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Wednesday, October 4th, 2023
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
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Revelation 22

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Verse 1

Section 4: The New Jerusalem (chapters 21-22)

Chapter 21 - The New Jerusalem Described

The New Heaven and Earth, v. 1 Revelation 22:1

The New Jerusalem Introduced, v. 2

The Old Testament Prophets Fulfilled, vv. 3-5

Promised Reward and Punishments, vv. 6-8

The Physical Features of the New City, vv. 9-27

NOW CH. 22 - - -

Book of Life,

Water of Life, Tree of Life, parallels to the Garden of Eden, paradise, (the church pictured in heavenly, paradise, terms)

a pure river of water of life . . Psalms 46:4 Revelation 22:17 This language recalls Eden (Genesis 2:10), as well as the prophecies of Ezekiel 47:1 and Zechariah 14:8 (compare Revelation 7:17; Revelation 22:17). - FSB [Joel 3:18]

Here is language familiar to the readers who were well versed in the Scriptures and thinking of that day. They would realize all this is symbolic and not literal, but that it stood for something real.

Joel 3:18 speaks of the same thing and applies it to the time established with the pentecost of Acts 2 (Acts 2:16-17). This picture here is the blessings and life in the church.

Water of life symbolized the continual flow of that which Jesus promised John 4:14, eternal life. John 4:10-11; John 4:14-15; John 7:38; Revelation 7:17; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17

The concept of a river flowing from the presence of God is an allusion to the OT (cf. Psalms 46:4; Ezekiel 47:1-12; Joel 3:18; Zechariah 14:8). Water is a common metaphor referring to God abundantly supplying the spiritual needs of His people (cf. Isaiah 12:3; Isaiah 44:3; Isaiah 49:10; Jeremiah 2:13; Jeremiah 17:13; John 4:10-15; Revelation 7:17; Revelation 21:6). Only John uses the term life (zoē) to refer to resurrection life. - Utley

clear as cystal . . Without pollution Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 12:2. God’s word is pure and whole and must not be contaminated by man’s theories and doctrines.

clear . . Bright would perhaps be more accurate. - CBSC

proceeding from the throne of God . . The word that will give life that is which comes from God Himself. John 6:63; John 6:68; Acts 5:20; Revelation 22:19;

proceeding out of the throne &c. . . In Ezekiel’s vision (chap. 47) the River proceeded out of the Temple, here out of the Temple’s antitype. We are also meant to think of the River that watered the ancient paradise, Genesis 2:10, and of such parallels to Ezekiel’s vision as Psalms 46:4, Psalms 65:9; Zechariah 14:8.

The original type, of which these Prophecies are developments, is the fact that there was a natural spring, that of Siloam, in the precincts of the Temple at Jerusalem. - CBSC

This is anthropomorphic language from ancient eastern royal court imagery. God is an eternal spirit; He does not sit on a physical throne. - Utley

Verse 2

through the middle of the street . . The presence of the tree on both sides of the river is an allusion to Ezekiel 47:1-12.

on either side of the river . . Clearly, another reference to Ezekiel 47:1-12; There is some difficulty in visualizing this because "the exact construction and punctuation is not quite certain" (CBSC).

1) We may picture a boulevard (or a plaza) with a river in median, and rows of trees on the banks. (No way to imagine one tree on either side.) Apparently a total of twelve trees (or more) that yields fruit each month (is the monthly fruit different?)

2) May view two trees, one on either side of the river of life; remember John 19:18 (same author ).

3) The description of this tree’s location is debatable, but perhaps John saw the river dividing and flowing on both sides of it. A tree surrounded by water is the epitome of a fruitful tree (cf. Psalms 1:3; Jeremiah 17:8; Ezekiel 19:10). This tree was perpetually rather than seasonally in fruit; it produced a new crop of fruit each month of the year. - Constable

the tree of life with its twelve kinds of fruit . . cf. Genesis 2:9; The tree of life reappears now in new Jerusalem fulfilling God’s promise to make new Jerusalem like Eden (cf. Isaiah 51:3). It produces 12 different kinds of fruit—a new one each month.

Some authors believe the tree of life here symbolizes the cross.

In Ezekiel’s vision there are multiple trees on each side of the river that bear fruit monthly (Ezekiel 47:12). Thus, the tree John speaks of may be a collective word for Ezekiel’s trees. So abundant is its vitality that it bears a crop of fruit each month! Its leaves produce healing for the nations. The imagery of abundant fruit and medicinal leaves should be understood as symbolic of the far-reaching effects of the death of Christ in the redeemed community, the Holy City. - EBCNT

There are many references in Jewish apocalyptic literature to the tree of life found in Gen. 3 (cf. Enoch 25:2ff; IV Esdras 7:53; 8:52; II Enoch 8:3). - Utley

Wallace points out the twelve applied to the apostles and the furit applied to the apostolic teaching and was all sufficient source of spiritual sustenance.

each month . . (every month) . . The real meaning is that the fruit is always in season. The gospel is always in season, 2 Timothy 4:2.

How could one speak of "months" if this is heaven?

the leaves -- healing . . Ezekiel 47:12. Healing - Jeremiah 8:22 ff ; Ezekiel 27:17 ff

The English word “therapeutic” comes from the Greek word translated “healing.” The leaves somehow enrich heavenly life, making it full and satisfying. - MSB

healing of the nations . . If this is "heaven" why would healing be necessary? But the gospel, the Word of Life, is for the healing of nations Matthew 28:19-20; Mark 16:15-16. This is the great mission task of the church.

Verse 3

no more curse . . A reference to the curse in Genesis (man cut off from the tree.) In the new Jerusalem there will be no curse like that which came upon Eden in Genesis.

