Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 8:12

The fourth angel sounded, and a third of the sun and a third of the moon and a third of the stars were struck, so that a third of them would be darkened and the day would not shine for a third of it, and the night in the same way.
New American Standard Version
    Jump to:
  1. Adam Clarke Commentary
  2. Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible
  3. Coffman Commentaries on the Bible
  4. John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible
  5. Geneva Study Bible
  6. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible
  7. William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament
  8. People's New Testament
  9. Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
  10. Wesley's Explanatory Notes
  11. Abbott's Illustrated New Testament
  12. Scofield's Reference Notes
  13. John Trapp Complete Commentary
  14. Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible
  15. Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament
  16. Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
  17. Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
  18. Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible
  19. Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture
  20. Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament
  21. Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary
  22. Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible
  23. Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable
  24. Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament
  25. Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments
  26. George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary
  27. A Study of the Prophetic Book of Holy Scriptures
  28. Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books
  29. E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
  30. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged
  31. Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers
  32. Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
  33. Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation
  34. E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament
  35. Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation
  36. Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
  37. Harold Norris' Commentary on the Book of Revelation
  38. Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms
  39. Whedon's Commentary on the Bible
  40. The Expositor's Greek Testament
  41. The Bible Study New Testament

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Angel (a Spirit);   Astronomy;   Darkness;   Eclipse;   Meteorology and Celestial Phenomena;   Moon;   Stars;   Sun;   Vision;   The Topic Concordance - Seals;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Stars, the;  
Dictionaries:
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Order;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Beast;   Number;   Plagues of Egypt;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Moon;   Numbers;   Suffering;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Cherubim;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Angel;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Star;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Moon;   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The third part of the sun - moon - stars, was smitten - Supposed to mean Rome, with her senates, consuls, etc., eclipsed by Odoacer, king of the Heruli, and Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, in the fifth century. But all this is uncertain.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-8.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And the fourth angel sounded - See the notes at Revelation 8:6-7.

And the third part of the sea was smitten - On the phrase the third part, see the notes on Revelation 8:7. The darkening of the heavenly luminaries is everywhere an emblem of any great calamity - as if the light of the sun, moon, and stars should be put out. See the notes on Revelation 6:12-13. There is no certain evidence that this refers to rulers, as many have supposed, or to anything that would particularly affect the government as such. The meaning is, that calamity would come as if darkness should spread over the sun, the moon, and the stars, leaving the world in gloom. What is the precise nature of the calamity is not indicated by the language, but anything that would diffuse gloom and disaster would accord with the fair meaning of the symbol. There are a few circumstances, however, in regard to this symbol which may aid us in determining its application:

(1) It would follow in the series of calamities that were to occur.

(2) it would be separated in some important sense - of time, place, or degree - from those which were to follow, for there is a pause here Revelation 8:13, and the angel proclaims that more terrible woes are to succeed this series.

(3) like the preceding, it is to affect “one third part” of the world; that is, it is to be a calamity as if a third part of the sun, the moon, and the stars were suddenly smitten and darkened.

(4) it is not to be total. It is not as if the sun, the moon, and the stars were entirely blotted out, for there was still some remaining light; that is, there was a continuance of the existing state of things - as if these heavenly bodies should still give an obscure and partial light.

(5) perhaps it is also intended by the symbol that there would be light again. The world was not to go into a state of total and permanent night. For a third part of the day, and a third part of the night, this darkness reigned; but does not this imply that there would be light again - that the obscurity would pass away, and that the sun, and moon, and stars would shine again? That is, is it not implied that there would still be prosperity in some future period? Now, in regard to the application of this, if the explanation of the preceding symbols is correct, there can be little difficulty. If the previous symbols referred to Alaric, to Genseric, and to Attila, there can be no difficulty in applying this to Odoacer, and to his reign - a reign in which, in fact, the Roman dominion in the West came to an end, and passed into the hands of this barbarian. Anyone has only to open the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, to see that this is the next event that should be symbolized if the design were to represent the downfall of the empire.

These four great barbarian leaders succeed each other in order, and under the last, Odoacer, the barbarian dominion was established; for it is here that the existence of the Roman power, as such, ended. The Western empire terminated, according to Mr. Gibbon (ii. p. 380), about 476 or 479 a.d. Odoacer was “King of Italy” from 476 a.d. to 490 a.d. (Gibbon, ii. 379). The Eastern empire still lingered, but calamity, like blotting out the sun, and moon, and stars, had come over that part of the world which for so many centuries had constituted the seat of power and dominion. Odoacer was the son of Edecon, a barbarian, who was in the service of Attila, and who left two sons - Onulf and Odoacer. The former directed his steps to Constantinople; Oloacer “led a wandering life among the barbarians of Noricum, with a mind and fortune suited to the most desperate adventures; and when he had fixed his choice, he piously visited the cell of Severinus, the popular saint of the country, to solicit his approbation and blessing. The lowness of the door would not admit the lofty stature of Odoacer; he was obliged to stoop; but in that humble attitude the saint could discern the symptoms of his future greatness; and addressing him in a prophetic tone, ‹Pursue,‘ said he, ‹your design; proceed to Italy; you will soon cast away this coarse garment of skins; and your wealth will be adequate to the liberality of your mind.‘ The barbarian, whose daring spirit accepted and ratified this prediction, was admitted into the service of the Western empire, and soon obtained an honorable rank in the guards.

His manners were gradually polished, his military skill improved; and the confederates of Italy would not have elected him for their general unless the exploits of Odoacer had established a high opinion of his courage and capacity. Their military acclamations saluted him with the title of king; but he abstained during his whole reign from the use of the purple and the diadem, lest he should offend those princes whose subjects, by their accidental mixture, had formed the victorious army which time and policy might insensibly unite into a great nation” (Gibbon, ii. 379,380). In another place Mr. Gibbon says: “Odoacer was the first barbarian who reigned in Italy, over a people who had once asserted their superiority above the rest of mankind. The disgrace of the Romans still excites our respectful compassion, and we fondly sympathize with the imaginary grief and indignation of their degenerate posterity. But the calamities of Italy had gradually subdued the proud consciousness of freedom and glory. In the age of Roman virtue the provinces were subject to the arms, and the citizens to the laws, of the republic; until those laws were subverted by civil discord, and both the city and the provinces became the servile property of a tyrant. The forms of the constitution which alleviated or disguised their abject slavery were abolished by time and violence; the Italians alternately lamented the presence or the absence of the sovereigns whom they detested or despised; and the succession of five centuries inflicted the various evils of military license, capricious despotism, and elaborate oppression.

