Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 2:18

"And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: The Son of God, who has eyes like a flame of fire, and His feet are like burnished bronze, says this:
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Angel of the Churches;   Church;   Jesus Continued;   Minister, Christian;   Thyatira;   Scofield Reference Index - Rewards;   Thompson Chain Reference - Angels;   Thyatira;   The Topic Concordance - Adultery;   Government;   Heart;   Knowledge;   Obedience;   Prophecy and Prophets;   Rendering;   Repentance;   Teaching;   Tribulation;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Horses;   Thyatira;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Asia;   Jezebel;   Thyatira;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Fire;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Patience of God;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Amber;   Flame of Fire;   Thyatira;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Fire;   Lydia;   Thyatira;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Fire;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Asia;   Devil;   Magi;   Nicolas;   Peter, Second Epistle of;   Thyatira;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Angels;   Arts;   Brass;   Brimstone;   Eye;   Feet;   Feet (2);   Fire;   Fire ;   Pre-Eminence ;   Thyatira ;   Trade and Commerce;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Brass;   Thyatira;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Sepharvaim;   Thyratira;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Thyatira;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Lyd'ia,;   Thyati'ra,;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Brass (brazen);   Feet;   Flame;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Synagogue;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Fine;   Flame;   Philippi;   Revelation of John:;   Son of God, the;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Metals;   Son of God;  
Devotionals:
Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for September 25;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

These things saith the Son of God - See the notes on Revelation 1:14-15; (note).

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-2.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And unto the angel of the church - See the notes on Revelation 1:20.

These things saith the Son of God - This is the first time, in these epistles, that the name of the speaker is referred to. In each other instance there is merely some attribute of the Saviour mentioned. Perhaps the severity of the rebuke contemplated here made it proper that there should be a more impressive reference to the authority of the speaker; and hence he is introduced as the “Son of God.” It is not a reference to him as the “Son of man “the common appellation which he gave to himself when on earth - for that might have suggested his humanity only, and would not have conveyed the same impression in regard to his authority; but it is to himself as sustaining the rank, and having the authority, of the Son of God - one who, therefore, has a right to speak, and a right to demand that what he says shall be heard.

Who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire - Compare the notes on Revelation 1:14. Before the glance of his eye all is light, and nothing can be concealed from his view. Nothing would be better suited to inspire awe then, as nothing should be now, than such a reference to the Son of God as being able to penetrate the secret recesses of the heart.

And his feet are like fine brass - See the notes on Revelation 1:15. Perhaps indicative of majesty and glory as he walked in the midst of the churches.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-2.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like a flame of fire, and his feet are like unto burnished brass:

THYATIRA

Some twenty miles east of Pergamum on the road to Sardis was Thyatira, a name which means "castle of Thya,"[77] and which is probably retained in the modern Ak-Hissar (white castle), a Turkish town on a fertile plain, being the center of the cotton industry, and a relatively important town of 30,156 (1955).[78] In New Testament times, the dye industry was important, Lydia having been from Thyatira (Acts 16:14). It was also the home of many influential trade guilds, having their own deities, temples, and guild halls, where feasts, tending to obscenity, and all kinds of immoralities were practices. Politically, Thyatira was a kind of buffer state between Pergamum on the west and Seleucus (Syria) on the east, evidently changing hands a number of times between the two states in pre-Christian history.[79] "Apollo the sun god, was the principal deity,"[80] probably leading to the reference to the Son of God and the morning star in this message, as a contrast.

[77] E. J. Banks, op. cit., p. 2977.

[78] Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 1, p. 482.

[79] E. M. Blaiklock, op. cit., p. 108.

[80] A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 64.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-2.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write,.... Of the city of Thyatira; see Gill on Revelation 1:11; a church was formed here very likely by the Apostle Paul; Lydia was a native of this place, who, and her household were converted and baptized by him at Philippi, Acts 16:14; though EpiphaniusF21Contra Haeres. l. 2. Haeres. 51. seems to grant, what some heretics objected to the authority of this book, that there was no church at Thyatira when this letter was written; however, it is certain, there was one in the "second" century, as the same writer observes, since, as he relates, it was overrun with the Cataphrygian heresy; and in the "fourth" century there was a bishop from Thyatira in the council of Nice; and even in the "eighth" century there was one Esaias a presbyter, who supplied the place of the bishop of Thyatira in another council at NiceF23Eccl. Hist. Magdeburgh. cent. 4. c. 2. p. 3. cent. 8. c. 2. p. 4. : the Turks have now eight mosques in it, but there is not one Christian church or place of worship to be found in itF24Smith. Notitia, p. 130. . Who was the angel, or pastor of this church at the writing of this epistle, is not certain; however, it is designed for all the ministers and churches in the interval this church represents; and this period takes in the darkest and most superstitious times of Popery, until the Reformation. Thyatira is the same as Thygatira, which signifies a "daughter"; and it had its name, as Stephanus Byzantius saysF25De Urbibus. , from hence: Seleucus, the son of Nicanor, being at war with Lysimachus, and hearing that he had a daughter born, called this city Thygatira, which was before called Pelopia, and Semiramis; which is a very fit name for this church, and expresses the effeminacy of it, when the virgin Mary, whom the Romanists call the daughter of God, was more worshipped than her son; and was not only made a partner with him in the business of salvation, but even set above him; when there were such swarms of monks and friars, and religious orders of several sorts, as Franciscans and Dominicans, who claimed her as their patroness; when such numbers of them clad themselves in cowls and long garments, that they looked more like women in hoods and petticoats, than really men; hence also the corrupt part of this church is signified by the woman Jezebel, the daughter of Ethbaal the Zidonian; and it should not be forgot that there was once a she pope, a woman that sat in the papal chair, a whore in a literal sense; wherefore antichrist, or the popes of Rome, are filly called the great whore, the mother of harlots. Mr. Daubuz observes, that the first Christian of Thyatira was a woman, and that the false prophets which first enticed the Christians to apostasy in this church were women, as Maximilia, Quintilia, and Priscilla; to which I would add, that according to Epiphanius, that among those heretics, and which swallowed up this church, their bishops were women, and so were their presbyters, or elders; and Dr. SmithF26Notitia, p. 126. is of opinion, that the inhabitants of this place, when Heathen, were worshippers of the goddess Diana; so that, upon all accounts, the church here was a fit symbol of the effeminate Church of Rome,