Man now has access to eternal life through Christ John 6:63; John 6:68; Acts 5:20;

This is an allusion to Genesis 3:17 and Zechariah 14:11. The new age has come and the curse of the OT (cf. Ephesians 2:15-16; Colossians 2:14) has been removed by Christ’s death (cf. Romans 8:18, Romans 8:25; Galatians 3:13; Ephesians 2:13, Ephesians 2:16). - Utley

There will be nothing that falls under the curse of God’s judgment (see Zechariah 14:11). This includes the curse humanity brought upon itself because of its first sin against God (see Gen 3). - FSB

throne of God -- shall be in it . . In the new Jerusalem, the church, Christ is present Matthew 18:20; Hebrews 13:5;

Notice the unusual grammatical features of this phrase. There is one throne, but two on it (i.e. God and the Lamb). However, the servants serve “Him” (singular). This involves the mystery of monotheism and incarnation. One God, but also a divine Messiah (and a personal Holy Spirit). - Utley

His servants shall serve Him . . Christians are pictured as a royal priesthood 1 Peter 2:5; 1 Peter 2:9 serving God now in the church, a spiritual temple 1 Corinthians 3:16-17; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:21

will serve . . The Greek word used here can mean “to serve” or “to render religious service.” Here it probably refers to offering worship as priests. - FSB

The Greek word for “serve” (latreuo) suggests priestly service in view of its other uses in this book (cf. Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 20:6). “His” and “Him” present God and the Lamb as essentially one being. - Constable

Verse 4

The saints belong to God and have a friendship with him, wearing his name. Intimate "friendship" with God will belong to him.

see His face . . Matthew 5:8; (Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27) Luke 21:31; John 3:3; To "see" God in this sense is to "know" Him, by keeping His Word.

John 17:3; Galatians 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:8; Titus 1:16; 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:2; 1 John 4:8

The upright will see the face of God, cf. Psalms 11:7; Psalms 16:11; Psalms 17:15; Psalms 140:13; Matthew 5:8). The redeemed are in the presence of God and Christ in the church, Matthew 18:20; Hebrews 13:5;

This previously resulted in death (e.g., Exodus 33:20; compare Isaiah 6:5). Now, it is described as a life-giving blessing for God’s people. - FSB

His name -- on their foreheads . . Acts 11:26; John 20:31; Acts 4:12; 1 Peter 4:16; Acts 26:28; Symbolic of belonging to God, as a servant/slave.

May allude to the plate on the high priest’s forehead (Exodus 28:36-38; compare Revelation 3:12 and note; Revelation 14:1). - FSB

To see the face of God meant to bask under the smile of his approval. It therefore denotes [a life living in ] the favor of God. The receiving of his name in their foreheads--and his name shall be in their foreheads --was the mark of submission and subservience to Christ the Lamb - Wallace

Verse 5

no night there . . (cf. Revelation 21:23-25; Zechariah 14:7).

there . . Read, any more. See Revelation 21:25. - CBSC

need no lamp . . God has provided all the light himself in the scriptures, and there is no need for any other light. Ephesians 1:3; 2 Timothy 3:16-17; Judges 1:3;

the Lord God give them light . . Read, shall give light upon them. Here end the visions. - CBSC

Christ is that light, and He lights the way for men to live in the presence of God John 8:12; John 9:5; John 12:35; John 12:46; Acts 26:23; 2 Corinthians 4:6; Colossians 1:12; 1 John 1:7; 1 John 2:8;

they shall reign forever and ever . . Unlike the age where the Law given by Moses reigned, the Lord’s kingdom established at Pentecost will continue without being supplanted. (cf. Daniel 2:44; Daniel 7:14; Isaiah 9:7; Luke 1:33; 2 Peter 1:11; Revelation 11:15)

The rituals and ceremonies of the Law of Moses ended with the destruction of the temple, and the prophecy of Christ (Matt 24, Mark 13; Luke 20-21) is vindicated. The sign par excellence that the Messiah sent by God came and they rejected him, and He is now in heaven on the throne at the right hand of the Father. (Mark 16:19; 1 Peter 3:22; Luke 1:32; Acts 2:30; Hebrews 1:8; Hebrews 12:2; ).

Verse 6

Here is reaffirmed what is said in the beginning of the book-- that these things must shortly take place. And (Revelation 22:7) that He comes quickly to perform the judgment prophesied in this book.

vs. 6-21 - The Apocalyptic Epilogue **

And he said to me . . Who speaks? the angel of Revelation 21:9, or “He that sitteth upon the throne,” as in Revelation 21:5-8, or Christ as in Revelation 22:16? Probably, an angel speaks in the name of Christ: and this leads St John to fancy, as once before, that the angel is himself a divine person. - CBSC

These words faithful and true . . This phrase is used to describe (1) Jesus (cf. Revelation 1:5; Revelation 3:7, Revelation 3:14; Revelation 19:11); (2) Jesus’ followers (cf. Revelation 17:14); and (3) God’s word (cf. Revelation 19:9; Revelation 21:5; Revelation 22:6). Often God is described as “righteous and true” (cf. Revelation 15:3; Revelation 16:7; Revelation 19:2). The Hebrew behind this phrase implies total trustworthiness. - Utley

the Lord God of the holy prophets . . An authentication of John’s message and visions. God Himself inspires His prophets’ spirits or inspires them to prophesy. - FSB

of the holy prophets . . Read, of the spirits of the prophets: for the phrase, cf. 1 Corinthians 14:32. - CBSC

The original Greek texts did not have capitalization. Often the translators or interpreters must decide whether “spirit” refers to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit. This text refers to the human spirit (cf. 1 Corinthians 14:32; Hebrews 12:9). - Utley

The Lord God, who inspires his prophets . . [NLT] Or The Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets. - NLTSB

sent His angel to show His servants . . An allusion back to Revelation 1:1. See there the note about this "angel."

to show His servants . . The members of the 7 churches of Asia Minor who received this letter (Revelation 1:11).

These closing verses are very similar in their motifs to chapter 1. The traditional personal letter format used in chapter 1 is used again in chapter 22. - Utley

things which must shortly take place . . The revelation concerns "things which must shortly come to pass" (Revelation 1:1); and the things it talks about "were at hand" (Revelation 1:3).

The time element is emphasized at the beginning of the book, and lest the reader has forgotten during the course of the book, it is emphasized again at the end of the book, as well as several reminders along the way, i.e. 6:10 "a little season," or "a little while." (Revelation 1:1; Revelation 1:3; Revelation 22:6; Revelation 22:10).

Any interpretation of Revelation that ignores these vital points is a wrong interpretation.

Things which must shortly be done . . Reaffirmation of what was said in Revelation 1:1-3. See also Revelation 22:10 Revelation 22:12 .

Verse 7

Behold . . Look, notice this! καὶ ἰδοὺ ; And behold. Either spoken by Christ Himself, or in the name of Christ (by the angel in Revelation 22:8).