During the same period the barbarians had emerged from obscurity and contempt, and the warriors of Germany and Scythia were introduced into the provinces, as the servants, the allies, and at length the masters of the Romans, whom they insulted or protected,” ii. 381,382. Of the effect of the reign of Odoacer Mr. Gibbon remarks: “In the division and decline of the empire the tributary harvests of Egypt and Africa were withdrawn; the numbers of the inhabitants continually decreased with the means of subsistence; and the country was exhausted by the irretrievable losses of war, famine, and pestilence. Ambrose has deplored the ruin of a populous district, which had been once adorned with the flourishing cities of Bologna, Modena, Rhegium, and Placentia. Pope Gelasius was a subject of Odoacer; and he affirms, with strong exaggeration, that in Aemilia, Tuscany, and the adjacent provinces the human species was almost extirpated. One-third of those ample estates, to which the ruin of Italy is originally imputed, was extorted for the use of the conquerors,” ii. 383.

Yet the light was not wholly extinct. It was “a third part” of it which was put out; and it was still true that some of the forms of the ancient constitution were observed - that the light still lingered before it wholly passed away. In the language of another, “The authority of the Roman name had not yet entirely ceased. The senate of Rome continued to assemble as usual. The consuls were appointed yearly, one by the Eastern emperor, one by Italy and Rome. Odoacer himself governed Italy under a title - that of Patrician - conferred on him by the Eastern emperor. There was still a certain, though often faint, recognition of the supreme imperial authority. The moon and the stars might seem still to shine in the West, with a dim reflected light. In the course of the events, however, which rapidly followed in the next half-century, these too were extinguished. After above a century and a half of calamities unexampled almost, as Dr. Robertson most truly represents it, in the history of nations, the statement of Jerome - a statement couched under the very Apocalyptic figure of the text, but prematurely pronounced on the first taking of Rome by Alaric - might be considered at length accomplished: ‹Clarissimum terrarum lumen extincturn est ‘ - ‹The world‘s glorious sun has been extinguished;‘ or, as the modern poet Byron (Childe Harold, canto iv.) has expressed it, still under the Apocalyptic imagery:

‹She saw her glories star by star expire, ‹

Till not even one star remained to glimmer in the vacant and dark night” (Elliott, i. 360,361).

I have thus endeavored to explain the meaning of the four first trumpets under the opening of the seventh seal, embracing the successive severe blows struck on the empire by Alaric, Genseric, Attila, and Odoacer, until the empire fell, to rise no more. I cannot better conclude this part of the exposition than in the words of Mr. Gibbon, in his reflections on the fall of the empire. “I have now accomplished,” says he, “the laborious narrative of the decline and fall of the Roman empire, from the fortunate age of Trajan and the Antonines to its total extinction in the West, about five centuries after the Christian era. At that unhappy period the Saxons fiercely struggled with the natives for the possession of Britain; Gaul and Spain were divided between the powerful monarchies of the Franks and the Visigoths, and the dependent kingdoms of the Suevi and the Burgundians; Africa was exposed to the cruel persecution of the Vandals, and the savage insults of the Moors; Rome and Italy, as far as the banks of the Danube, were afflicted by an army of barbarian mercenaries, whose lawless tyranny was succeeded by the reign of Theodoric the Ostrogoth. All the subjects of the empire, who, by the use of the Latin language, more particularly deserved the name and privileges of Romans, were oppressed by the disgrace and calamities of foreign conquest; and the victorious nations of Germany established a new system of manners and government in the western countries of Europe. The majesty of Rome was faintly represented by the princes of Constantinople, the feeble and imaginary successors of Augustus” (vol. ii. pp. 440,441). “The splendid days of Augustus and Trajan were eclipsed by a cloud of ignorance (a fine illustration of the language ‹the third part of the sun was smitten, and the day shone not, and the night likewise‘); and the barbarians subverted the laws and palaces of Rome” (ibid. p. 446).

Thus ended the history of the Gothic period, and, as I suppose, the immediate symbolic representation of the affairs of the Western empire. An interval now occurs Revelation 8:13 in the sounding of the trumpets, and the scene is transferred, in the three remaining trumpets, to the Eastern parts of the empire. After that the attention is directed again to the West, to contemplate Rome under a new form, and exerting a new influence in the nations, under the papacy, but destined ultimately to pass away in its spiritual power, as its temporal power had yielded to the elements of internal decay in its bosom, and to the invasions of the northern hordes.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-8.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; that the third part of them should be darkened, and the day should not shine for the third part of it, and the night in like manner.

This is impossible of any literal understanding. If only a third part of the sun was stricken, it could not prevent the two thirds from shining all the time; so the judgment is against the things which are seen in the sky. This probably stands for heavenly intervention in the atmospheric area of man's environment. Lenski quoted someone's complaint that the apostle "either forgot or ignored the fact that he has already cleared the heavens of the stars (Revelation 6:13)!"[62] But that is only one of a thousand difficulties encountered by an interpretation that makes these various series of visions (seals, trumpets, and bowls) to be sequential, consecutive, or concerned with successive events. Each series is independent and parallel with reference to the others.

Third part ... This is repeated five times in this verse, emphasizing the limitation God has placed upon atmospheric disasters, the limitation being for man's benefit. The purpose of their being permitted at all, and even sent upon the earth, is benign and merciful, having the purpose or design of leading to man's repentance.

What kind of disasters are meant here? Such things as violent weather, radical changes of climate due to sunspots or shifting of the jet stream, and many other changes harmful to man are meant. But do not people know all about such things, claiming to predict the weather and nearly everything else? In a sense, maybe, this is true; but look at exactly this type of change which destroyed the Indian civilization in Frijoles Canyon, an event of quite recent historical times; and there are many other examples of environmental changes that have wrecked whole civilizations. As for man's being able to predict such things accurately, it is a vain delusion. Not even the daily weather predictions are in any sense accurate. The trumpet of God has been sounded above all such things, with the result that vast numbers of people are continually being hurt by them; "and the analogy with the other members of this fourfold series shows that that result is intended."[63]

Some commentators find the fulfillment of this vision in "particular periods of the Roman empire, or in some notable eclipse of the sun";[64] but we view such explanations as totally inadequate. "All evils that are due to the abnormal function of the heavenly bodies throughout this entire age are indicated."[65]

Lenski gave a spiritual interpretation of this, understanding the darkness as that "which took place in the Greek and Roman Catholic churches, and in many sects, and the folly of men generally."[66] We agree that such things are indeed darkness, but we believe all four of these first trumpets are related to natural judgments upon man's physical environment. As Roberson pointed out, "No time limit is set on these judgments."[67] They occur again and again repeatedly throughout history. Their aim is the reformation of mankind, not their destruction, a fact which is seen in the oft-repeated limitation, not upon the times of their recurrence, but upon the extent of their destructive power.

