Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 21:19

The foundation stones of the city wall were adorned with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation stone was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald;
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Chalcedony;   Church;   Emerald;   Heaven;   Jerusalem;   Readings, Select;   Sapphire;   Stones;   Walls, of the Cities;   Thompson Chain Reference - Chalcedony;   Emeralds;   Future, the;   Heaven;   Heavenly;   Home;   Precious Stones;   Sapphire;   Stones, Precious;   The Topic Concordance - Jerusalem;   Newness;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Precious Stones;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Chalcedony;   Jerusalem;   Sapphire;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Church, the;   Create, Creation;   Dead Sea Scrolls;   Jesus Christ;   New Jerusalem;   Touch;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Chalcedony;   Emerald;   Garnish;   Jasper;   Stones, Precious;   Wall;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Apostle;   Beryl;   Chalcedony;   Emerald;   Jasper;   Noah;   Number;   Thousand Years;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Agate;   Art and Aesthetics;   Chalcedony;   Foundation;   Heaven;   Heavenly City, the;   Jasper;   Minerals and Metals;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Foundation;   Jewels and Precious Stones;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Chalcedony ;   Emerald ;   Isaiah ;   New Jerusalem;   Precious;   Precious Stones ;   Sapphire ;   Wall;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Chalcedony;   Emerald;   Gate;   Lamb;   Numbers as Symbols;   Sapphire,;   Stones;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Gareb;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chalcedony;   Jasper;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Chalcedony,;   Emerald,;   Jasper,;   Number;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Foundations;   Old - golden;   Sapphire;   Twelve;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Chalcedony;   Emerald;   Jasper;   Sapphire;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Garnish;   Revelation of John:;   Stones, Precious:;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Eschatology;   Gems;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The foundations of the wall - Does not this mean the foundations or thresholds of the gates? The gates represented the twelve tribes, Revelation 21:12; and these foundations or thresholds, the twelve apostles, Revelation 21:14. There was no entrance into the city but through those gates, and none through the gates but over these thresholds. The whole of the Mosaic dispensation was the preparation of the Gospel system: without it the Gospel would have no original; without the Gospel, it would have no reference nor proper object. Every part of the Gospel necessarily supposes the law and the prophets. They are the gates, it is the threshold; without the Gospel no person could enter through those gates. The doctrine of Christ crucified, preached by the apostles, gives a solid foundation to stand on; and we have an entrance into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, Hebrews 10:19, etc. And in reference to this we are said to be built on the Foundation of the Apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone, Ephesians 2:20.

The first foundation was jasper - A stone very hard, some species of which are of a sea-green color; but it is generally a bright reddish brown.

The second, sapphire - This is a stone of a fine blue color, next in hardness to the diamond.

The third, a chalcedony - A genus of the semipellucid gems, of which there are four species: -

  1. A bluish white; this is the most common sort.
  • The dull milky veined; this is of little worth.
  • The brownish black; the least beautiful of all.
  • The yellow and red; the most beautiful, as it is the most valuable of all. Hitherto this has been found only in the East Indies.
  • The fourth, an emerald - This is of a bright green color without any mixture, and is one of the most beautiful of all the gems, The true oriental emerald as very scarce, and said to be found only in the kingdom of Cambay.

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    Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-21.html. 1832.

    Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

    And the foundations of the wall of the city - notes on Revelation 21:14.

    Were garnished - Were adorned, or decorated. That is, the foundations were composed of precious stones, giving them this highly ornamented and brilliant appearance.

    The first foundation - The first “row, layer, or course.” notes on Revelation 21:14.

    Was jasper - See the notes on Revelation 4:3.

    The second, sapphire - This stone is not elsewhere mentioned in the New Testament. It is a precious stone, next in hardness to the diamond, usually of an azure or sky-blue color, but of various shades.

    The third, a chalcedony - This word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. The stone referred to is an uncrystallized translucent variety of quartz, having a whitish color, and of a luster nearly like wax. It is found covering the sides of cavities, and is a deposit from filtrated silicious waters. When it is arranged in “stripes,” it constitutes “agate”; and if the stripes are horizontal, it is the “onyx.” The modern “carnelian” is a variety of this. The carnelian is of a deep flesh red, or reddishwhite color. The name chalcedony is from “Chalcedon,” a town in Asia Minor, opposite to Byzantium, or Constantinople, where this stone was probably first known (Webster‘s Dictionary).

    The fourth, an emerald - See the notes on Revelation 4:3. The emerald is green.

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    Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-21.html. 1870.