I am coming quickly . . The Lord Himself says that He is coming soon, quickly, to do the things revealed in this letter to the seven churches of Asia. See Revelation 22:6 note; and Revelation 1:1; Revelation 1:3; note. cf. Revelation 3:11; Revelation 22:12; Revelation 22:20;

quickly (G5035) . . ταχύ, soon, quick, without delay,

Jesus’ coming to accomplish what is prophesied here is imminent.

His coming in judgment upon "Babylon" (the "harlot") was to be soon when this was written. Remember that God judges nations, now in this life-time, but as individuals we will stand before Him at the final Day of Judgment.

Blessed is he who keeps the words . . A blessing specifically upon those of the seven churches of Asia who do this, but also upon all who keep (obey, follow) the words of the Lord.

This is the sixth of seven beatitudes in the book. (cf. Revelation 1:3; Revelation 14:13; Revelation 16:15; Revelation 19:9; Revelation 20:6; Revelation 22:7, Revelation 22:14).

words of the prophecy of this book . . This book is a prophecy and must be interpreted in the light of prophetic literature (cf. Revelation 1:3; Revelation 10:11; Revelation 22:9-10, Revelation 22:18-19; ).

Verse 8

I John, saw and heard . . "When he claims that “I John am he who heard and saw these things” (v. 8), he is using a common ancient witness formula emphasizing the reliability of the eyes and ears in gathering direct personal knowledge." - Harper’s Bible Commentary.

John resumes speaking for the first time since chap. 1 and confirms the veracity of the revelation with his own eyewitness testimony—the basis of any reliable witness. - MSB

I fell down to worship . . John may have thought the angel was deity. It may be that John is overwhelmed by Jesus’ statement that He is coming quickly!

Some think this "falling" at the angel’s feet may be be the same occasion as that related in Revelation 19:10.

before the feet of the angel . . Is this the angel of Revelation 1:1 "messenger"?

Verse 9

do not do that . . Humans are not to worship angels. Angels are fellow servants of God. cf Hebrews 1:14.

of your brethren the prophets . . Was this angel "messenger" heavenly? or human? It seems to be saying that the "angel" is a fellow servant of John and his brethren the prophets, and to all who keep the words of this book. Not that he (the angel) is a prophet.

He says "I am one who speaks for God - not to be worshipped. One of these angels had shown John the identification of Babylon, Revelation 17:1.

thy brethren the prophets . . It has been recognised in Revelation 22:6-7, that St John is a prophet, and shares in the special blessedness given to prophets. But at the same time “they which keep the words of this book,” though not prophets, share that blessedness with them. St Matthew 10:41 implies the same, though the form of statement is somewhat different. - CBSC

those who keep the words . . The temptation for our culture today is not physical persecution, but “dry rot,” apathy, practical atheism, materialism, shallow Christianity with all benefits and no responsibility! - Utley

Worship God . . The angel instructs John (and all men) to worship God alone.

Verse 10

And he said . . Still, probably, the same angel. - CBSC

Do not seal the words . . When Daniel spoke of events some 470 years after his time, he was told to seal up his book. The events were too far into the future. John is not to seal his book "for the time is at hand." Daniel 12:4; Daniel 8:26; Revelation 10:4

It rather seems that the "unsealing of the book" in Revelation is the very book that was sealed by Daniel. Revelation 5:1-2; Daniel 12:2 - where the "end" is the end of the Jewish dispensation, the beginning of the new, the Messianic age.

John must not imitate Daniel, whose visions concerned events in a remote future (Daniel 12:4; Daniel 12:9). - ESVSB [Daniel 8:26]

These verses stand in contrast to the command given Daniel to seal up his book (Daniel 8:26; Daniel 12:4, Daniel 12:9-10). John’s message cannot be concealed because the contents of the vision are needed immediately by the churches. - EBC

Seal not . . Pointedly contrasted with Daniel 12:4, Daniel 12:9. - CBSC

Daniel was to seal his prophecy because it also spoke of the same "end" as John’s Revelation did, the end of the Temple era, and the beginning of the "kingdom" (the church) that began during the time of the 4th kingdom Daniel saw (the Roman Empire.) Daniel 2:44-45 . Hebrews 12:28; Colossians 1:13;

Daniel was to "seal" up his prophecy because it was about 500 years in the future (Daniel 8:26); John is not to seal it, because "the time is at hand." Daniel’s and John’s prophecy was now to come to pass quickly.

If John’s prophecy was about the fall of Rome, which was about 400 years into John’s future, would it seem the Lord would have told him to "seal" it up, as He told Daniel to seal his. John’s prophecy was to the people of his day, but Daniel’s prophecy was not to the people of his day, so he was to seal it up.

Do not seal up . . This is exactly opposite of Isaiah 8:16; Daniel 8:26 and Daniel 12:4, Daniel 12:9. The time of prophetic fulfillment has arrived. - Utley

John received instruction from the angel to leave his book open. He was not to close it because the fulfillment of the events predicted was near, and people needed to be aware of them (cf. 1:11). God had told Daniel to seal his prophecy, evidently because there was more prophecy to come (Dan. 8:26; 12:4, 9–10; cf. Rev. 10:4). As an artist covers his work when it is under construction until it is complete, so God covered His picture of the future until He finished it. - Constable

for the time is at hand . . The Lord Himself says that He is coming soon, quickly, to do the things revealed in this letter to the seven churches of Asia. See Revelation 22:6 note; and Revelation 1:1; Revelation 1:3; note. cf. Revelation 3:11; Revelation 22:12; Revelation 22:20;

Any interpretation of Revelation that ignores this verse is a wrong interpretation.

In fulfillment of Jesus’ words of Matthew 24:3, Matthew 24:6, Matthew 24:14 Which Paul says was done, Colossians 1:23-29, "and then will come the end" of the temple’s destruction as Jesus prophesied.