[62] R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 282.

[63] Isbon T. Beckwith, op. cit., p. 558.

[64] A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 235.

[65] William Hendriksen, op. cit., p. 144.

[66] R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 282.

[67] Charles H. Roberson, op. cit., p. 56.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-8.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the fourth angel sounded,.... His trumpet. Some think this refers to the Eutychian heresy, which confounded the two natures of Christ, and of two made one mixed nature, neither human nor divine; and brought great darkness upon the doctrine of Christ's person, the sun of righteousness and into the church, signified by the moon, and among the ministers of the word, the stars. Others are of opinion that that darkness which preceded the rise of the Papacy, and introduced it, is here intended:

and the third part of the sun was smitten and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars, so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise; when the doctrine concerning the person and offices of Christ, who is the sun and light of the world, was obscured by heresies; and the discipline of the church, which, like the moon, has all its light, beauty, and order from Christ, was sadly defaced by the introduction of Jewish and Paganish rites and ceremonies; and the ministers, the stars, were drawn by the tail of the drag on, and cast to the earth, became corrupt in their principles, and carnal and sensual in their lives; so that it was a time of great darkness and gloominess, night and day: but rather this trumpet has respect to that darkness and ignorance which the above barbarous nations, the Goths, Huns, Vandals, and Heruli, spread, and left throughout the empire; for from this time there was a visible decline, as of evangelical light and knowledge, so of all kind of useful knowledge, and nothing but ignorance, stupidity, and barbarity, took place everywhere; and which were very assisting to the man of sin, antichrist, to fix and settle his dominion over the kingdoms which rose up out of the empire at this time; and it also refers to the entire destruction of the western Roman empire, which is expressed by much the same figures as the ruin of the Roman Pagan empire, in Revelation 6:12; and which the various irruptions of these savage people issued in; compare with this Ezekiel 32:7, where the destruction of the Egyptian monarchy is signified in like terms: Jerom, who lived about the time of the first inundation of these nations, in very mournful language expresses the inhumanity and impiety of them, and the ruin they threatened the empire with; and, saysF23Epitaph. Nepotian. fol. 9. l. Tom. 1. vid. etiam Epist. ad Gerontiam, fol. 32. E. & Epitaph. Fabiolae, fol. 68. H. , "Romanus orbis ruit", "the Roman empire is falling". About the year 455, when Rome was taken by Genseric the Vandal, the empire was divided into ten kingdoms; and in the year 476, Augustulus, the last of the Roman emperors, was obliged to quit his imperial dignity: the Heruli, a people of the same kind with the Goths, and originally Scythians, as they, under their king and leader Odoacer seized on Italy, took Rome, killed Orestes and his brother Paul, and deposed Augustulus, the last of the Roman emperors, and banished him into Campania; and so the western empire ceased, Odoacer taking upon him the title of king of Italy, and translated the seat of the empire from Rome to RavennaF24Vid. Casssiodor. Chronicon in Zenon. 47. Hist. Eccl. Magdeburg. cent. 5. c. 16. p. 876. Petav. Rationar. Temp. par. 1. c. 18. p. 304. ; and then might the sun be truly said to be smitten: but still, though Odoacer the Herulian reigned in Italy, the Roman form of government was not altered, the consulship and senate still continued, as they did also under Theodoric the Goth, his successor; but when Italy was recovered by Narses, the Emperor Justinian's general, these, with other magistrates, ceased, and Rome became a dukedom, and was subject to an exarch of Ravenna; and then the moon and stars were smitten also. The phrase of smiting the sun, moon, and stars, is Jewish; for the Jews express the eclipses of the luminaries in this way, and sayF25Jarchi in Gen. 1. 14. that when the luminaries לוקין, "are smitten", it is an ill omen; when החמה לוקה, "the sun is smitten", it is an ill sign to the nations of the world; and when לבנה לוקה, "the moon is smitten", it is a bad omen to the nations of IsraelF26T. Bab. Succa, fol. 29. 1. Yalkut Simeoni, par. 2. fol. 62. 1. and so the phrase, "the day shone not", is also Jewish; it is saidF1Zohar in Deut. fol. 113. 3. of some Rabbins, that they sat and studied in the law עד דנהיר יומא, "until the day shone"; and when "the day shone", they rose up and went on their way.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-8.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

9 And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

(9) The fourth execution on the lights of heaven, which give light to this world.
Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-8.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

third part — not a total obscuration as in the sixth seal (Revelation 6:12, Revelation 6:13). This partial obscuration, therefore, comes between the prayers of the martyrs under the fifth seal, and the last overwhelming judgments on the ungodly under the sixth seal, at the eve of Christ‘s coming.

the night likewise — withdrew a third part of the light which the bright Eastern moon and stars ordinarily afford.

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-8.html. 1871-8.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

12. When the fourth angel sounds, the calamity reaches the sun, moon, and stars.

These diversified descriptions delineate the progressive character of the catastrophes destined to come upon the earth, destroying a third of the property and people, which is certainly a very large proportion. We see the calamity begins with the county and spreads out indiscriminately, infecting the social, political, and religious atmosphere. In all these prophecies, “sea” means the people. When tranquil, it emblematizes the people flourishing in prosperity and peace. When racked with storms and swept by cyclones, it typifies the people dashing hither and thither in bloody revolution The destruction of the ships symbolizes great and fearful havoc among the people. The rivers and fountains of water emblematize the subordinate departments of the government, while the sun represents the king, the moon the queen, and the stars the provincial governors. In the proclamation of the third trumpet, the star called “wormwood” falls on the earth, embitters and poisons the waters, and kills multitudes of people. The Greek word for wormwood is absinthe. It is well known in chemistry that absinthe is the poisonous element in intoxicants. Hence, this prophecy reveals Satan’s invention of whisky, which took place in the Dark Ages, and has flooded the world with crime and misery, and populated hell with countless millions.