These things saith the Son of God; he who is truly, properly, naturally, and essentially the Son of God: this character Christ makes use of to assert his proper deity, as being of the same nature, and having the same perfections with his Father, as well as to command the greater regard to what he ordered to be written to the churches; and chiefly in opposition to the effeminate state of this church; it was time for him to take to him his highest name, as expressive of his highest nature, and to assert himself the Son of God, when Mary, his mother according to the flesh, and who was but a mere creature, was called the daughter of God, and set upon a level with him, and even preferred unto him:

who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire; quick and sharp, and penetrating through the darkness of this state; seeing into, discovering, and exposing the horrid actions and wickednesses of men done in the dark; expressing fury, wrath, and vengeance against the Romish antichrist and his followers; and may also design the light of Gospel doctrine, which broke out in those times at certain seasons, to the dispelling of Popish darkness in some measure; see Gill on Revelation 1:14,

and his feet are like fine brass; in the description of Christ in Revelation 1:14; it is added, as if they burned in a furnace; see Gill on Revelation 1:14; and may denote the strength, stability, and support Christ gave his people while suffering for his sake, when in the furnace and burning for him, which kind of death was much used in those times: hence Dr. More, to whom I am much obliged for many hints in this exposition of the epistles to the churches, thinks that Thyatira is an allusion to θυητρια, which signify "altars" for the burning of sweet odours; and so may be expressive of the burning of the saints, those sweet odours, as they are to God and Christ, with fire and faggot; which was now practised, as in the other period killing with the sword was chiefly used; in the midst of which Christ was present, supporting his people,

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-2.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And unto 18 the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet [are] like fine brass;

(18) The fourth passage is to the pastors of Thyatira. The introduction is taken from (Revelation 1:14-15).
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-2.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Thyatira — in Lydia, south of Pergamos. Lydia, the purple-seller of this city, having been converted at Philippi, a Macedonian city (with which Thyatira, as being a Macedonian colony, had naturally much intercourse), was probably the instrument of first carrying the Gospel to her native town. John follows the geographical order here, for Thyatira lay a little to the left of the road from Pergamos to Sardis [Strabo, 13:4].

Son of God  …  eyes like  …  fire  …  feet  …  like fine brass — or “glowing brass” (see on Revelation 1:14, Revelation 1:15, whence this description is resumed). Again His attributes accord with His address. The title “Son of God,” is from Psalm 2:7, Psalm 2:9, which is referred to in Revelation 2:27. The attribute, “eyes like a flame,” etc., answers to Revelation 2:23, “I am He which searcheth the reins and hearts.” The attribute, “feet like  …  brass,” answers to Revelation 2:27, “as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers,” He treading them to pieces with His strong feet.

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-2.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

In Thyatira (εν Τυατειροιςen Thuateirois). Some forty miles south-east of Pergamum, a Lydian city on the edge of Mysia, under Rome since b.c. 190, a centre of trade, especially for the royal purple, home of Lydia of Philippi (Acts 16:14.), shown by inscriptions to be full of trade guilds, Apollo the chief deity with no emperor-worship, centre of activity by the Nicolaitans with their idolatry and licentiousness under a “prophetess” who defied the church there. Ramsay calls it “Weakness Made Strong” (op. cit., p. 316).

The Son of God (ο υιος του τεουho huios tou theou). Here Jesus is represented as calling himself by this title as in John 11:4 and as he affirms on oath in Matthew 26:63. “The Word of God” occurs in Revelation 19:13.

His eyes like a flame of fire (τους οπταλμους αυτου ως πλογα πυροςtous ophthalmous autou hōs phloga puros). As in Revelation 1:14.