--what has been written must be communicated so that people will understand the seriousness of the message and that the time is near (see Revelation 1:1, Revelation 1:3; Revelation 22:6-7; cp. Daniel 12:4). - NLTSB

His instruction is exactly the reverse of that which is given to Daniel (Daniel 8:26) But the circumstances are different—indeed, they are reversed; as Milligan well says, “it was not a time” now “for sealing up, but for breaking seals”; the end was not, as in Daniel’s case (see Driver on Dan. l.c.), far off, but at hand, - Swete

for the time is at hand . . What was "at hand" and what the judgment in the book of Revelation is about, was God’s judgment upon Israel for their rejection of His Son. This was a national judgment that was consummated in AD 70 with the destruction of the old Jerusalem and the temple.

Therefore, this book, Revelation, was written sometime shortly before AD 70. All the internal evidence points to this. The single quote many modern scholars use to date the book into the 9th decade was either erroneously made or it has been misinterpreted. (see Wallace, who points out how it has been misinterpreted.)

Verse 11

He who is unjust . . The sense is generally understood to be, “The time is so short, that it is too late to change: for good or evil, you must go on as you are;” - CBSC

All four parts of v. 11 indicate with a tone of irony the fixity of state in which the good and the evil find themselves at a time when no further opportunity for repentance remains. The lesson is, ‘Change while there is time.’ Thomas, Revelation 8–22, p. 502. ( Constable)

he who is filthy . . The exhortations for unbelievers to continue to do wrong and to be vile may be ironic or may summon the faithful to respond positively to the prophetic word even if others do not. - NIVZSB

he who is righteous . . Vile people who refuse to accept God’s forgiveness will continue to be vile (see Revelation 16:9), yet John reminds the righteous to maintain their integrity. - NLTSB

he who is holy . .Far from being an encouragement to remain apathetic, it is evangelistic in spirit. It may also allude to the great ordeal John viewed as imminent. - EBC

In the imagination of the Seer the moment has been reached when the Master of the house has arisen and shut the door, and those that are without will knock in vain (Matthew 25:10, Luke 13:25) - Swete

This is the Book’s way of saying that God has waited and been patience a long time, but the time has come and God will not wait any longer - 2 Peter 3:9.

It was time for God’s judgment to come on Israel, and the Lord says He will come quickly!

let him do . . Picks up on the last phrase in Revelation 22:10. There is no more time to repent; the end has come. - FSB

Verse 12

Coming soon!

Behold . .

I come quickly . . Of course He Who “comes” is the Lord Jesus: - CBSC

I am coming quickly . . Again, imminence is the issue - MSB.

Jesus Christ repeated His promise to return soon (Revelation 22:7, cf. Revelation 1:3; Revelation 22:20). - Constable

(Some try to evade the plain clear message by trying to say it means his coming will be quickly when he comes.)

My reward is with Me . . Alludes to Yahweh’s promise to come as Savior and King in Isaiah 40:10; Isaiah 62:11. - NIVZSB

to give every man . . Better, to render to every man. The source of the expression is in Job 34:11; Psalms 42:11. In the N. T. this retribution is ascribed to God in Romans 2:6, to the Son in His own words in St Matthew 16:27. - CBSC

to give to every one according to his work . . This is a recurring theme throughout the Bible (cf. Galatians 6:7). - Utley

Only those works which survive God’s testing fire have eternal value and are worthy of reward (1 Corinthians 3:10-15; 1 Corinthians 4:1-5; 2 Corinthians 5:10). - MSB

We are indeed saved by the grace and power of God in Christ. Our works do not save us, but they do indicate the seriousness of our confession and provide a just basis for our ultimate reward or punishment. - NLTSB

Recompense” (Greek misthos, “wages, reward”) indicates degrees of reward for believers and punishment for unbelievers (cf. Luke 12:47-48; and 1 Corinthians 3:14-15). - ESVSB

Verse 13

I am the Alpha and the Omega . . This is an allusion to the OT title for YHWH found in Revelation 1:8 and Revelation 21:6, but here it refers to Christ. The fluidity of these OT titles for deity was one way NT authors affirmed the deity of Christ. Verse 13 has three such titles or phrases describing the eternal God. - Utley

Alpha and the Omega . . These are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. An alphabet is an ingenious way to store and communicate knowledge. The 26 letters in the English alphabet, arranged in almost endless combinations, can hold and convey all knowledge. Christ is the supreme, sovereign alphabet; there is nothing outside His knowledge, so as there are no unknown factors that can sabotage His second coming. (cf. Colossians 2:3). - MSB

See note on Revelation 1:8.

the beginning &c. . . The true order seems to be the first and the last, the beginning and the end. - CBSC

the Beginning . . Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6

the First and the Last . . Revelation 1:11; Revelation 1:17;

Jesus Christ offered three titles for Himself that give assurance that He can and will fulfill His former promise to reward (cf. Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:8, Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8; Revelation 21:6). Jesus Christ, as well as God the Father, is the Alpha and Omega (cf. Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6). This title stresses His eternality and sovereignty. “The first and the last” is also a title for Christ (Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8) and the Father (Isaiah 44:6; Isaiah 48:12). It emphasizes that God is the cause and goal of history. “The beginning and the end” describes God in Revelation 21:6 and Christ in Hebrews 12:2. It means that He finishes what He starts. ( Hughes, p. 238. - Constable)

Verse 14

Blessed . .The seventh and final beatitude ( Revelation 1:3; Revelation 14:13; Revelation 16:15; Revelation 19:9; Revelation 20:6; Revelation 22:7, Revelation 11:14), reminiscent of Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount (Matt 5:3–11).

Blessed are those who do His commandments . . A beatitude disclosing that those who keep God’s commandments are the only ones who can enter the city and eat of the tree of life. (cf. beatitude in Revelation 22:7)

who wash their robes . . . Most English translations read “wash their robes,” following a few early Greek uncial manuscripts; some English translations, such as the kjv and nkjv, read “do his commandments,” following the Greek majority manuscripts. The two expressions sound similar in Greek.

who wash their robes . . Symbolizing those who have been forgiven of their sins - who have been cleansed by the blood of the Lamb of God (Hebrews 9:14; 1 Peter 1:18-19). - MSB

that they may have the right to the tree of life . . Adam and Eve failed in keeping God’s commandment, if we do we regain the right to the tree of life.

and may enter through the gates . . Here are two metaphors for salvation, one goes back to Gen 1-3, the second to Revelation 21:10-12

Verse 15

But outside . . Outside the "gates of the city" Revelation 22:14 b.

But outside are dogs . . An term for male prostitutes.