The Roman Empire was the upholder of civil government. With her fall ancient civilization passed away, and a period of darkness in history, significantly denominated the Dark Ages, came on, flooding the world with anarchy, bloodshed, and every species of crime, while ignorance and superstition everywhere threw a dismal nightmare, obliterating every vestige of ancient civilization. During this awful period of desolation, robbery, murder, rapine, debauchery, and lawlessness, not one man in a thousand could read or write. This was Satan’s millennium, during which time he sat upon the throne of the world, and reigned without a rival.

The four first trumpets proclaim the sad inauguration of Satan’s millennium in progressive stages. Pursuant to the first trumpet, the infection comes upon the whole earth, contaminating the atmosphere of every nation annunciated by the second trumpet. The malady reaches the people, infecting all classes of society with an incorrigible revolutionary spirit, disrupting all the foundations of the social fabric. At the time the third angel sounds his trumpet, the infection has interpenetrated all the subordinate departments of national governments, so the proconsuls, satraps, and deputies can no longer enforce their authority. The fourth trumpet is the general signal for the toppling of thrones and the falling of kingdoms, till the world is left without a government competent to protect its citizens. Meanwhile, marauding bands of robbers and murderers take possession, and life and liberty are held only by the stern arbitrament of the sword.

The four first trumpets thus proclaim the progressive disintegration of all human governments, till they literally topple and fall; and the devil’s millennium, fully inaugurated, inundates the world in an ocean of anarchy, heresy, bloodshed, and every species of crime. Meanwhile, universal political corruption and dilapidation flood all nations. A corresponding infection everywhere settles down on the visible Church, transforming it from apostolic simplicity and purity first into the proud, worldly ecclesiasticism of the Constantinian Age, and then into the appalling corruptions, shocking barbarities, bloody persecutions, and atrocious criminality of the diabolical papacy, outraging Satan himself with the horrific Inquisition. When I was in St. Peter’s Church at Rome, I saw the bronze statue of St. Dominic, cruel horror depicted on his grim visage, and the infuriated dog standing by, with a firebrand in his mouth. This is the historic symbol of the Inquisition, of which St. Dominic was the author. And you see how the Catholic Church has canonized him as a paragon saint!

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Godbey, William. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/revelation-8.html.

People's New Testament

And the fourth angel sounded. Again the scene changes. Now it is the third part of the sun, and of the moon, and of the stars that is smitten, and darkness follows. The sun is a symbol of the supreme ruler, and the moon and stars of inferior dignities. If the Roman emperor, ruler of the world, should be cast from power, his empire overthrown, the consuls, senators, and great men who supported his power be cast to the dust, and a period of intellectual and moral darkness should follow, it would fully meet the symbolism.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Original work done by Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
Johnson, Barton W. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "People's New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pnt/revelation-8.html. 1891.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Was smitten (επληγηeplēgē). Second aorist passive indicative of πλησσωplēssō old verb (like πληγηplēgē plague), here only in N.T.

That should be darkened (ινα σκοτιστηιhina skotisthēi). Purpose clause with ιναhina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of σκοτιζωskotizō from σκοτοςskotos (darkness) as in Matthew 24:29, but σκοτοωskotoō in Revelation 9:2.

And the day should not shine (και η ημερα μη πανηιkai hē hēmera mē phanēi). Negative purpose clause with ινα μηhina mē and the first aorist active subjunctive of παινωphainō to shed light upon, as in Revelation 18:23, not the second aorist passive subjunctive πανηιphanēi with different accent. The eclipse here is only partial and is kin to the ninth Egyptian plague (Exodus 10:21).

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-8.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten — Or struck. After the emperor Theodosius died, and the empire was divided into the eastern and the western, the barbarous nations poured in as a flood. The Goths and Hunns in the years403,405 fell upon Italy itself with an impetuous force; and the former, in the year410, took Rome by storm, and plundered it without mercy. In the year452Attila treated the upper part of Italy in the same manner. In455 Valentinian the Third was killed, and Genseric invited from Afric. He plundered Rome for fourteen days together. Recimer plundered it again in472. During all these commotions, one province was lost after another, till, in the year476, Odoacer seized upon Rome, deposed the emperor, and put an end to the empire itself. An eclipse of the sun or moon is termed by the Hebrews, a stroke. Now, as such a darkness does not come all at once, but by degrees, so likewise did the darkness which fell on the Roman, particularly the western empire; for the stroke began long before Odoacer, namely, when the barbarians first conquered the capital city.

And the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so that the third part of them was darkened — As under the first, second, and third trumpets by "the earth," "sea, " and "rivers," are to be understood the men that inhabit them; so here by the sun, moon, and stars, may be understood the men that live under them, who are so overwhelmed with calamities in those days of darkness, that they can no longer enjoy the light of heaven: unless it may be thought to imply their being killed; so that the sun, moon, and stars shine to them no longer. The very same expression we find in Ezekiel 32:8. "I will darken all the lights of heaven over them." As then the fourth seal transcends the three preceding seals, so does the fourth trumpet the three preceding trumpets. For in this not the third part of the earth, or sea, or rivers only, but of all who are under the sun, are affected. And the day shone not for a third part thereof - That is, shone with only a third part of its usual brightness.

And the night likewise — The moon and stars having lost a third part of their lustre, either with regard to those who, being dead, saw them no longer, or those who saw them with no satisfaction. The three last trumpets have the time of their continuance fixed, and between each of them there is a remarkable pause: whereas between the four former there is no pause, nor is the time of their continuance mentioned; but all together these four seem to take up a little less than four hundred years.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-8.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

And the night likewise; that is, the nocturnal light, given by the moon and stars, as well as that of the day, was dimmed.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/revelation-8.html. 1878.

Scofield's Reference Notes

angel

(See Scofield "Hebrews 1:4").

Copyright Statement
These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.
Bibliographical Information
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 8:12". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-8.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

12 And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

Ver. 12. And the third part of the sun] The prelates and patriarchs.

And the third part of the moon] The inferior church officers.