His feet like burnished brass (οι ποδες αυτου ομοιοι χαλκολιβανωιhoi podes autou homoioi chalkolibanōi). As in Revelation 1:15.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Thyatira

Situated on the confines of Mysia and Ionia. According to Pliny it was known in earlier times as Pelopia and Euhippia. Its prosperity received a new impulse under the Roman Emperor Vespasian. The city contained a number of corporate guilds, as potters, tanners, weavers, robe-makers, and dyers. It was from Thyatira that Lydia the purple-seller of Philippi came, Paul's first European convert. The numerous streams of the adjacent country were full of leeches. The principal deity of the city was Apollo, worshipped as the Sun-God under the surname Tyrimnas. A shrine outside the walls was dedicated to Sambatha, a sibyl. The place was never of paramount political importance.

Son of God

Compare Son of man, Revelation 1:13; Psalm 2:7; Revelation 19:13.

Who hath His eyes, etc.

See on Revelation 1:14, Revelation 1:15.

Thy works, and the last, etc.

Omit and, and read, as Rev., and that thy last works are more than the first.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-2.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;

And to the angel of the church at Thyatira — Where the faithful were but a little flock.

These things saith the Son of God — See how great he is, who appeared "like a son of man!" Revelation 1:13.

Who hath eyes as a flame of fire — "Searching the reins and the heart," verse23. Revelation 2:23 And feet like fine brass - Denoting his immense strength. Job comprises both these, his wisdom to discern whatever is amiss, and his power to avenge it, in one sentence, Job 42:2, "No thought is hidden from him, and he can do all things."

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-2.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

angel

(See Scofield "Hebrews 1:4").

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These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.
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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 2:18". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-2.html. 1917.

James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

THE CHURCH IN THYATIRA

‘And unto the angel of the Church in Thyatira write.’

Revelation 2:18

Of the many points in this epistle which we might make the subject-matter of thought, let us take two on which to dwell.

I. There is the deep guilt of the Thyatiran prophetess.—Her wickedness was very terrible, and our horror of it is increased by the appalling fact that it was practised under the plea of religious liberty. Can we, however, claim that modern society is wholly free from a similar tendency? The question brings us to the gates of what is indeed a ‘city of dreadful night,’ into which we need not make our way. But this much some of us may well ask ourselves as we think of the attitude of a certain section of the community towards sin of a particular class. Is there no danger of what is really grossly evil and vicious being let off with easy or even honourable names? It is so easy to plead æsthetic considerations for what is in truth little or no better than immorality. It is so plausible to give the sacred title of love to relations which are wholly dishonourable. High-sounding excuses for breaches of the marriage-vow rise so quickly to the lips. Whatever the claims of virtue and innocence which have been deserted and sinned against, can we really consider that guilt of that kind has any right to subsequent consecration by the customary service in church? Do let us be on our guard against thinking lust anything but lust, or adultery anything but adultery. Do let us avoid the euphemisms which are sometimes applied to them. Do let us remember the uncompromising verdict of Scripture on these sins.

II. There is the reference to the continuous spiritual development of those members of the Church who ‘had not this’ anti-Christian ‘teaching.’—Such development there is in the case of some—many—of us. We know well enough—we are thankful to know—as we watch not a few of the young lives about us, that they are ‘growing in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ.’ We know that faults and frailties are being conquered, it may be slowly, it may be rapidly—but at any rate surely. We see their minds and consciences opening to a fuller realisation of the meaning of the gospel. We are sure that their hearts are being lifted up to the Lord on high. We are confident that their thoughts are being set with ever-increasing earnestness and sincerity on the things that are above. There are lives which are characterised throughout by religious and moral advance. It is true of them also that their ‘last works are more than the first.’ There are those who become less and less unworthy servants. They do the work entrusted to them; and in response God sends them further, more important, more arduous tasks—tasks which make greater demands upon their powers, their self-devotion, their faith, their resolve; so that their ministry, their usefulness, their ‘works’ increase year by year.

III. ‘He that overcometh, and he that keepeth My works unto the end.’—It is the old summons to effort and fidelity. It is accompanied by the old promise of endless reward to those who are victorious in the supreme contest. The Kingdom of Christ will at length be established in universal and unquestionable supremacy. Yes, it is coming. Day by day it is approaching nearer. It will in the end be manifested to quick and dead. We may be worthy or unworthy of it. Woe indeed to those who are not written in the Lamb’s Book of Life. For us also is the warning, ‘All the Churches shall know that I am He Which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto each one of you according to your works.’ For us also is the splendid promise, ‘And he that overcometh, and he that keepeth My works unto the end, to him will I give authority over the nations … and I will give him the morning star.’

—Rev. the Hon. W. E. Bowen.

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Nisbet, James. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Church Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/revelation-2.html. 1876.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

18 And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;

Ver. 18. Who hath his eyes, &c.] {See Trapp on "Revelation 1:14"} {See Trapp on "Revelation 1:15"}

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-2.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Revelation 2:18. Church in Thyatira Thyatira was situated at a distance of about 48 miles to the south-east of Pergamos. See Acts 16:14. At present the city is called by the Turks Akhisar, or "The white castle," from the great quantities of white marble there. Only one ancient edifice is left standing; the rest, even the churches, are so destroyed, that no vestiges of them are to be found. The principal inhabitants are Turks, who have here eight mosques, while not so much as one Christian church is still remaining. So terribly have the divine judgments been poured upon this church for its abominations!