Considered despicable creatures in NT times, the term when applied to people referred to anyone of low moral character. Unfaithful leaders (Isaiah 56:10) and homosexual prostitutes (Deuteronomy 23:18) are among those who received such a designation. - MSB

In Deuteronomy 23:18 this term refers to male prostitutes of the Canaanite fertility cult. In other parts of the Old and New Testaments it refers to wicked people (cf. Psalms 22:16, Psalms 22:20; Matthew 7:6; and Philippians 3:2). - Utley

See Romans 1:27 note on GAYS (Homosexuals, Sodomites) and Lesbians In The Bible

dogs &c. . . The articles should be expressed, “the dogs, and the sorcerers (see on Revelation 9:21, Revelation 21:8), and the fornicators, and the murderers and the idolaters, and everyone that loveth &c.”

and sorcerers . . (G5333) Those using drugs and occult practices.

φαρμακός, pharmakós; gen. pharmakoú, masc. noun. A magician, sorcerer, enchanter (Revelation 21:8 [UBS]; Revelation 22:15; Sept.: Exodus 7:11; Exodus 9:11; Deuteronomy 18:10; Daniel 2:2). The same as pharmakeús (G5332). The noun pharmakeía (G5331) means the preparing and giving of medicine, and in the NT, sorcery, enchantment.

and sexually immoral . . Fornicators, (KJ whoremongers) (G4205) όρνος, pornos; Thayer Definition: 1) a man who prostitutes his body to another’s lust for hire; 2) a male prostitute; 3) a man who indulges in unlawful sexual intercourse, a fornicator; Part of Speech: noun masculine - Thayer

and murderers . . (G5406) φονεύς, phoneús; gen. phonéōs, masc. noun from phoneúō (G5407), to kill. A murderer (Matthew 22:7; Acts 3:14; Acts 7:52; Acts 28:4; 1 Peter 4:15; Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:15).

and idolaters . . (G1496) "an image servant, or worsipper" literally or figuratively, an idolater.

whoever loves and practices a lie . . ( maketh, doeth, practices same verb as in 1 John 1:6) To do the truth is to obey it, to do falsehood is is to claim one thing but which is belied by his life. (see CBSC)

The point is that such wicked people will not be inhabitants of the New Jerusalem.

Verse 16

I, Jesus . . Here only does our Lord reveal His Name, though from Revelation 1:13, Revelation 1:18 onwards, it has been obvious that He is the revealer; as was expressed in the title, Revelation 1:1. Whether He is personally present, however, is doubtful: the words are His, but it is probably still the angel that speaks them. - CBSC

The combination “I Jesus” occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. Here Jesus used it to stress His role in producing this book and so to strengthen its authority (cf. Revelation 22:7, Revelation 22:12). - Constable

Sent My angel to testify to you . . . See Revelation 1:1; The principle angel that Jesus sent to testify "these things" to the seven churches of Asia who were the originial recipients of the book (Revelation 1:11).

Often the sender is God the Father (cf. Revelation 22:6, “His angel”). Here the sender is Jesus (“My angel”). The phrase is also found in Revelation 1:1, but the pronoun antecedent is ambiguous. - Utley

to you . . Notice that the term “you” is PLURAL and the allusion to the seven churches of chapters 2–3 is made very specific. The book begins and concludes with the genre of letter, while the visions in between are a combination of prophecy (the end viewed through the lens of the present) and apocalyptic (imaginative imagery). - Utley

these things in the churches . . . "These things" seems to refer to the main body of the book (letter) that is being sent to the seven churches. It may include the whole book, or all but the closing of the book where Jesus Himself speaks.

Root and Offspring of David . . A reference to the prophecy in Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10. See Revelation 5:5. - FSB

He bears the former title in Revelation 5:5, where see note. The latter is substantially the same as the familiar one, “the Son of David.” - CBSC

There are many allusions to the Davidic line of the Messiah in the OT (cf. 2 Samuel 7:12-16 and Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10) and in the NT (cf. Matthew 1:1; Matthew 9:17; Matthew 15:22; Matthew 1:1; Romans 1:3; 2 Timothy 2:8 Revelation 5:5). Jesus is the fulfillment of all OT prophecies. - Utley

Jesus validates the message (John 21:24) of the Revelation by swearing that he is simultaneously the source of David (see Revelation 5:5; Isaiah 11:10) and David’s heir (see Ezekiel 37:23-24; Romans 1:3). - NLTSB

Jesus is both David’s “son” and his Lord, the source of his royalty (Revelation 5:5; Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10; Mark 12:35-37). - ESVSB

Historically, Jesus is that Christ, the offspring of David, the expected Messiah, and this event (Jerusalem’s fall) is the guarantee of that truth (Matthew 1:1; cf. Isaiah 11:11; Revelation 5:5)

the Bright and Morning star . . Both “and”s should be omitted. There may be a reference to Numbers 24:17, or to the title of “the Day-spring,” St Luke 1:78, and perhaps Zechariah 3:8, Zechariah 6:12. - CBSC

the Bright and Morning Star . . This was apparently a Messianic title from Numbers 24:17; See also Matthew 2:2; and 2 Peter 1:19. Satan may have tried to steal the title in the play on Isaiah 14:12, but Jesus is the true Bright Morning Star.

The question is this a refeence to "the morning star" Venus, or to the "Sun" which is truly the "Day Star" that shine most brightly on us and lights our way?

Likely dependent on a messianic interpretation of Numbers 24:17. - FSB

Just as John gave his signature, and guarantee in Revelation 22:8; so here Jesus attests and guarantees the truth John has seen and heard. 1) Mediated by angels 2) unto the churches.

Verse 17

The Spirit . . The Holy Spirit joined with the bride, the church, in extending an invitation to all who heed. Those who hear are encouraged to respond and also to extend the invitation to others.

Swete believe that the "Spirit" here "in accordance with the general use of the Apocalypse, the Spirit of prophecy, the Spirit in the prophetic order; ‘the Spirit and the Bride’ is thus practically equivalent to ‘the Prophets and the Saints’ (Revelation 16:6, Revelation 18:24). - Swete

and the bride . . the Lord’s church, the New Jerusalem, Revelation 19:6-9; Revelation 21:9; Ephesians 5:25-32.

the bride . . The Lamb’s wife (see Revelation 21:9) is the church, the people of God. - NLTSB

say, "Come!" . . An invitation to all (especially in that seven churches) who need to repent to live to God’s glory.