And the third part of the stars] The community of Christians. All began to be spread over with gross ignorance, not only of heavenly truths, but of human sciences, which are here called the night in comparison of gospel light. Gregory the Great (thought to be that angel mentioned in the next verse), though better than any who succeeded him in the Popedom, calling himself the servant of God’s servants, and carrying himself modestly in the days of Mauritius the emperor, yet when Mauritius was slain by the traitor Phocas, how basely did he claw the traitor, and collogue with him; commending to his care the Church of Rome and often minding him of Peter’s primacy, and of that speech of our Saviour, "Thou art Peter," &c. for no other end but that he might enlarge his jurisdiction over all Churches, by the favour of that parricide?

And the day shone not] It was a gloomy and dismal day with the purer Church of Christ.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-8.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Revelation 8:12. The fourth angel sounded, &c.— At the sounding of the fourth trumpet, the third part of the sun, moon, and stars, that is, the great lights of the Roman empire, were eclipsed and darkened, and remained in darkness for some time. See Jeremiah 13:16 <swordsearcher://bible/Jer13.16>. Isaiah 13:10-11 <swordsearcher://bible/Isa13.10-11>. Ezekiel 32:7-8 <swordsearcher://bible/Eze32.7-8>. Genseric left the western empire in a weak and desperate condition. It struggled hard, and gasped as it were for breath, through eight short and turbulent reigns, for the space of twenty years, and at length expired under Momillus, in the year 476. This change was effected by Odoacer, king of the Heruli, who, coming to Rome with an army of barbarians, caused himself to be proclaimed king of Italy, and put an end to the very name of the Western empire. After a reign of sixteen years, he was overcome in the year 493, by Theodoric, who founded the kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy, which continued about sixty years. Thus was the Roman sun extinguished in the Western empire: but the other lesser luminaries, the moon and stars, still subsisted; for Rome was still allowed to have her senate, and consuls, and other subordinate magistrates, as before. These lights shone more faintly under barbarian kings, than under Roman emperors; but they were not totally suppressed and extinguished, till after the kingdom of the Ostrogoths was <sshoverclick:was> destroyed by the lieutenants of the emperor of the East, and Italy became a province to the Eastern empire. Longinus, in the year 566, by authority received from the emperor Justin II. changed the whole form of the government, and in every city of note constituted a new governor, under the title of duke. He himself presided over all; and, residing at Ravenna, was called "the Exarch of Ravenna," as his successors were also. Rome was thus degraded to the same level with other places; and, from being the queen of cities, and empress of the world, was reduced to a poor dukedom, and made tributary to Ravenna, which she had used to govern.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/revelation-8.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Observe here, 1. That by the sun, moon, and stars, in scripture prophecies, the potentates and powers of a state are understood: accordingly the darkening of the sun, moon, and stars, do understand the prevalency of ignorance and error in the church, occasioning a fearful eclipse of that saving and comfortable light which would illuminate our eyes, and direct our steps in the way that leads to eternal happiness.

Observe, 2. That in this and all the former judgments, the third part only is mentioned as smitten, which shows that the Lord corrects in measure, and delights more in mercy than in justice, and desires rather the conversion than confusion of sinners, by making the punishments of some instructive warnings unto others.

Observe, 3. God's way of dealing with his people in giving warning of future and severe judgments before they come, I heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth; thus God warneth of approaching judgments before they come, that sinners may repent, and his own people being forewarned, may be forearmed, ere the judgment come upon them: Praemoniti, praemuniti; Prsevisa jacula minus feriunt. Darts foreseen are dintless.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-8.html. 1700-1703.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 8:12. The fourth trumpet brings damage to sun, moon, and stars, whereof the third of all is darkened, and thus the light is withdrawn from a third of the day and of the night, ἐπλήγη. That a “preternatural striking” is to be thought of,(2492) which has as its consequence the intended darkening ( ἵνα σκοτ.), Wolf already mentions, in opposition to the leaning towards the rabbinical way, whereby the darkening itself of sun and moon is represented as a “smiting.”(2493) The miraculous eclipse is in itself, as already according to the O. T. representation,(2494) a foretoken of the coming day of judgment;(2495) the limitation of the same, however, to a third of the sun, moon, and stars, and consequently to a third of the day and night ruled over by them,(2496) corresponds to similar statements in the preceding trumpet-visions.

καὶ ἡ΄έρα ΄ὴ φάνῃ, viz., as the apposition τὸ τρίτον αὐτῆς more explicitly says, the third part of the day. And likewise the night. The words cannot mean that the light proceeding from the smitten stars has lost the third of its brilliancy, the reverse of Isaiah 30:26;(2497) still less does the expression bear the explanation of Ebrard, “that the third of the stars was smitten with respect to time, so that they were darkened only for a third of the day, contrasted with nighttime, while for the other two-thirds they are bright.” But the idea is this: Since a third of the sun is eclipsed, a third of the day (regarded in its temporal length) is deprived of its sunlight, and the night likewise of the shining of moon and stars. So De Wette, who judges likewise that here the sameness between the third of the stars and the third of day and night “is carried out even to what is unnatural.” The exception is correctly taken, and therefore expressed without impiety, because the present vision of John is to him as little as all the rest an absolutely objective incident, a likeness presented him by God as complete;(2498) of course, also, no real fiction,(2499) but a view communicated through the prophet’s own subjectivity.

The allegorical expositors find here(2500) the obscuration, confusion, and diminution of beneficial institutions, whether of a spiritual or a political kind. Beda proposes the disturbance of the Church by false brethren; N. de Lyra, the heresy of Eutyches. The injury done by Islam is understood by Stern, who mentions the fact, that instead of the full moon the Church has become a half moon ( ἐπλήγη

τὸ τρίτον τ. σελ.), and many stars have vanished, i.e., the sees of many bishops have been overthrown. Wetst.,(2501) Herder, etc., propose political confusion; so, too, Vitr., Beng., who, however, have in mind the incursions of the Goths and Vandals into the Eastern Empire, and Hengstenb., who very generally understands sad times full of the calamities of war. Böhmer combines the reference to Jewish temporal relations with his interpretation of sun and moon as applying to spiritual things, already employed on Revelation 6:12 : “That sun and moon and stars are smitten with darkness, we explain from the fact that sad prophecies have transpired, and the law has begun to be neglected. But the end of prophecy and the law has not, as yet, actually come, on which account only a third thereof is regarded as having been obscured.”

