, as Psalms 104:35) the liturgical hallelujah of the psalter and synagogue worship occurs. In Revelation 19:1; Revelation 19:3; Revelation 19:6 it stands as usual first, an invocation = “praise Jah”; but in Revelation 19:4 it is responsive, as in Pss. 104–5., 115–117. (the latter being sung at the passover; cf.Revelation 19:7).

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 19:1". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-19.html. 1897-1910.