...this must be a gospel invitation to everyone who senses a need and will respond to God’s offer in Christ. - Utley

Notice the three appearance of "come" in this one verse. All refer to the lost, an invitation. cf. Matthew 11:28-29.

There are some who believe this is not an evangelistic appeal but the yearning of the Holy Spirit and the "bride" (the church) for Christ’s return to accomplish the prophecy of the book. In Revelation 22:20 John gives us the Lord Jesus’ answer, "Yes, I am coming soon." (See EBCNT)

let him who hears . . "The one who hears" is everyone who hears this book read in the seven churches of Asia, as was common in John’s day. But we believe we can also apply this to all "hearers" who are thirsty for the knowledge of the Truth.’

let him who thirsts come . . Using the metaphor of Isaiah 55:1-2; Matthew 5:6;

The thirsty can drink freely from God’s provision (see Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1; Psalms 42:1; Isaiah 55:1; John 4:10-14). - NLTSB

Whoever desires, let him take the water of life freely . . cf. Revelation 21:6; John is instructed to invite "whosoever will" to come and share in the blessings of this book.

freely . . i.e. “without money and without price:” see on Revelation 21:6. - CBSC

Verse 18

I testify . . Μαρτυρῶ ἐγὼ παντὶ τῷ; Is the "I" here the John of Revelation 1:4? or is it Jesus? "I" is the personal pronoun, here, emphatic "I". - WG

Is this John or Jesus speaking? It seems that sense Jesus can be identified as the speaker in Revelation 22:20 that Jesus’ dialogue begins here in vs. 18. - WG

The Speaker is still surely Jesus, and not, as many commentators have supposed, St John. Jesus has borne testimony throughout the Book by His angel, and now He bears it in person. - Swete

Jesus offers extended testimony on the authority and finality of the prophecy. He commissioned John to write it, but He was its author. - MSB

I solemnly declare . . NLT John issues an oath to protect the integrity of the book of Revelation. He declares a curse upon anyone who alters the contents of the book or its message (cp. Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32). - ESVSB

I testify to everyone . . A warning is giving against tampering with anything in this book.

See 2 3:16 note for the "Authority of the Bible"

to everyone . . Refers to the seven churches to whom this apocalypse is circulated. - FSB

if anyone adds to them . . Or alters them (see Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32). John, as God’s prophet, speaks on behalf of God. His message is true, authoritative, and final. - FSB [cf. Proverbs 30:6; Jeremiah 26:2]

God will add to him the plagues . .

The curse, if understood in the latter sense, has been remarkably ineffective, for the common text of this book is more corrupt, and the true text oftener doubtful, than in any other part of the N. T. - CBSC

This does not refer to believing interpreters or scribes who pray earnestly and seek God’s will, but according to Ireneaus in his Contra-Heresies, 30:12, it referred to false teachers who add, change, or delete the words of Scripture, which is the thrust of this passage. Remember that we cannot proof-text one verse to establish a doctrine which goes against other clear teachings of Scripture. - Utley

written in this book . . This refers to the message of Revelation (see Revelation 1:11) - FSB

Verse 19

And a warning is giving against tampering with anything in this book.

if anyone takes away . . Cf. Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32; Proverbs 30:6; Jeremiah 26:2. (see comments also on Revelation 22:18)

God shall take away . . Those who take away from John’s words will be judged (see Deut 4:2; 12:32). - FSB

the Book of Life . . Some MSS read "from the tree of life".

from the holy city . . The "holy city" is the church that Jesus died to save Ephesians 5:23; Ephesians 5:27; John 3:29; Revelation 21:2; Revelation 21:9;

the things which are written in this book . . The reference is to this book, Revelation, the letter written to the seven churches of Asia. While is is said and referred to here to Revelation, the principle of course applies to all of God’s Word. Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32; Proverbs 30:6; Jeremiah 26:2.

Verse 20

He . . This testimony or witness is from Jesus Christ, see Revelation 1:1 .

He who testifies to these things . . Since it seems clear that this is a reference to Jesus, it lends support to the identification of Jesus as the speaker in Revelation 22:18 as well.

Surely . . The word is that rendered Even so in Revelation 1:7, and in the next clause here, and which might be better rendered Yea. It should be omitted in the next clause, so that the whole will read, “He that testifieth these things saith, ‘Yea [in answer to the prayers of Revelation 22:17 ] I come quickly.’ Amen: come, Lord Jesus. - CBSC

"Surely I am coming quickly" . . Another affirmation that the Lord comes quickly (soon). John gives his sanction to the Lord’s promise to come quickly by saying "Amen."

Yes, I am coming quickly . . The third affirmation of this statement (see Revelation 22:7, Revelation 22:12). This threefold formula highlights the truth and certainty of Christ’s claim. - FSB

Amen . . "Yea", "even so", "so be it".

Even so, come Lord Jesus! . . See 1 Corinthians 16:22 "Maranatha" = "Lord Come" (Aramaic) and Philippians 4:5 "the Lord is at hand."

Come, Lord Jesus . . The Greek phrase used here is the equivalent to the Aramaic expression Marana tha (meaning “Our Lord, come!”; see 1 Corinthians 16:22). This became the cry of the early church as it began facing persecution. Its inclusion here suggests that John’s audience knew the phrase. (Cf. FSB)

Verse 21

The grace of our Lord . . Is this last verse added by John, or an angelic declaration? Probably by John, the correspondent of the letter to the churches.

How different the closing verse of the NT from that of the close of the OT (Malachi) ... "lest I come and smite the land with a curse.” (NASB)

the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all . . A typical benediction, especially in Paul’s letters (e.g., Romans 16:20; 1 Cor 16:23; Galatians 6:18). - FSB

be with you all . . We should read either only with all, or more probably with the saints. Many authorities omit “Amen” here, as after the benedictions ending many of St Paul’s Epistles. CBSC

This benediction is a prayer that all its hearers and readers may respond to the revelation of this book appropriately. It is an unusual way to end an apocalypse, but it was a common way to close a first-century Christian letter (cf. Revelation 1:1). - Constable

An ending of this kind is unusual in Apocalypses, as Bousset points out; but it is suitable to an Apocalypse which is also a letter to the Churches (Revelation 1:4, note), designed to be read in the congregation. - Swete

Amen . . αμην Amen. G281 amēn

Thayer Definition: 1) firm; 1a) metaphorically faithful; 2) verily, amen; 2a) at the beginning of a discourse - surely, truly, of a truth; 2b) at the end - so it is, so be it, may it be fulfilled.