Concerning the visions coming with the first four trumpets, which are to be distinguished from the three immediately following (Revelation 8:13), it is to be remarked in general: 1. The plagues described in them, which concern the entire sphere of the visible world (the earth, Revelation 8:7; the sea, Revelation 8:8-9; the waters of the main land, Revelation 8:10-11; the stars, day and night, Revelation 8:12; cf. Beng., Ew., etc.), are perceptible not only to unbelievers, but also to believers.(2502) This necessarily lies in the very nature of the plagues; and the sealing correctly understood (Revelation 7:2 sqq.) in no way gives any other idea.(2503) 2. The allegorical explanation, and the reference founded thereon to events or circumstances of ecclesiastical or civil history,—of which Ebrard emphasizes the latter,(2504) has no foundation whatever in the text, and, therefore, leads necessarily to arbitrary suppositions. But the context, according to which the trumpet-visions proceed from the seventh seal, shows that this vision, in its eschatological significance, has reference to the end to be expected already after the sixth(2505) and in the seventh seal; viz., the actual coming of the Lord, in connection with which the plagues described by the first six seals are to be regarded as premonitory signs of the impending end of the same character as those described in the fundamental prophecy of Matthew 24:29. The same relation as subsists there between Matthew 8:29 and Matthew 8:6-7, recurs in the signs portrayed in the four trumpet-visions and those described in the seal-visions. It is true that the sixth seal already has introduced foretokens of the nature of Matthew 24:29, and this is developed in close connection until the description of the last end; but by the fact that in Revelation 7:1, between the sixth and seventh seals, the four angels come forth who are to bring a new plague, the final development is further postponed. And if now the final catastrophe actually proceeds from the seventh seal,—as is to be expected after Revelation 6:17,—yet this occurs only after a further development, which, as first of all in the first four trumpet-visions, brings with it new foretokens of the coming end. The introductory significance of this sign is expressed in the fact that only a third of the earth is concerned; thus a new course is designated after the points marked by the already strong signs of the sixth seal. Yet that a progress occurs, and that the trumpet-visions do not, in any way, again prevail before the sixth seal, the context indicates by the fact that the plagues befalling a third of the earth mark an advance when compared with the plagues of the fourth seal (Revelation 6:8).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-8.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 8:12. ἐπλήγη, was smitten) That was done in the fifth century, when Italy and Rome, the seat of empire, were occupied and obscured by foreign nations.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-8.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Interpreters (setting aside one or two, who conceit the Revelation is nothing but a repetition of things that happened in Judea before John’s time) generally agree, that the period of time to which this prophecy relates, is from the year 480, when the western empire ceased. The history of the age next following, both relating to civil and ecclesiastical things, doth so fit this prophecy, that interpreters are much divided about the sense of it, whether it be to be understood of the miseries befalling the Roman empire or the church in that time; for, as great princes in the former, so great lights in the latter, are metaphorically expressed in Scripture under the notions of the sun, moon, and stars, in regard of the great influence they have upon men, as those luminaries of heaven have upon the earth. Mr. Mede understands it of political magistrates, here expressed (as in Joseph’s dream) by the sun, moon, and stars: and to show us how the event fitted the prophecy, he tells us out of the best authors, that when Odoacer had routed Augustulus, and turned him out of the empire, himself ruled Rome under the title of a king sixteen years, and destroyed all their old magistracy, but after two years restored it. That Theodoricus, following him in the government of Italy, restored all their rights again, which so continued under three kings (all Goths) for near fifty years. But after the year 546, Rome was taken and burnt once and again, and a third part of it demolished by Totilas. Others understand it of Pelagius, or some famous heretic in that time. But to speak freely, the words of the prophecy, and the histories we have, rather agree to Mr. Mede’s sense; for (except Pelagius, who began about the year 406) we read of none in this age to whom the words of this prophecy will agree in any good sense.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-8.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

поражена была третья часть солнца Сверхъестественным образом Бог уменьшит интенсивность излучения этого небесного тела на одну треть. Недостаток солнечного тепла приведет к значительному снижению температуры, что повлечет за собой резкие изменения в метеорологических, растительных и биологических циклах (Лк. 21:25; ср. Исх. 10:21-23). Но это временно (ср. 16:8, 9).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-8.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Third part of the sun-moon-stars; for the darkening of the heavenly bodies as the symbol of the overthrow of nations, see above note to chap Revelation 6:12-14.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-8.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

The sounding of the fourth trumpet, brought forward a new series of calamities upon the empire, and which are figured to us under the images, of smiting the third part of the sun, and the moon, and the stars. It is well known, how much the Jews dwelt in figurative language. Indeed, it was the most general method made use of, by ancient nations, to convey instruction. Our Lord himself dwelt much in it, Matthew 13:34. By the darkening the luminaries of heaven, is very generally meant, lessening the powers, and reducing the glory, of princes and great men of the earth. At this period, which (if correct according to history,) took place about the middle of the sixth century, that is, about the year 540, the empire was brought low indeed. The Roman Emperors both when heathens, and afterwards when professing christianity, had, for many centuries shone as suns, among the lesser lights of the nobles, and as stars in the world. But now the Lord, in his providence, was about to cause a revolution of men and things, with an eye to his Church; and, therefore, as here said, the third part is darkened. And they who are conversant with history will know, that toward the close of this century, and before the rise of the false prophets, Mahomet and the Whore, at the opening of the succeeding; (who both sprung up nearly together, about the year of our Lord God 600;) the empire gave way to new masters.

But it will be much more to our purpose and improvement, to observe, under this fourth trumpet, the progress of error which sprung up to trouble the Church. We have noticed, as we have advanced, under the three preceding trumpets, (the first of which began after the empire was changed from heathenism to the profession of Christianity,) how much more the true Church of God suffered from false friends, than from the more open enemies. The faithful in Christ Jesus were always prepared, through grace, to oppose the open idolatries around them. But when professors of the Gospel arose in the very Church itself, speaking perverse things, and heresies, of various forms, sprung up among them, here were more bitter exercises. By means of the Arian heresy, in the denial of Christ's Godhead, and the counterpart of the same deadly evil, in calling in question the Person, Godhead, and work of the Holy Ghost, under the first and second trumpets; the peace and comfort of the Church had been broken in upon. And, if, (as is very generally believed,) the Pelagian heresy arose within the period of the third trumpet, denying original sin, and insisting upon man's purity and free-will to keep the whole law of God, whereby the necessity of Christ's death, as a sacrifice for sin, became, in such men's views, superseded, and the regeneration of the heart by the Holy Ghost done away; what a state was the Church of God arrived at by this time? Let not the Reader mistake me. The Church of God, that is the true Church of God: by which I mean composed only of regenerated believers, can ultimately receive no injury. The foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal; the Lord knoweth them that are his, 2 Timothy 2:19. But I am speaking of the professing church; the church, as established in the then Empire, as ours is in the present moment. The nation was then, as ours now is, Christian in name. And what an awful state was it arrived at under the fourth trumpet: if compared to the days of the Apostles, even though in their time the Empire was heathen?