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/revelation-2.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

The next epistle is directed by Christ, and written by St. John, to the church of Thyatira; in which epistle

observe, 1. The name given to Christ, he is styled the Son of God; that is, by eternal generation, being the only-begotten of the Father, as well as begotten of the Father only; and partaker of the Father's essence, as well as of his likeness: he is here called the Son of God, as being a distinct person from the Father; yet is he the first and the last, which denotes his eternity; and who is, and who was, and is to come, the Almighty, which are essential attributes of the Godhead.

Observe, 2. The description here given of Christ, His eyes like flaming fire, and his feet like burning brass: denoting thereby his piercing and discerning sight to see and observe his enemies, his fiery indignation, and fierce wrath, ready to take hold of them, and his irresistible power and strength to vanquish and tread them under his feet.

Observe, 3. The great and special commendation which Christ gives to this church: greatly she is commended for her charity to Christians in distress; for her service in ministering to them, and in comforting of them; for her faith and constant adherence to the profession of Christianity; and for her patience under persecutions for the gospel's sake; but her special and peculiar commendation was this, that her last works were more than her first; that is, her last works were better, did exceed and excel the first. Ephesus was best at first, and worst at last; but Thyatira's last works were best. It is a blessed thing when Christians grow in goodness, increase in faith and holiness, when their last days are their best days; their last works, and their last fruit, their best, their fairest fruit.

Observe, 4. The reprehension follows the commendation; as good as Thyatira was, she needed to be better. She was remiss and negligent in her duty of reproving, censuring, excommunicating vile seducers, the Gnostics, and Nicolaitans, the disciples of Simon Magus, and his lewd Helena, as some think; compared to Jezebel, because she enticed Ahab to worship Baal, as this woman, (whosoever she was,) calling herself a prophetess, and teaching the lawfulness of fornication, and eating things offered to idols.

Some observe, That there was scarce any heresy broached, but it had some woman or other for the propagator and promoter of it, who took upon them the name of prophetesses. Simon Magus had his Helena; Montanus had his Priscilla and Maximilla; Carpocrates his Marcellina. Concerning this person it is affirmed, that God gave her space to repent, but she repented not.

Learn thence, That great is the sin, folly, and danger, of deferring and putting off the duty of repentance, when God gives time and space sufficient to perform it.

1. Great is the sin, because it is a mocking of God's patience, and undervaluing of his service, a contempt of his authority, a presuming on his goodness, a defiance of his displeasure.

2. Great is the folly, as well as the sin of it, because we put it off to the most improper and unfitting season, and because we hereby make the work more hard and difficult, in what season soever we set about it; and the longer we delay our repentance, the more work shall we make for repentance.

3. As great is the danger as either the sin or folly, because it puts a person upon a mighty hazard; he runs a desperate venture, not knowing whether he shall live an hour longer; and because we forfeit by our delays that special grace, without the assistance whereof we can never repent.

Observe, 5. How severely God threatens Jezebel here, and in her all sinners, to whom he gives space for repentance, but it is not improved for that end: I will cast her into a bed of tribulation and torment, instead of her bed of lust and uncleanness, unless she repent. Behold here how great and immeasurable the patience of God is towards the greatest, the vilest, and the worst sinner; they have space for repentance, they have invitations to repent, they have judgments threatened to prevent their final impenitence: but if they prove incorrigible and unreclaimable, nothing is to be expected but approaching ruin: I will kill her children with death; that is, such as are seduced by her suffer with her, if judgments threatened be not by repentance prevented.

Observe lastly, The end and design of Christ in bringing upon vile sinners these exemplary punishments, namely, to declare his omniciency, power, and justice: All the churches shall know that I am he that searcheth the reins and hearts: that is, all the churches in and about Thyatira, says Christ, shall know that I not only observe outward acts, but take notice of the secret counsels, motions, and designs, of men's hearts, and will judge every man according to his works: a full and clear text to prove the divinity of Christ: he that searcheth men's hearts, and renders to all men according to their works, is God; but Christ doth both, and therefore is essentially and truly God.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-2.html. 1700-1703.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 2:18. ὑιὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. The Lord, who in Revelation 1:13 appears like a son of man, is, as the entire description (Revelation 1:13 sqq.) shows, the Son of God, although he does not there receive that precise name. But in the present epistle he expressly designates himself as such, because, especially in Revelation 2:27, this glory of his is asserted in accordance with Psalms 2. The two other designations, derived from Revelation 1:14-15, have their significance in the fact that the Lord with his eyes of flame penetrates(1216) all, and with his feet like brass treads down every thing impure and malevolent.(1217)

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-2.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 2:18. τῆς ἐν θυατείροις ἐκκλησίας) The Alex. cod., and also Tertullian, read τῷ ἐν θυατίροις, without the addition of the word ἐκκλησίας.(36) Where the angels of the seven churches are mentioned together, ch. Revelation 1:20, the name of the church at Thyatira is not excepted. Now, where the series comes separately to the angel in Thyatira, the omission of the word church (for some in ancient times said that there was no church there at that time) certainly agrees with the small number of Christians in that town. An address is made to them separately in Revelation 2:24. Among the Hebrews, ten persons at least were required to constitute a holy assembly: again, when there were seventeen Christians at Neocæsarea, Gregory was given to them as bishop. Therefore the flock at Thyatira might have been small and unknown, which could scarcely support the name of a church, and yet had an angel. St Carpus is reported to have been here.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-2.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Thyatira was a city of Mysia or Lydia, not far from Philippi, the chief city of Macedonia; for Lydia, who traded in purple, and was of this city, went to Philippi to trade, as we read, Acts 16:12,14.