It was a custom, which passed over from the synagogues to the Christian assemblies, that when he who had read or discoursed, had offered up solemn prayer to God, the others responded Amen, and thus made the substance of what was uttered their own.

Practical themes for us:

1. Heaven knows and cares about our struggles

2. Be Faithful til the endἀμήν

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Barfield, Kenny; The Things That Were, The Things That Are, The Things That Will Be; Lambert, 2018

CBSC = Cambridge Bible for School and Colleges

Constable = Tom Constable’s Expository Notes on the Bible

Coffman, James Burton; Commentary on Revelation

DL = Dan Jenkins’s Class in Revelation, BBSD.

DM = Don McWhorter - Fayette Class, MSS and Tapes

EBSNT = The Expository Bible Commentary on the New Testament

ESVSB = The English Standard Version Study Bible

FC = Franklin Camp - Adamsville Class in Revelation, also on CD

FSB = Faithlife Study Bible

Gentry, Kenneth; Before Jerusalem Fell

Gentry, Kenneth; The Beast of Revelation

Hendriksen, William; More Than Conquerors

Josephus; War of the Jews

MSB = The MacArthur Study Bible

McClish, Dub Studies in the Revelation

NIVZSB = Zondervan’s NIV Study Bible

NLTSB = The New Living Translation Study Bible

Ogden, Arthur M.; The Avenging of the Apostles and Prophets

RR = Richard Rogers - Sunset SOP, tapes

Shaff, Philip; History of the Christian Church

Strauss, James D.; The Seer, the Savior, and The Saved

Swete, Henry Barclay; Commentary on Revelation

Wallace, Foy E.; Commentary on the Book of Revelation

Utley = Bob Utley’s commentaries

Plus many other books and articles.

See WG charts on premillennialism.

APPENDIX: A One Lesson Overview of Revelation (Hand Out)

REVELATION (Background Study)

Four Vital Things to Remember ***

1. It is a Revelation; Revelation 1:1

The Apocalypse (apokalupsis) "The Revelation" = "an uncovering, or unveiling." The word is used about a dozen times in the NT and related words about another 30 times.

a. The Revelation is an uncovering or unveiling of impending events.

b. The book, by the very definition of its title, is something that is being make known. Many people think the book cannot be understood, but if it is a revelation, that means it is something that is now being made known. The language is primarily drawn from the Old Testament.

2. It is a revelation to seven churches in Asia, Revelation 1:11; Revelation 1:4

John was to write what is revealed to these seven churches.

The book of Revelation is a book of warning.

a. It warns five of the seven churches of Asia to repent or else.

b. It warns those who had the mark of the beast, (Revelation 14:9-11); and warns all the wicked of the earth (Revelation 21:8).

3. A revelation in "signs."

Verse Revelation 1:1 "signified" thus these things are not "literal" but revealed in symbolic language. We should not expect the devil to look like a real dragon. Symbols stand for something, like a wedding ring stands for marriage. (Revelation symbols are political cartoons, like the donkey and elephant in our newspapers.)

a. The language is unlike any other in the New Testament. The message was signified ("sign-i-fied") to John. Its use of signs or symbolic language is drawn from the Old Testament. One must study the OT prophets and their language is he is to understand the NT book of Revelation.

b. "The book speaks not the language of Paul, but the Old Testament prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel."

c. "The Book of Revelation is the most thoroughly Jewish in its language and imagery of any New Testament book."

d. Further identification with the OT is the fact that the book shows God’s vengeance upon those who killed the prophets (Revelation 16:6; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:10).

4. A revelation of things "which must shortly happen."

Revelation 1:1 "things which must shortly come to pass."

Revelation 1:3 "for the time is at hand."

Revelation 22:6 "the things which must shortly be done"

Revelation 22:10 "for the time is at hand."

The time element is emphasized at the beginning of the book, and lest the reader has forgotten during the course of the book, it is emphasized again at the end of the book, as well as several reminders along the way, i.e., Revelation 6:10 "a little season," or "a little while."

Any interpretation of Revelation that ignores

these vital points is a wrong interpretation.

Unique Features of the Book

1. Four books about Christ; one about the spread of Christianity; twenty-one teach how to live, and one is prophecy of impending events.

2. The book reveals the crowning of those who overcome, and it is itself the crown of all revelation. An encouragement to those suffering persecution.

3. There are 404 verses in Revelation and 278 reference to O.T. passages.

What Revelation Is About:

Revelation is NOT about the "last days" before Christ’s second coming, but about the "last days" of Judaism, and the fall of the nation and the destruction of their capital city Jerusalem, the temple, and the Jewish hierarchal system.

It is a parallel to the subject the Lord dealt with in Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21. It concerns the vengeance and judgment of God upon the Jewish nation for their rejection of the Son of God and their persecution of Him and the church

Notice especially:

Matthew 23:34-36 . . . . . . . . Revelation 6:9-10; Revelation 16:6

Luke 21:20-22 . . . . . . . . . Revelation 18:20-24

Luke 11:47-51 . . . . . . . . . . . Revelation 16:6

Luke 18:7, Luke 13:33 . -- . . Revelation 18:24; Revelation 17:6

Luke 13:33; Acts 7:51-52 . . Revelation 11:8

Author: We understand the Apostle John to be the author of the last book in the New Testament (Revelation 1:1, Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:9; Revelation 21:2; Revelation 22:8). He is "a brother, and a companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ" (Revelation 1:9).

Evidence from within the book indicate that it was written by the same author as that of the Gospel and Epistles which bear John’s name. From the nature of the book no other John can measure up to what is demanded by the essence of the book.

Date: The book of Revelation is unique in that the date of its composition affects the interpretation placed upon its message. There are two general views, called "The Early Date"@. AD 64-68) and "The Late Date" @. AD 96).

Some think the book was written about AD 96 during the reign of Domitian (AD 81-96) and that he had banished John to Patmos. The tradition for this however is unreliable and there is no internal support. Those who take the Late Date hold to various views of its interpretation, generally the fall of Rome.