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/revelation-8.html. 1828.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And the fourth angel sounded and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars, that the third part of them should be darkened, and the day should not shine for the third part of it, and the night in the same way.’

This directly connects with the description under the sixth seal previously commented on, which see. The language vividly portrays times of uncertainty and distress. Thus while it at first appears that it is the heavens that are affected it is really the earth. It is indicating repercussions on earth. This is confirmed by the fact that this is the fourth wind of earth. It blows on the earth. The descriptions of the heavenly bodies are as seen from earth.

The language is partially referring to similar events to the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, as it did in Jesus’ discourse (Mark 13:24-25; Matthew 24:29; Luke 21:25), when it would have seemed to the people as though the whole of life had become distorted, and smoke, fire, devastation and horror would affect the view of heavenly phenomena. It certainly there has in mind political and historical activity causing the distress of nations, for Luke emphasised this (Revelation 21:25). Equally certainly in John’s day nations suffered invasion and counter-invasion, with all their devastating consequences, which may have affected the people so. The deliberate burning of food producing land was a recognised policy with many armies and the rising smoke and flames as large areas of land were devastated would cause distortions in how natural phenomena were seen. It is describing a period when men are at their wit’s end and living in great fear, (not so unusual a phenomenon in history).

It has occurred through the ages. History is sadly strewn with activities of men that have made it seem to those affected as though the very heavens were being affected (it is apocalyptic language). It may deepen as time goes on. But once again we are reminded that it is part of the judgments of God on a sinful world, and a continual call to repent. The whole creation still groans and travails in pain waiting for the revealing of the sons of God (Romans 8:18-23).

It could also refer to periods when climactic conditions have combined with such events as are described above to cause such phenomena so that nature appears to have run amok. The idea is then of unnatural periods of light and darkness, as in the plague in Egypt. We can compare the darkness at the crucifixion (Mark 15:33). The description is exaggerated for effect and describes things as seen on earth. Political and military activity and signs in nature were all seen as one connected whole in those days, so that physical occurrences and heavenly phenomena were seen together. Once again the ‘third’ signifies large but contained effects. Total judgment is not yet here.

‘The third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars, that the third part of them should be darkened, and the day should not shine for the third part of it, and the night in the same way.’ Note how it is earth that is seen as affected, and the length of days and nights. There is to be darkening on earth, with the length of days and nights being seen as altering. Such things can happen when there are large natural catastrophes. It may indicate the light of sun and moon being diminished as seen from parts of the earth (e.g. by smoke and ashes and cloud).

Proclamation Of The Three Woes.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-8.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The fourth trumpet8:12

This time the trumpet blast announced judgment on a third of the heavenly bodies. Darkness is a common symbol of judgment in the Old Testament, and the day of the Lord was to be a time of darkness ( Amos 5:18; cf. Isaiah 13:10; Joel 2:2; Mark 13:24). The darkening of the heavenly bodies predicted in this verse also serves to warn of more judgment to come. Evidently God will cut off light from the sun, moon, and stars from the earth by one-third (cf. Exodus 10:21-23). The text seems to imply that God will reduce the intensity of light from these sources by one-third (cf. Matthew 27:45). Perhaps a partial eclipse or pollution in the atmosphere is in view. Such a reduction in light, and consequently temperature, would have a devastating effect on the earth. A non-literal interpretation views the darkness as spiritual darkness.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-8.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 8:12. In this verse we have the contents of the fourth trumpet, which touches the sun, the moon, and the stars. Yet it must not be supposed that, because these heavenly bodies are now introduced, we are taken beyond the condition of men in the present world. Sun, moon, and stars are thought of only in their relation to earth and its life and comfort, so that when they are affected it also suffers. The idea of the judgment rests upon the Egyptian plague of darkness. Any attempt to connect particular objects upon earth with the heavenly bodies mentioned in the judgment is vain. As we have already seen under the previous trumpets, the objects judged are simply parts of the world in which men dwell, and it may be noticed that they are substantially taken up and gathered together as a whole when, in chap. Revelation 14:7, the Almighty is described as He ‘that made the heaven and the earth and sea and fountains of waters.’ It may be further worth while to remark that the sun and moon and stars are by no means so seriously affected here as they were under the sixth seal (chap. Revelation 6:12-13). There ‘the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the whole moon became as blood; and the stars of the heaven fell unto the earth.’ Now only a third part of their light is taken away. The whole series of the trumpets is more intense in judgment than that of the seals, but not to such a degree that the judgment of the fourth trumpet may not be lighter than that of the sixth seal. At the same time we are not to infer that the first four trumpets necessarily precede the sixth seal, except in thought.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-8.html. 1879-90.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Revelation 8:12. And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, &c. — A fit representation to express the last desolation of the imperial city, which God’s righteous judgment doomed, as Babylon heretofore, to a loss of all power and of all authority. Darkening, smiting, or the setting of the sun, moon, and stars, says Sir I. Newton, are put for the setting of a kingdom, or the desolation thereof, proportional to the darkness. And when darkness is opposed to light, as light is a symbol of joy and safety, so darkness is a symbol of misery and adversity; according to the style of Jeremiah 13:16, Give glory to the Lord before he cause darkness, and before your feet stumble upon the dark mountains, &c. The darkness of the sun, moon, and stars, is likewise observed to denote a general deficiency in government, as the prophets describe a day of severe judgment. See Isaiah 13:10-11; Ezekiel 32:7-8. In pointing out the accomplishment of this prophecy, and showing how the great lights of the Roman empire were eclipsed and darkened, and remained in darkness, Bishop Newton observes, Genseric left the western empire in a weak and desperate condition. It struggled hard, and gasped, as it were, for breath, through eight short and turbulent reigns, for the space of twenty years, and at length expired in the year 476, under Momyllus, or Augustulus, as he was named in derision, being a diminutive Augustus. This change was effected by Odoacer, king of the Heruli, who, coming to Rome with an army of barbarians, stripped Momyllus of the imperial robes, put an end to the very name of the western empire, and caused himself to be proclaimed king of Italy. His kingdom indeed was of no long duration: for after a reign of sixteen years, he was overcome and slain in the year 493 by Theodoric, who founded the kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy, which continued about sixty years under his successors. Thus was the Roman sun extinguished in the western emperor, but the other lesser luminaries, the moon and stars, still subsisted; for Rome was still allowed to have her senate and consuls, and other subordinate magistrates, as before. These lights, we may suppose, shone more faintly under barbarian kings than under Roman emperors; but they were not totally suppressed and extinguished till after the kingdom of the Ostrogoths was destroyed by the emperor of the east’s lieutenants, and Italy was made a province of the eastern empire. Longinus was sent in the year 556 by the Emperor Justin II. to govern Italy with absolute authority; and he changed the whole form of the government, abolished the senate and consuls, and all the former magistrates in Rome and Italy, and in every city of note constituted a new governor with the title of duke. He himself presided over all; and, residing at Ravenna, and not at Rome, he was called the exarch of Ravenna, as were also his successors in the same office. Rome was degraded to the same level with other places, and, from being the queen of cities and empress of the world, was reduced to a poor dukedom, and made tributary to Ravenna, which she had used to govern.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/revelation-8.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