Eyes like unto a flame of fire: see Revelation 1:14,15: it signifies either angry eyes, or quick and piercing eyes. The comparing of

his feet to fine brass, seemeth to signify both the purity and holiness of his ways and methods of providence, and also his firmness and steadiness in them.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-2.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Ангелу См. пояснение к 1:20.

Фиатирской Город, расположенный между Пергамом и Сардисом, являлся частью Римской Империи на протяжении около трех веков (приблизительно с 190 г. до Р.Х.). Находясь в обширной долине, которая простиралась на 40 миль (64 км) до Пергама, город не имел естественной защиты и часто подвергался разрушительным нападениям с последующим восстановлением. Первоначально город населяли солдаты Александра Великого, и он был не более чем военной сторожевой заставой для охраны Пергама. Лидия пришла из этого города по делу и была обращена молитвами Павла (Деян. 16:14, 15).

очи, как пламень огненный См. пояснение к 1:14.

ноги подобны халколивану Ср. 19:15, см. пояснение к 1:15.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-2.html.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

The Letter To The Church In Thyatira (Revelation 2:18-29).

‘And to the angel of the church in Thyatira, write, These things says the Son of God, who has his eyes like a flame of fire, and his feet are like burnished brass.’

The fact that these descriptions of the Son of Man are used in relation to Thyatira confirms that they contain the ideas of discerning judgment, powerful eyes that burn into the heart, and powerful feet that tread down evil. (See for eyes Psalms 11:4-6; Proverbs 15:3; Proverbs 20:8; Isaiah 1:16; Jeremiah 5:3; Jeremiah 16:17; Jeremiah 32:19; Zechariah 12:4 and for feet Isaiah 14:25; Isaiah 41:25; Isaiah 63:1-6). Here the true identity of the Son of Man is openly declared, He is ‘the Son of God’. This is mentioned to put extra stress on the warnings.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-2.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

1. Destination and description of Christ2:18

Thyatira was the smallest of the seven cities, but it was the one that received the longest letter. It lay about45 miles to the southeast of Pergamum. It was famous for its textiles, especially the production of purple dye (cf. Acts 16:14), and its trade guilds.

Flame-like eyes suggest discerning and severe judgment (cf. Revelation 1:14). Burnished (highly reflective) bronze feet in this context picture a warrior with protected feet (cf. Revelation 1:15; Daniel 10:6). "Son of God" emphasizes Jesus Christ"s deity and right to judge. This is the only use of this title in Revelation, though it is practically equivalent to "Messiah" (cf. Psalm 2:12; Luke 4:41; John 1:34; John 1:49; John 3:18; John 5:25; John 10:36; John 11:4; John 11:27; John 20:31). The main local god in Thyatira was Tyrimnas who, his worshippers said, was a son of the gods. They pictured him on the city coins as a warrior riding a horse and wielding a double-edged battle ax in judgment.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-2.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 2:18. The fourth church addressed is that of Thyatira, a city finely situated in a rich and well-watered district of Asia Minor, at no great distance from Pergamos, but possessing none of the political importance of the latter. It is interesting to notice in connection with Acts 16:14, though it does not concern us at present, that Thyatira was famous for its purple or scarlet dyes. The sun-god was the leading object of worship to the heathen inhabitants of the city; and it has been thought that there is thus a peculiar propriety in the light in which Jesus presents Himself to its church, as One whose ‘eyes are as a flame of fire.’ For the description now given of Himself by the great Head of the Church, cp. chap. Revelation 1:14-15. The most remarkable part of it is that in which He designates Himself the Son of God. It was as One ‘like unto a Son of man’ that He had been beheld by the Seer in chap. Revelation 1:13, although that description was in no degree intended to exclude the thought of His essential Divinity. He was really the Son of God like unto a son of man. Now, however, the Divine aspect of His person is brought prominently forward, yet not simply because in this Epistle He is to speak of executing judgment, for He both executes judgment in other Epistles, and He does so as Son of man (John 5:27; see note there), but because Divine Sonship is part of that constitution of His person upon which it becomes the Church constantly to dwell. Perhaps also the distinct phase of the Church upon which we enter in the second group of these Epistles may explain the prominence given to the thought of the ‘Son of God.’ She has been hitherto regarded in what she is. She is now to be looked at in her struggle with the world (see remarks at close of the seven Epistles); let her learn that ‘God is on her side.’