    John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

    And the foundations of the wall of the city,.... Which were twelve; see Revelation 21:14 were garnished with all manner of precious stones: see Isaiah 54:11 not that there were all manner of precious stones in every foundation, but in them all there were, and each foundation had its stone peculiar to it, as follows; and which are not applicable to the persons of the apostles, who were not the foundations, but on them their names only were written: and besides, the order of them, as given in the Evangelists and Acts of the Apostles, is not certain, and always the same, to which these several stories may be adjusted; though they are doubtless comparable to them for their preciousness in the sight of God, and Christ, and all the saints; and for the brightness and purity of their doctrine and lives; and for their zeal in the cause of Christ; and for their solidity, and invincible courage and constancy: much less are these precious stones applicable to a set of ministers in the latter day, who are to be useful in the conversion of the Jews in the several parts of the world, where these stones are found, as Brightman thinks, but to Jesus Christ, the one and only foundation: and without entering into the particular virtues and excellencies of these stones, in general, they set forth the worth and preciousness of Christ, who is the pearl of great price; the pleasure and delight had in viewing his excellencies and perfections; his brightness, purity, and glory, and his firmness and durableness, as a foundation. There may be some allusion to the twelve stones in the breastplate of the high priest, on which the names of the tribes of Israel were writtenF9Vid. Targum Jon. & Jerus. in Exod. xxviii. 17. Targum in Cant. v. 14. Shemot Rabba, sect. 38. fol. 138. 2. Bemidbar Rabba, sect. 2. fol. 178. 3. .

    The first foundation was jasper; it was laid with a jasper stone, of which see Revelation 4:3. On this stone, in the breastplate, Benjamin's name was written.

    The second, sapphire; its colour is azure, or sky blue; it is transparent, and exceeding hard. Schroder says there are very good ones found in the borders of Bohemia and Silesia; but those which are brought from Pegu are most valuable: on this stone Issachar's name was engraven.

    The third, a chalcedony; it is of a misty grey colour, clouded with blue, yellow, or purple; the best is that which has a pale cast of blue; it is very much like the common agate; and the Hebrew word כדכד, "cadcod", is rendered agate in Isaiah 54:12 though it is thought to answer to the carbuncle in the breastplate, on which was written the name of Levi. And PlinyF11Nat. Hist. l. 37. c. 7. speaks of carbuncles, called "charcedonies", which R. Leo Mutinensis saysF12Shilte Hagibborim, fol. 45. 4. had their name in memory of the city of Carthagena. There is a precious stone mentioned in the Targum of Jonathan, called כדכודין, "cadcodin", which answers to the diamond in the breastplate, on which Zabulon's name was written; and in the Jerusalem Targum it is called כדכדנא, "cadcedana", and answers to the emerald, which had Judah's name on it, and seems to be put for "chalcodin" and "chalcedana", which agrees with the name of this stone.

    The fourth, an emerald; of which see Revelation 4:3. The best of this sort are the eastern ones. Schroder saysF13Pharmacopoeia, l. 3. c. 5. p. 18. they are found in Cyprus, Britain, and other places, but not so good as the rest. On this stone Judah's name was written.

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    The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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    Bibliographical Information
    Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-21.html. 1999.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

    And — so Syriac, Coptic, and Andreas. But A, B, and Vulgate omit. Compare Revelation 21:14 with this verse; also Isaiah 54:11.

    all manner of precious stones — Contrast Revelation 18:12 as to the harlot, Babylon. These precious stones constituted the “foundations.”

    chalcedony — agate from Chalcedon: semi-opaque, sky-blue, with stripes of other colors [Alford].

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    This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-21.html. 1871-8.

    Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

    Were adorned (κεκοσμημενοιkekosmēmenoi). Perfect passive participle of κοσμεωkosmeō as in Revelation 21:2, but without the copula ησανēsan (were), followed by instrumental case λιτωιlithōi (stone).

    With all manner of precious stones (παντι λιτωι τιμιωιpanti lithōi timiōi). “With every precious stone.” The list of the twelve stones in Revelation 21:19, Revelation 21:20 has no necessary mystical meaning. “The writer is simply trying to convey the impression of a radiant and superb structure” (Moffatt). The twelve gems do correspond closely (only eight in common) with the twelve stones on the high priest‘s breastplate (Exodus 28:17-20; Exodus 39:10.; Ezekiel 28:13; Isaiah 54:11.). Charles identifies them with the signs of zodiac in reverse order, a needless performance here. See the stones in Revelation 4:3. These foundation stones are visible. For jasper (ιασπιςiaspis) see Revelation 4:3; Revelation 21:11, Revelation 21:18; Isaiah 54:12; sapphire (σαππειροςsappheiros) see Exodus 24:10;. Isaiah 54:11 (possibly the λαπις λαζυλιlapis lazuli of Turkestan); chalcedony (χαλκηδωνchalkēdōn) we have no other reference in N.T. or lxx (described by Pliny, H.N. XXXIII.21), possibly a green silicate of copper from near Chalcedon; emerald (σμαραγδοςsmaragdos) here only in N.T., see Revelation 4:3 σμαραγδινοςsmaragdinos and like it a green stone.

