Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 22:13

I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Alpha;   Jesus, the Christ;   Jesus Continued;   Omega;   Readings, Select;   Thompson Chain Reference - Alpha;   Christ;   Divinity;   Divinity-Humanity;   Eternal;   Future, the;   Heaven;   Heavenly;   Home;   Living Water;   Names;   Omega;   Pre-Existence of Christ;   Titles and Names;   Water;   Water of Life;   Wells;   The Topic Concordance - Blessings;   Idolatry;   Jesus Christ;   Kingdom of God;   Lying/lies;   Obedience;   Paganism;   Rendering;   Tree of Life;   Violence;   Whoredom;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Christ Is God;   Titles and Names of Christ;   Trinity, the;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - A;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Day of the lord;   Jesus christ;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Condemnation;   Holy, Holiness;   Time;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Obedience;   CARM Theological Dictionary - Heaven;   Easton Bible Dictionary - A;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Alpha;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Alpha and Omega;   God;   Omega;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alpha and Omega;   Revelation, Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Alpha and Omega;   Alpha and Omega (2);   Enoch Book of;   First and Last ;   God;   Mediator;   Pre-Existence;   Sin (2);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Alpha;   Beginning;   Omega ;   Revelation, the;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Alpha;   Names titles and offices of christ;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Alpha;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Alpha and Omega;   Begin;   Christ, Offices of;   End;   First;   Resurrection;   Revelation of John:;   Unchangeable;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Alpha;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for October 29;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

I am Alpha and Omega - See on Revelation 1:8; (note), Revelation 1:18; (note).

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-22.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

I am Alpha and Omega … - See the notes on Revelation 1:8, Revelation 1:11. The idea here is, that he will thus show that he is the first and the last - the beginning and the end. He originated the whole plan of salvation, and he will determine its close; he formed the world, and he will wind up its affairs. In the beginning, the continuance, and the end, he will be recognized as the same being presiding over and controlling all.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-22.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

I am Alpha and Omega,.... See Gill on Revelation 1:8. These characters are all put together here, which are before used in Revelation 1:8 and are very pertinently mentioned in this place, when all promises and prophecies, relating to the glorious kingdom of Christ, were just finishing, and that itself was ready to appear, in which Christ alone should be exalted, the mystery of God would be completed, and time itself be no more. The Ethiopic version adds, "the beginning and end of days", or time. A testimony this, of the deity, eternity, infinity, and perfection of Christ.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-22.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

the Alpha and the Omega.” A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, Origen, and Cyprian transpose thus, “the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.” Andreas supports English Version. Compare with these divine titles assumed here by the Lord Jesus, Revelation 1:8, Revelation 1:17; Revelation 21:6. At the winding up of the whole scheme of revelation He announces Himself as the One before whom and after whom there is no God.

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-22.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

I am the Alpha and the Omega (Εγω το Αλπα και το ΟEgō to Alpha kai to O). Applied to God in Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6, and here alone to Christ, crowning proof in this book of Christ‘s deity. So in Revelation 21:6 God is termed, as Christ is here, η αρχη και το τελοςhē archē kai to telos (the beginning and the end), while ο πρωτος και ο εσχατοςho prōtos kai ho eschatos (the first and the last) is applied only to Christ (Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8). Solemn assurance is thus given that Christ is qualified to be the Judge of Revelation 22:12 (cf. Matt 25:31-46). In Hebrews 12:2 Jesus is the αρχηγος και τελειωτης της πιστεωςarchēgos kai teleiōtēs tēs pisteōs (the author and finisher of faith). Christ was the Creator of the universe for the Father. So now he is the Consummation of redemption.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-22.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last — Who exist from everlasting to everlasting. How clear, incontestable a proof, does our Lord here give of his divine glory!

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-22.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

13 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

Ver. 13. I am Alpha and Omega] And am therefore worthy to be believed in my predictions of future events, which I can easily bring about and effect, since to me all things are present.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-22.html. 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Revelation 22:13

Christ the Alpha and Omega.