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-2.html. 1879-90.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Revelation 2:18. And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write — “Next to Pergamos is Thyatira situated, at the distance of about forty-eight miles to the south-east. At present the city is called by the Turks Akhisar, or The White Castle, from the great quantities of white marble there abounding. Only one ancient edifice is left standing: the rest, even the churches, are so destroyed, that no vestiges of them are to be found. The principal inhabitants are Turks, who have here eight mosques. So terribly have the divine judgments, denounced in this letter, been poured upon this church!” “Akhizar, the ancient Thyatira,” observes the Rev. H. Lindsay, “is said to contain about thirty thousand inhabitants; of whom three thousand are Christians, all Greeks, except about two hundred Armenians. There is, however, but one Greek church and one Armenian. The superior of the Greek church, to whom I presented the Romaic Testament, esteemed it so great a treasure that he earnestly pressed me, if possible, to spare another, that one might be secured to the church, and be free from accidents, while the other went round among the people for their private reading. I have, therefore, since my return hither, sent him four copies.” Write; These things saith the Son of God — See how great he is who appeared like a Son of man, Revelation 1:13; who hath eyes bright and penetrating, like unto a flame of fire — Searching the reins and the heart, Revelation 2:23; and his feet like fine brass — Denoting his immense strength. Job comprises both these particulars, namely, his wisdom to discern whatever is amiss, and his power to avenge it, in one sentence, (Job 42:2,) saying, No thought is hidden from him, and he can do all things. Or the latter emblem, his feet being like fine brass, may signify that all his ways are gloriously just and holy.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/revelation-2.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

-29

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-2.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Thyatira. A town lying between Pergamos and Sardis. See Acts 16:14. Another centre of Apollo and Artemis worship.

Son of God. App-98.

feet . . . brass. Prepared for treading down in judgment. See Revelation 1:15. Ma Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:3 and fulfillment in Revelation 19:13-15.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-2.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;

Thyatira - in Lydia, south of Pergamos. Lydia, the purple seller of this city, converted at Philippi, a Macedonian city (with which Thyatira, as being a Macedonian colony, had naturally much contact), was probably the instrument of first carrying the Gospel to her native town. John follows the geographical order; for Thyatira lay a little to the left of the road from Pergamos to Sardis (Strabo, 13:, 4).

Son of God ... eyes like ... fire ... feet are like fine brass - or 'glowing brass' (resumed from Revelation 1:14-15). Again, His attributes accord with His address. "Son of God" is, from Psalms 2:7; Psalms 2:9, referred to in Revelation 2:27. 'Eyes like flame,' etc., answers to Revelation 2:23, "I am He which searcheth the reins and hearts." "Feet are like fine brass" answers to Revelation 2:27, "as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers," He treading them to pieces.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-2.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(18) Thyatira was situated between Pergamos and Sardis, a little off the main road which connected these two cities. It was a Macedonian colony, founded by Alexander the Great after the overthrow of the Persian empire. The Macedonian colonists appear to have introduced the worship of Apollo, honoured as the Sun-god, under the name of Tyrimnas. It has been thought by some that the description here given of Christ—“the eyes of flame”—was selected in allusion to this worship of the Sun-god, under the form of some dazzlingly ornamented image. Certainly close commercial intercourse connected the daughter colony with its mother city. There seem to have been various mercantile guilds in the colony—bakers, potters, tanners, weavers, and dyers. The dye-trade was, perhaps, the most important. Lydia, the seller of purple, was in all likelihood connected with the guild of dyers; and her appearance in Philippi is an illustration of the trade relations of Macedonia and Thyatira. To her the Christian community at Thyatira may have owed its beginning. “She who had gone forth for a while, to buy and sell, and get gain, when she returned home may have brought home with her richer merchandise than any she had looked to obtain” (Trench). The population was of a mixed character, and included, besides Asiatics, Macedonians, Italians, and Chaldeans. The message which is sent to the Christians dwelling among them is from “the Son of God.” This is noteworthy, when we remember how persistently the other term, “Son of Man,” is used throughout the Book of Revelation, and that here only is the phrase “Son of God” used; but it suits, as does the whole description, the message which breathes the language of sovereignty and righteous sternness. The “eyes of flame” will search the reins and the hearts (Revelation 2:23); the “feet of fine brass” will tread down the enemies, and smooth the path before them, who will have power over the nations.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-2.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;
unto
1; 1:11
the Son
Psalms 2:7; Matthew 3:17; 4:3-6; 17:5; 27:54; Luke 1:35; John 1:14,49; John 3:16,18,35,36; 5:25; 10:36; Acts 8:37; Romans 1:4; 8:32
who
1:14,15
Reciprocal: Psalm 139:1 - thou hast;  Proverbs 5:21 - GeneralProverbs 16:2 - but;  Proverbs 24:12 - doth not he that;  Jeremiah 7:11 - even;  Ezekiel 44:15 - the sons;  John 1:34 - this;  John 1:48 - when;  John 20:31 - these;  Acts 9:20 - that;  Acts 16:14 - Thyatira;  Romans 1:3 - his Son;  Romans 1:7 - To all;  2 Corinthians 1:19 - the Son;  2 Corinthians 3:3 - the epistle;  1 Thessalonians 5:12 - and are;  Hebrews 3:6 - as;  Revelation 1:4 - to the;  Revelation 1:20 - The seven stars;  Revelation 19:9 - Write;  Revelation 19:12 - eyes;  Revelation 22:19 - take

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-2.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

THE SPIRIT'S ADDRESS TO THYATIRA

(Revelation 2:18-29).