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    The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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    Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-21.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

    Vincent's Word Studies

    All manner of precious stones

    Compare Isaiah href="/desk/?q=isa+12:1-6&sr=1">Isaiah 12:1-6; 1 Chronicles 29:2.

    Sapphire ( σάπφειρος )

    Compare Isaiah 54:11; Ezekiel 1:26. Probably lapis lazuli. Our sapphire is supposed to be represented by the jacinth in Revelation 21:20. Pliny describes the σάπφειρος as opaque and sprinkled with specks of gold, and states that it came from Media (i.e. Persia and Bokhara) whence the supply is brought to this day. King (“Precious Stones and Gems,” cited by Lee), says: “Before the true precious stones were introduced from India, the lapis lazuli held the highest place in the estimation of the primitive nations of Asia and Greece; in fact it was almost the only stone known to them having beauty of color to recommend it.”

    Chalcedony ( χαλκηδών )

    From Chalcedon, where the stone was found in the neighboring copper mines. It was probably an inferior species of emerald, as crystal of carbonate of copper, which is still popularly called “the copper emerald.” Pliny describes it as small and brittle, changing its color when moved about, like the green feathers in the necks of peacocks and pigeons.

    Emerald

    See on Revelation 4:3.

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    Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-21.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

    Wesley's Explanatory Notes

    And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;

    And the foundations were adorned with precious stones — That is, beautifully made of them. The precious stones on the high priest's breastplate of judgment were a proper emblem to express the happiness of God's church in his presence with them, and in the blessing of his protection. The like ornaments on the foundations of the walls of this city may express the perfect glory and happiness of all the inhabitants of it from the most glorious presence and protection of God. Each precious stone was not the ornament of the foundation, but the foundation itself. The colours of these are remarkably mixed. A jasper is of the colour of white marble, with a light shade of green and of red; a sapphire is of a sky-blue, speckled with gold; a chalcedony, or carbuncle, of the colour of red-hot iron; an emerald, of a grass green.

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    Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-21.html. 1765.

    John Trapp Complete Commentary

    19 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;

    Ver. 19. And the foundations] The apostles and their faithful successors, who were puriores caelo, saith Chrysostom, clearer than the sky, the very stars of the world and flowers of the Churches, as Basil calleth them. The twelve patriarchs have, Exodus 28:15-21, each of them his precious stone inscribed with his name in the breastplate of judgment: a symbol of the Church under the law. Levi hath the chalcedony, Judah the smaragd. But here in the foundation of the New Jerusalem, the Church under the gospel, Levi hath the smaragd, and Judah the chalcedony (the tribes have their stones in Aaron’s breastplate, according to their birth). Our Savionr’s chalcedony in Levi’s place tells us (saith Mr Sarson) that he hath put an end to legal sacrifices, and that he is both king and priest of his Churches.

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    Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-21.html. 1865-1868.

    Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

    Revelation 21:19. κεκοσμημένοι, garnished) That is, built and adorned: for the very foundations are jewels; as the very gates are pearls. Concerning Adamant, see Hiller’s Syntagm. pp. 35, 36. An abbreviated expression, as in Vitruvius, l. x. c. 20, pluteum, turriculæ similitudine ornatum. Herodotus, lib. i. concerning Babylon, ἐκεκόσμητο δὲ ὠς οὐδὲν ἄλλο πόλισμα, where he calls the ditch, the wall, and the gates, the ornament of the city.

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    Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-21.html. 1897.

    Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

    And the foundations of the wall of the city, by which, we noted before, are to be understood the apostles, who, building upon the one foundation, Christ Jesus, by their holy doctrine laid the beginnings of the gospel churches, the first stones, (upon the Rock Christ), which were afterwards multiplied, others being builded upon them, till the whole church was perfected.

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    Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-21.html. 1685.

    Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

    The foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprase; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst.

    These twelve precious stones making up the foundations of the wall are:

    JASPER, usually thought to be the diamond.

    SAPPHIRE, or "lapis lazula" (ASV margin).

    CHALCEDONY, "a green silicate of copper found in mines near Chalcedon."[43]

    EMERALD, the same as our modern gem.

    SARDONYX, "an onyx in which white was broken by layers of red and brown."[44]

    SARDIUS, The name of this was derived from Sardis; it was also called a carnelian. "It was blood red, and the commonest of all stones used for gems."[45]

    CHRYSOLITE, "Its Hebrew name means the Stone of Tarshish, described by Pliny as shining with a golden radiance."[46]

    BERYL, "a variety of emerald, though not as green."[47]

    TOPAZ, This was a stone of a greenish gold color, highly valued by the Hebrews.