I. Christ is the Alpha and Omega in relation to Christianity and providence. Christianity is at this day the great upholder of Theism in the world. It has unspeakably distanced Judaism, whose testimony against idolatry it has taken up, and also Mahometanism, whose witness for the unity of God is nowhere going forth with visible conquering power. But Christianity is more than simple Theism. There is a Trinity in its unity, and this gives it a richness, a grandeur, an adaptability to the fallen state of man, of which mere Theism is incapable. Hence the Son shines in the Christian firmament as the true God along with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and thus the Divine works of creation and providence are connected with His name. Over the wide universe everything shall at last be found to be under Christ's feet, not necessarily in the way of loyal subjection, but in the way of bearing witness to one ascendant will, which orders all things, even evil, for the best.

II. Christ is the Alpha and Omega in relation to redemption. He is the Alpha and Omega in regard to redemption—(1) as a Divine saving plan. We cannot ascend to the origin of this plan, for it is from eternity. But, as far as we can rise, Christ is seen to be its fountain-head, and with His purpose of devotement it is bound up. (2) As a personal Christian experience. When is it that any One of us becomes a Christian? Is it not when Christ draws near and talks to us, as to the disciples on their way? We have no experimental Christianity apart from Him. (3) As a collective spiritual history. Christianity was never intended to be a solitary experience or a multitude of single experiences. It was to be a society, a Church. And He who bears up the Church so long in such a world must be nothing less than Divine. It was the saying of Voltaire that Christianity would not survive the nineteenth century; but what has the nineteenth century not done for Christianity? It has sent the Gospel anew into all the world. It has gathered in the islands of the South, and shaken the mighty pagan faiths of India, China, and Japan. It has stirred up its missionaries from the far West to preach the old faith in Egypt and in Palestine, and where the disciples first received the Christian name. It has devoted its noblest children to face death for Christ in depths of Africa which Voltaire never heard of; and it has even employed the press at Ferney that printed his own works, and, it may be, this very prophecy against the Gospel, to publish in new tongues the true oracles of God. (4) Considered as an endless development. When we speak of eternity, we feel that we are dealing with a quantity which, whether as applied to man's natural endowments or destiny in Christ, overtasks all our powers alike of conception and description. Christ "openeth, and no man shutteth," holding in His hands "the golden key that opes the palace of eternity."

J. Cairns, Christ the Morning Star, and Other Sermons, p. 18.


Reference: Revelation 22:13.—Spurgeon, Sermons, vol. ix., No. 546.

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Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/revelation-22.html.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

As if Christ had said, "I am the eternal God, the first cause and the last end of all things; I first made the world, and I will at last put a period to it; and when time shall be no more, they shall for ever be happy in the enjoyment of me, who have here obeyed me, and lived in conformity to my doctrine and example; they shall through holiness enter the gates of the New Jerusalem, that glorious city, having the tree of life in it; present blessedness, as well as future happiness, belongs to those that obey God's will, and keep his commandments; blessed are they, and blessed for ever shall they be."

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-22.html. 1700-1703.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 22:13. ἐγὼ τὸ ἄλφα καὶ τὸ ω, πρῶτος καὶ ἔσχατος, ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος, I Alpha and O, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End(246)) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. The Lord Jesus plainly speaks here: and there are three clauses, the first of which we weighed at ch. Revelation 1:8, where the Father speaks of Himself; the second we considered at ch. Revelation 1:17, where the Lord Jesus speaks of Himself; the third, together with the first, we touched upon at ch. Revelation 21:6, where again the Father speaks. Now, in the present passage, the three clauses are accumulated, a most manifest proof of the glory of the Lord Jesus; who testifies concerning Himself both those things which the Father had spoken concerning Himself, ch. Revelation 21:6, and those things which He Himself had spoken concerning Himself, ch. Revelation 1:17. Is it then one and the same sentiment which is expressed in a threefold form? Nay, something more is contained in it. The clause α and ω is as it were the basis of those titles, which we have just noticed, of God and Christ; and it has a kind of general and as it were hieroglyphic force, to be determined by the other titles which follow. This is first spoken by the Father, ch. Revelation 1:8; and the second answers to it, in which Christ calls Himself the First and the Last, ch. Revelation 1:17. Artemonius, who is excellently refuted by Wolf, translates it, most excellent and most abject. He Himself by Isaiah explains it, as Him, before whom and after whom there is no other God, the Author of salvation. This is at the commencement of the book. At the close, He who sits upon the throne says, I am α and ω: and He Himself explains it, the Beginning and the End, ch. Revelation 21:6. Then the Lord Jesus says, I α and ω: and He also adds the explanation, but a twofold one: for He both repeats that saying of His, the First and the Last, and now, when the throne of God and of the Lamb is in the new Jerusalem, speaking of Himself, He adds that, which the Father had spoken, the Beginning and the End. It is put without the article, πρῶτος καὶ ἔσχατος, and that too in the primary copies; but with the article, ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος, just as τὸ α καὶ τὸ ω, which is a remarkable sign of a kind of gradation.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-22.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