DISTINCTIVE FEATURES.

Revelation 2:18. — "To the angel of the Church in Thyatira write: These things says the Son of God, He that hath His eyes as a flame of fire, and His feet are like fine brass." This is the only Church of the seven in which a woman's name is mentioned. Jezebel, the wicked consort of the apostate king of Israel, who was but a tool in her hands, the upholder and patroness of the worst forms of idolatry, a murderess, yet withal a clever and determined woman, is the prominent person named in the address to the angel. We cannot regard it as a mere coincidence that the earlier mention of Thyatira is in connection with a woman (Acts 16:1-40), but a very different character to the one named here. There are striking points both of contrast and resemblance between Lydia, the active, generous, decided Christian, and her relation to Paul (Acts 16:1-40), and Jezebel, the zealous and equally large-hearted pagan, and her relation to Elijah (1 Kings 18:1-46; 1 Kings 19:1-21).

This fourth epistle is the longest of the seven, and marks the commencement of the second group in which the history of each Church runs on till the second Coming of the Lord. The first direct reference in these epistles to the second Advent is found here (vv. 25-28).

The hopeless, helpless, corrupt condition of the Church — a condition out of which it cannot emerge, and one incapable of improvement, is another noted feature, distinguishing it thus from the three previous churches. Here, then, is an active propagation of evil and corrupting teaching from within. Pergamos tolerated certain grave evils; but Thyatira suffers them to be taught, and herself becomes the mother of similar evil systems, "her children." What a truly remarkable feature of this Church!

Another noticeable characteristic is that a remnant is now formally recognised and separately addressed (v. 24), thus clearly distinguishing the Church or mass from the remnant or faithful company.

Further, the call to hear which in Ephesus, Smyrna, and Pergamos precedes the promises to the overcomer, in Thyatira and succeeding churches is found after the promises, closing up in each case the respective address. In the first three epistles the Church stands related to the call to hear, whereas in the last four the overcomers are in relation to the words, "He that hath an ear, let him hear."

Another striking feature in the address to this Church is that for the first and only time, in the course of these epistles, the name of the divine Speaker is introduced — the Son of God; this title of personal and divine relationship is not used in any other part of the Apocalypse.

THE DIVINE SPEAKER.

18. — "These things says the Son of God." The humanity of the Lord and His relation to the race are conveyed in the title "Son of Man." The Deity of the Lord and His relation to God are intimated in the title "Son of God." His glory and relation to the churches as beheld by John was as "Son of Man" (Revelation 1:13). Why, then, is this divine title "Son of God" introduced, and only here? The answer is at hand. Thyatira historically covers the Dark or Middle Ages, and pictures in brief terms and symbols the popish system, the worst bearing the Christian name that has ever disgraced the earth. In popery every true thought of the Church is lost. True, she boasts loudly of unity, but it is a unity enforced when and where she can by the potent arguments of the faggot, the fire, and the dungeon — as unlike divine unity effected by the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthians 12:13) as light is to darkness. Popery shuts out Christ completely as Head of His Body, the Church, and as Administrator of the House of God. Hence the introduction of this title in the opening words of the address. Not Peter, but Christ, the Son of the living God, is the Church's foundation (Matthew 16:16-18). Peter, too, is made the administrator of the Church instead of Christ. But the Lord never gives up His rights, and just when and where it were most needful to insist on His divine prerogative as Son of God it is done. If the Church has been drifting from bad to worse, so much the more need to insist on the divine glory and relationship of our Lord. If that goes, then truly all is lost. The title "Son of God" is in no wise a dispensational one; a title, moreover, which was given to Him on His entrance into this world as Man (Psalms 2:1-12; Acts 13:33, omit the word "again").

HIS EYES AND FEET.

18. — "He that hath His eyes as a flame of fire and His feet like fine brass." This is part of the detailed description of the glorified Son of Man previously beheld (Revelation 1:14-15). Here, however, these two attributes of stern sovereignty are exercised by the Son of God. It is well to remember that He to Whom all judgment is committed, and Who will infallibly execute His own judgment, is not only Man (John 5:22; John 5:27), but He is God as well. He who wields the sceptre is divine as well as human. His eyes as "a flame of fire" refer to His moral intolerance of evil. He will search out sin and discover it however hidden. Who or what can escape those eyes as a flame of fire? "His feet as fine brass." What His eyes discover, that His feet shall tread upon. Unbending judicial action, inflexible justice, is symbolised by the "feet like fine brass." Every systematised form of evil bearing the Christian name (v. 23) must be destroyed. The mountains of Edom in the last days afford an awful example of divine vengeance and of the application of the striking symbol here employed (Isaiah 63:1-6). When the Lord comes in Person to make good His sovereign right over the whole scene under Heaven His feet are likened to "pillars of fire" (Revelation 10:1-2), a slight change in the wording of the imagery, implying the immovable, steadfast purpose and act of the Lord in the stern assertion of His universal rights. "Fire" is the expressive symbol of judgment, whether upon Christ, the sacrifice (Lev. l), or upon the wicked (Mark 9:43; Luke 16:24; 2 Thessalonians 1:8).