For those who understand the book is dealing with the destruction of the Temple, Jerusalem, and Judaism, a date before AD 70 is essential, and therefore a date from the time of about AD 65-68 seems valid.

Reasons for Holding to the Early Date:

1. The parallel between passages in the Gospel and in Revelation that deal with the destruction of Jerusalem would call for a date before the destruction of the city which occurred in AD 70.

2. Allusions to other apostles still alive besides John at the time of the writing. This would not be true if written about AD 96.

3. The state of Israel and the temple still existed at the time of the writing. These were destroyed in AD 70 and thus the necessity for a date prior to this event.

4. The use of Hebrew phrases and idioms that would be appropriate before the destruction of the nation, but came into disuse after AD 70.

5. The fact that a Jewish persecution of Christians in Asian cities existed at the time of the writing give strong evidence that the Revelation was written before AD 70. There was no Jewish persecution of foreign Christians following the destruction of the national order and Jerusalem and the temple.

6. In the most ancient version or translation made of the Bible into another language (The Peshitta in the second century into Aramaic) the superinscription says the letter was written by the Apostle John during the reign of Nero.

7. John expected to leave Patmos (in ch. 1) and go and preach among the churches to whom he addressed this letter. That could be expected of a man who was 60 years old, but it could hardly be expected of a man who was 96 years old.

8. One of the problems that John faced as he wrote these letters to the seven churches of Asia were those Judaizers who were attempting to turn Christians back to the Temple worship at Jerusalem. That would not have been true after the destruction of the Temple which brought an end to institutional Judaism in AD 70.

9. The Temple of Herod was still standing, and John makes reference to the temple, when he writes this book, that would not have been true if this were written at a later date.

10. The twelve tribes still existed as the twelve tribes when John wrote this letter. That was not true after AD 70.

11. John says that the visions occurred in the reign of the sixth Roman Emperor. That within itself nails down the date without any doubt. Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caliguia, Claudius, and Nero. Nero reigned from AD 54 to 68.

12. The code name in chapter 13, the mystical number of 666 is a clear reference to Nero, the then reigning ruler over the empire.

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Jesus’ Prophecy of the Destruction of the City and Nation

Why did Jesus prophesy so much about the destruction of the Jewish temple, city, and the nation? When this fulfillment came within their own generation (a 40 yr period) it would verify his identity.

Sign of Jesus in Heaven - Sign = "token, indication". (Vine)

The fulfillment of Matt. 24 was a "sign" to the Jews that Jesus, the true Messiah of God, had come into the world, and had been rejected, and was now in heaven, as the NT apostles and prophets taught. (Important see the KJV or ASV Matthew 24:30 which have the exact reading and word-order as in the Greek.

The NIV and NASV give an interpretation (from the 3rd century) and completely miss the significance of this verse. This KEY verse informs us of the prophetic value of the Destruction of Jerusalem.

It was a SIGN to the Jews who rejected Jesus that He is indeed the Messiah and was resurrected and has ascended to heaven as the apostles preached.)

This Generation -- Complete listing of New Testament usage:

Matthew 11:16, Matthew 12:41, Matthew 12:43, Matthew 12:45; Matthew 23:36;

Mark 8:12, Mark 8:38; Luke 11:30, Luke 11:32, 32, Luke 11:50-51, Luke 17:25; Acts 2:40

Shortly ... (ἐν τάχει ) occurs 8 times: Luke 18:8; Acts 12:7; Acts 25:4; Acts 22:18; Romans 16:20; 1 Timothy 3:14; Revelation 1:1; Revelation 22:16)

At Hand ... NT it occurs 21 times: Matthew 4:17; (see Mark 9:1) 2 Timothy 4:6, etc.

The Last Days

Joel and many other OT prophets spoke of “the last days” and things that would happen in those days. Many erroneously take the phrase to refer to the last days before Jesus’ second coming and the final end and judgment of the world.

But Joel and the prophets were speaking of the “Last Days” of the Mosaic dispensation, and the last days of the physical nation of Israel and Law of Moses as a covenant with God. The Law ended with the cross, and the rituals, the temple sacrifices, genealogical records, and the nations ended in AD 70.

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The Last Days (plural)-- The Last Time, Last Days of Judaism

Acts 2:16-17 "But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel; And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of by spirit..."

Hebrews 1:2 "God...Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son..."

1 John 2:18 "Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time."

1 Peter 1:20 Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you

Acts 3:24 "Yea, and all the prophets...foretold of these days."

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The End -- The End Times (End of the Nation of Israel)

Hebrews 9:26 "...but now once in the end of the world (age) hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself."

1 Corinthians 10:11 "...and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come."

1 Peter 4:7 "But the end of all things is at hand."

Matthew 24:3 "...and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and the end of the world (age)."

Matthew 24:6 "...Hear of wars and rumors...; but the end is not yet."

(Mark 13:7, Luke 21:9, "but the end is not immediately"

Matthew 24:13

Matthew 24:14 "And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world for a testimony unto all the nations; and then shall the end come." (see Colossians 1:6; Colossians 1:23)

Matthew 24:33 "So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it

(the end, Matthew 24:14) is near, even at the doors." (Romans 13:11)

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The Last Day (singular) – Second Coming, Final Judgment of All

John 6:39-40, John 6:44, John 6:54; John 11:24; John 12:48 (John 5:28-29) This is the Second Coming, the day of the Resurrection, and final judgment. See also

1 Thess 4:13 - 5:12; 1 Corinthians 15:23-24; John 14:3

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Identification of Revelation Symbols

The Dragon - (ch Revelation 12:9) is the Devil;

The Beast is Rome, and is identified by Daniel’s prophecy in Daniel 7:17-21; Daniel 2:32-40;

The ­Second Beast (the False Prophet) is the religious elements supporting the persecution against God’s people (Rev. 13);

Babylon (the Harlot) is Jerusalem and the Jewish system (See Revelation 11:8);

The Woman on the Moon (ch. 12) represents the righteous people on earth. (In the OT they are called “the remnant” in the NT it is the church.)

Bibliographical Information
Gann, Windell. "Commentary on Revelation 22". Gann's Commentary on the Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/gbc/revelation-22.html. 2021.
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