See Poole on "Revelation 1:8". See Poole on "Revelation 21:6".

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-22.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Альфа и Омега См. пояснение к 1:8.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-22.html.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.

I am the Alpha and the Omega ... These are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet used idiomatically to express comprehensive completeness. In this prophecy it is found in Revelation 1:8; 1:10,11; 21:5,6; 22:13. We agree with Barclay that, "There is more than one idea here. There is the idea of completeness, of eternity and of authority.[62] Actually, all three statements in this verse are parallel aspects of one great truth.

CHRIST; THE ALPHA AND THE OMEGA

"I am the Alpha and the Omega." This is one of the most intriguing things Christ ever said. Of course, the idiom of so using the first and last letters of the alphabet is perhaps as old as language itself. A similar use was made of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, as when Abraham was said to have kept the law from Aleph to Tav; and Psalms 119 is written on the pattern of the same alphabet from Aleph to Tav. Colonial literature in America had the expression one still hears now and then, "From A to Izzard," Izzard, of course, being the old name for Z.

I. Christ is the Alpha and the Omega with reference to his eternal existence. He said, "Before Abraham was, I AM" (John 8:58). Christ is "before all things" (Colossians 1:17), and was "in the beginning" (John 1:1f). He is the same "yesterday, today, and for ever" (Hebrews 13:8).

II. He is the Alpha and the Omega with reference to the atonement for man's sin. The sins of Abel, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and of all the pre-Christian world, their sins, no less than ours, are forgiven only through the blood of Christ. He is the Alpha and the Omega concerning human redemption.

III. He is the Alpha and the Omega with reference to the word of God. He was the first to declare fully God's word to people. In a very real sense, Jesus was God's first complete word to men. But if the word in Jesus is first, it is also the last. He revealed that, "The word that I speak, the same shall judge him (man) in the last day" (John 12:48). People shall never be through with the word of Christ; it shall confront them in the final judgment.

IV. He is the Alpha and the Omega of the Christian faith. As the writer of Hebrews said, "He is the author and finisher of our faith (KJV)" (Hebrews 12:2). Regarding the personal redemption of every man, Jesus is the all in all, the first and the last, the Alpha and the Omega.

V. He is the Alpha and the Omega as regards the resurrection of the dead. Paul wrote the Colossians that Christ was the "firstborn from the dead," which does not mean that his was the first resurrection of a mortal, but that Christ was the first to be raised from the dead upon whom death would have no further power. Lazarus and others who were "raised" died again, but not so with Christ. He shall be the last in this regard, because it is his word that shall summon all the dead to the final judgment.

VI. He is the Alpha and the Omega in the New Testament. His name is in the first verse and in the last. His titles mark the opening words, and his blessing closes the sacred canon of the New Testament.

VII. He is the Alpha and the Omega in the final judgment. The eternal judgment shall begin with the body of Christ (the church), as indicated by 1 Peter 4:17; and the final word of it shall be pronounced by the Son of God because the father hath committed judgment to the Son (John 5:27). Christ will be the Alpha and the Omega in the eternal judgment.

ENDNOTE:

[62] William Barclay, op. cit., p. 225.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-22.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

The Central Messages of the Book.

‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.’