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Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-2.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

See comments at Revelation 1:20 for the explanation of the angel. In this letter the author states his personal name before giving a description of himself and it is the Son of God. Comparing His eyes and feet to fire and brass is explained at Revelation 1:14-15.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-2.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 2:18

Revelation 2:18 And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;

"Thyatira"

Thyatira was a city which lay on the borders of the regions of Lydia and Mysia, opposite unto Macedonia, and southwards of Pergamos, in Asia the less, where Lydia was born, whom Paul converted at Philippi { Acts 16:13-14} in which city this church was planted. See KNOLLYS: Revelation 2:2 and See KNOLLYS: Revelation 2:12 Touching the title that Christ here again takes unto himself, suitable unto this angel and churches condition. See exposition on Revelation 1:14-15

See KNOLLYS: Revelation 1:14

See KNOLLYS: Revelation 1:15

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-2.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 2:18. And to the angel of the church at Thyatira[Note: Text: The Cod. Alex, has merely τῷ ἐ ν θυατεί ροις, to the angel that is in Thyatira. That the reading arose from a desire of abbreviation, appears from Tertullian Scorp.xxii. ad angelum ecclesiae Thyatirenorum, comp. with de pudicitia c. 19: ad angelum Thyatirenorum.]write: These things saith the Son of God, who has eyes as a flame of fire, and his feet like to clear brass. The three predicates form the ground at once of the threatening and of the promise. The prophet shows those, who from fear of the power of heathenism were weak towards the Nicolaitans or even inclined to go along with them, one whom they ought much more to fear, and who can give both victory and glory. The first predicate itself exhibits a terrible character. For in the passage, which forms the foundation for this name of Christ, he appears as one who smites the heathen with an iron sceptre and dashes them in pieces as a potter's vessel. Bengel: "The glorious name, Son of God, has been most fully disclosed in the second Psalm, and to that Psalm reference is also made in Revelation 2:27 of this epistle." The verse before us forms a commentary on the name. The eyes as a flame of fire, and the clear brass, are from ch. Revelation 1:14. The flame of fire does not bring to light, as Bengel falsely interprets here, but consumes. Bengel remarks on the feet as of clear brass: "It threatens secure persons who think they can do what they please, and when impiety in them rises to the highest pitch, they tread the Son of God under foot. But he will himself tread his enemies under his feet, and will make them as the mire of the street."

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-2.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

IV. THYATIRA.—The working Church, yet too careless of Christian truth and purity, Revelation 2:18-28.

18.Thyatira—From the renowned capital, Pergamos, to the still more renowned Sardis, our apostle would find a strait south-eastern Roman road: he would be obliged to turn a little aside to the east to the lesser town of Thyatira. When Alexander the Great drove the Persian power out of Ionia, he and his successors planted therein a number of cities, filling them with inhabitants from his own Macedonia. Of these cities one was Thyatira. This city was filled with a number of industrial classes or guilds, namely: bakers, potters, weavers, tanners, dyers, etc. Hence “Lydia of Thyatira” was found at Philippi, Macedonia, by Paul, and she became the first European Christian convert. She was “a seller of purple,” probably the cloth, the “imperial purple,” not the dye alone. She was, doubtless, a Macedonian by descent, a Lydian by birth, a Philippian by residence. She bore the name of her native province, for Lydia was no doubt her proper name. Altogether Luke’s narrative places her as a graceful figure in early Christian history. How vivid the contrast between Lydia of Thyatira and Jezebel of Thyatira! It is curious to note that the American missionary, Brewer, in 1831, found the guild of dyers still working at the occupation in Thyatira. It was never a great city, but a thrifty manufacturing town. The modern town is said by Svoboda (The Seven Churches of Asia, 1869) to contain 15,000 inhabitants, of whom two thirds are Turks, one third Greek Christians, with a few Armenians. He adds, “The whole trade is in the hands of the Christian population, as it generally is throughout the East, the Christians comprising the most industrious and intelligent part of the population.”

Son of God—St. John had identified him as son of man in remembrance of the human humiliation in which he once had known him, he here identifies himself as that same son in his glorification. The promises at close of this epistle are taken from the second psalm, in which that sonship is described in its power.

Eyes’ feet—Quoted from St. John’s picture of him, Revelation 1:14-15. The eyes are alluded to in searcheth, Revelation 2:23.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-2.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 2:18. . Some local allusion to the bronze-work for which Thyatira was famous. Son of God (cf. Kattenbusch ii. 563 f.) is practically an equivalent for messiah (Luke 4:41), or for the superhuman personality of Jesus as divinely commissioned (cf. Grill, pp. 76–77) to carry out God’s purpose for his people (cf.John 10:36). But the expression has pagan as well as Jewish colouring; and there is undoubtedly an apologetic allusion to the similar terminology of the Imperial cultus (cf. Introd. § 6).

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-2.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

18. To the angel of the church in Thyatira. To the evangelist. See note on Revelation 1:20.

 

 

 

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Bibliographical Information
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 2:18". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-2.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.