    CHRYSOPRASE, "the equivalent of our aquamarine, another variety of emerald."[48]

    JACINTH, the modern sapphire (ASV, margin).

    AMETHYST, the same as the common amethyst today.SIZE>

    What can be the meaning of all these precious stones? Certainly, one of the legitimate meanings is that of the eternal beauty and value of the church of the living God; but there is another very curious and intriguing possibility. Charles pointed out that the twelve signs of the zodiac are represented by these same stones:[49]

    The Ram -- Amethyst The Bull -- Hyacinth The Twins -- Chrysoprase The Crab -- Topaz The Lion -- Beryl The Virgin -- Chrysolite The Balances -- Sardius The Scorpion -- Sardonyx The Archer -- Emerald The Goat -- Chalcedon Water-carrier -- Sapphire The Fish -- JasperSIZE>

    Now the original order of these, that given above, is the order in which the sun passes through the constellations indicated. The apostle John exactly reversed that order! "He is repudiating all heathen concepts; he is expressing the thought that in the end God reverses human judgments."[50] This says in tones of thunder that there is absolutely nothing to astrology, a lesson that currently needs emphasis.

    [43] William Barclay, op. cit., p. 213.

    [44] Ibid., p. 214.

    [45] Ibid.

    [46] Ibid.

    [47] A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 512.

    [48] Ibid.

    [49] Charles as quoted by Leon Morris, op. cit., p. 252.

    [50] Ibid.

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    Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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    Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-21.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

    E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

    And. Omit.

    jasper. Compare this and the other stones here with those in Aaron"s breastplate (Exodus 28:17-21).

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    Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-21.html. 1909-1922.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

    And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;

    And. So Syriac, Coptic, Andreas; but A B, Vulgate, omit. Compare Revelation 21:14; also Isaiah 54:11.

    All manner of precious stones. Contrast Revelation 18:12, as to Babylon. These constituted the "foundations."

    Chalcedony - agate from Chalcedon: semi-opaque, sky-blue, with stripes of other colours (Alford).

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    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-21.html. 1871-8.

    Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

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    Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-21.html. 1905.

    Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

    And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;
    the foundations
    Job 28:16-19; Proverbs 3:15; Isaiah 54:11,12
    sapphire
    Exodus 28:17-21; 29:10-14
    Reciprocal: Exodus 24:10 - of a sapphire stone;  Exodus 39:10 - the first row;  1 Kings 7:10 - the foundation;  Job 28:6 - sapphires;  Ezekiel 28:13 - every;  1 Corinthians 3:10 - I have;  Revelation 4:3 - like a;  Revelation 21:11 - her;  Revelation 21:14 - foundations;  Revelation 21:18 - was of

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    Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-21.html.

    E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

    The foundation stones of the wall were garnished (decorated) with all manner of precious stones, which means with stones of various descriptions. The first was jasper which we have previously learned is like a diamond. Sapphires are of several varieties and no special one is named, but the general description in the English dictionaries shows them to be brilliant gems inclined to be transparent. A chalcedony is a stone with a blue tint and a glossy surface. Emerald is a stone with rich coloring of green and very much prized as a precious stone.

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    Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-21.html. 1952.

    Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

    Revelation 21:19

    Revelation 21:19-21 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald; 20 The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst21And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass.

    In these three verses, the glorious spiritual state of the holy city, the heavenly Jerusalem, the Church of God on earth in the latter days, is mystically figured forth. And the city was pure gold, like the seven churches in Asia in their first constitution {see Revelation 1:12-20} but in far greater purity, holiness, and glory. The precious stones are, first, a jasper; which is called by jewellers the mother pearl, most precious, clear as crystal; Christ himself is resembled by it, { Revelation 4:3} like a jasper. Secondly, a sapphire; a precious stone shining with golden sparks, highly prized by the citizens of Tyre, and worn for ornament. { Ezekiel 28:13} God promised to lay the foundation of the church with sapphires. { Isaiah 54:11} Read Job 28:14-16; Ezekiel 1:26; Ezekiel 10:1. Thirdly, a chalcedony; fourthly, an emerald, etc. Read Exodus 28:17-21. By these

    precious stones

    we are to understand those living stones, which shall be built up a spiritual house, upon that living stone Christ Jesus. { 1 Peter 2:4-9}

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    Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-21.html.

    Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

    19.Jasper, as we have seen above, is usually a stone of green transparent colour, with red veins; but there are many varieties. Sapphire is of a beautiful azure or sky-blue colour, almost as transparent and glittering as a diamond. Chalcedony seems to be a species of the agate, or more probably, the onyx. The onyx of the ancients was probably of a bluish white, and semi-pellucid. The emerald was of a vivid green, and next to the ruby in hardness.”—Stuart.

     

     

     

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    Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 21:19". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-21.html. 1874-1909.