Compare Revelation 1:9; Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8; Revelation 21:6. The book begins and ends with the fact that Father and Son sum up all things in themselves. All things come from them, all things proceed to them. God is all in all. The assumption must be, as with all first person statements in this epilogue (from Revelation 22:10 to Revelation 22:17), that these words are spoken by Jesus Christ. Note Revelation 22:12, Revelation 22:16 a, Revelation 22:16 b. Thus Jesus is taking to Himself the divine title which indicates the all-encompassing nature of God.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-22.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Jesus Christ offered three titles for Himself that give assurance that He can and will fulfill His former promise to reward (cf. Revelation 1:4; Revelation 1:8; Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8; Revelation 21:6). Jesus Christ, as well as God the Father, is the Alpha and Omega (cf. Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6). This title stresses His eternality and sovereignty. "The first and the last" is also a title for Christ ( Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8) and the Father ( Isaiah 44:6; Isaiah 48:12). It emphasizes that God is the cause and goal of history. "The beginning and the end" describes God in Revelation 21:6 and Christ in Hebrews 12:2. It means that He finishes what He starts. [Note: Hughes, p238.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-22.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 22:13. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end. These words confirm the statement made in the previous verse (comp. chap. Revelation 21:6). They take us back also to chap. Revelation 1:8.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-22.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

I am alpha and omega. See Chap. i. 8. (Witham)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-22.html. 1859.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

To say the Lord is the Alpha and Omega, is to say he is complete since these are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. To say he is first and last, is to say Jesus is eternal. (Note comments on Revelation 1:17) Hailey says, "The "beginning" (arche) indicates the first person in a series, one of foremost authority, one by whom all things commence. (ef. Isaiah 40:14; Isaiah 40:25)

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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-22.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Alpha, &c. See Revelation 1:8.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-22.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

I am Alpha - `the Alpha and the Omega.' 'Aleph (') A B, Vulgate, Syriac, Origen, Cyprian, transpose, 'the fist and the last, the beginning and the end.' Compare Revelation 1:8; Revelation 1:17; Revelation 21:6. At the winding up of the whole Revelation, the Lord Jesus announces Himself the One before and after whom there is no God.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-22.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(13) I am Alpha . . .—Here (as in Revelation 21:6) we should render, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end. (See Note as above, and comp. John 1:1; Isaiah 44:6.) The repetition of these glorious titles is not a mere idle repetition, or designed to give a rhetorical fulness to the peroration of the book: it is closely allied with the preceding thought. The warning has been given that men by continuing in sin (Revelation 22:11) are inviting against themselves the law by which act ripens to habit, and habit makes character, and character forms destiny. The moral laws set going by sin work thus:—Retribution is no dream: it is a terrible fact: it is written large over nature. But the eternal laws of God, though righteously ordered, are not God: the refuge from the eternal laws which we invoke against ourselves by our sin is to be found in the Eternal God: “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.” For those hunted by the wickedness of their own doings, God himself provides a refuge: underneath all laws are the everlasting arms (Deuteronomy 33:27). The next verses set the way of refuge and safety before us.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-22.html. 1905.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

Verse 13: I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

The title of this verse, Alpha and Omega, belonged to Christ alone in this connection, and represented the finality of the sayings of the vision--the first and the last, the beginning and the end, were the words of his authority--the yea and the amen from which there could be no appeal and for which there could be no repeal.

The vision, as previous shown, had closed and these words of Christ were being quoted by John to corroborate and verify his post-vision sayings of this last chapter, and to vindicate all of the claims of credibility. The words of verse thirteen meant--so be it, all in all as here recorded, for it came from Christ the All In All of divine jurisprudence and justice.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-22.html. 1966.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.
1:8,11; 21:6; Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 48:12
Reciprocal: Genesis 1:1 - God;  Zechariah 12:8 - the house;  Zechariah 13:7 - the man;  Malachi 3:6 - I change not;  John 1:1 - the beginning;  John 13:32 - shall;  Colossians 1:18 - the beginning;  Revelation 1:17 - I am;  Revelation 22:10 - he saith

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-22.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

This is virtually the same as Revelation 1:8; see those comments.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-22.html. 1952.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

13.I am Alpha—Assuredly words spoken by no angel.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 22:13". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-22.html. 1874-1909.