The third part of the sun was smitten. This may signify a third part of men killed in those wars, or (according to the opinion that refers all to antichrist's time) that in those days the sun and moon shall not give above a third part of their light. (Witham) --- Here we behold a noble figure of the Church, which whilst in its most flourishing state, like the sun, is suddenly obscured, and a third part extinguished by the heresy and schism of the Greeks, under Photius, which began in 866, and infected all orders of Christians, clergy and laity, princes and individuals, signified by the sun, moon, and stars. (Pastorini)

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-8.html. 1859.

A Study of the Prophetic Book of Holy Scriptures

FOURTH TRUMPET .

( SUN, Moon and Stars Smitten.)

Revelation 8:12.

"And the "FOURTH ANGEL" sounded, and the third part of the SUN was smitten, and the third part of the MOON, and the third part of the STARS so as the third part of them was DARKENED, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise."

What happens under the sounding of this "Trumpet" is so similar to what happened under the "Sixth Seal" that it is not necessary to further dwell on it here. These are some of the "Signs" spoken of by Christ, in Luke"s Gospel, that shall precede His Second Coming. There shall be signs in the SUN, and in the MOON, and in the STARS, and upon the earth distress of nations, with PERPLEXITY." Luke 21:25-28.

THE ANGEL WARNING .

("Three Woes" Announced.)

Revelation 8:13.

"And I beheld, and heard an ANGEL (R. V. Eagle) flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, WOE, WOE, WOE, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the Trumpet of the THREE ANGELS, which are yet to sound."

The Revised Version, and many Manuscripts substitute "Eagle" for ANGEL, but that does not affect the meaning, for if God could make Balaam"s "ass" to speak, He can use an "Eagle" to announce a message.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Larkin, Clarence. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". A Study of the Prophetic Book of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/clr/revelation-8.html.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

Our environment is greatly effected by the sun, moon and stars, as one can see by observing radical changes occurring during an eclipse or sunspots. Men now know the moon has a direct relation to tides. Disasters in nature can thus be viewed as warnings from God. They are limited, as previously in the trumpets.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-8.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

sun, moon, stars. The Lord Himself foretold these signs. See Matthew 24:29. Mark 13:24. Luke 21:25, and compare Isaiah 5:30. Jeremiah 4:28. Ezekiel 32:7, Ezekiel 32:8. Joel 2:10, Joel 2:30, Joel 2:31; Joel 3:15. Amos 5:20; Amos 8:9. Zephaniah 1:14-16.

so as = in order that. Greek. hina.

was = should be.

shone not = should not shine (App-106.)

not. App-105.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-8.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

Third part - not total obscuration, as in the sixth seal (Revelation 6:12-13). This, therefore, comes between the prayers of the martyrs under the fifth seal, and the last overwhelming judgments on the ungodly under the sixth, just before Christ's coming.

The night likewise - withdrew a third of the light which the bright Eastern moon and stars ordinarily afford.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-8.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(12) And the fourth angel . . .—Translate, And the fourth angel sounded, and there was smitten the third part of the sun, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; that the third part of them might be darkened, and the day might not appear as to its third part, and the night in like manner. The dimness which thus falls on the lights of heaven carries us back to the plague of darkness (Exodus 10:21-23); but yet there is this difference: there the children of Israel had light in their dwellings while all the rest of the land suffered the darkness that might be felt; here, however, the darkness is only such as results from the withdrawal of the third part of the light of the sun by day, and of the moon and the stars (so much more brilliant and needful in Eastern lands than in our own) by night. It is a day of the Lord in which the light is not clear nor dark—not day nor night (Zechariah 14:6-7). There will be periods in which the lights which guide men will give forth uncertain glimmers; upon the earth there will be distress of nations, men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth, for the powers of heaven shall be shaken (Luke 21:25-26). Such times of darkness and sorrow must be. It is through seasons such as these, when the lights of human wisdom and of spiritual guidance seem alike obscured, that the Church must go forward. The chaos precedes creation, and it is through chaos again that the Church of Christ must pass to the new heaven and new earth. These trumpet-visions, if read by the side of the story of Genesis, seem like the undoing of creation: the vegetation is smitten, the earth and sea are intermingled, the lights of the heavens are darkened, the living things in seas and streams are destroyed; but

“Fresher life the world shall draw

From their decay.”

The pulling down must precede the building up; the removing of the degenerate is one step in the way to the regeneration.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-8.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.
and the third part of the sun
16:8,9; Isaiah 13:10; 24:23; Jeremiah 4:23; Ezekiel 32:7,8; Joel 2:10,31; Amos 8:9; Matthew 24:29; 27:45; Mark 13:24; 15:33; Luke 21:25; 23:44,45; Acts 2:20
and the day
Exodus 10:21-23; 2 Corinthians 4:4; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-12
Reciprocal: Genesis 1:14 - and let;  Joshua 10:13 - So the sun;  Isaiah 34:4 - all the;  Revelation 8:7 - the third;  Revelation 8:9 - the third part of the creatures;  Revelation 9:1 - the fifth;  Revelation 9:2 - and the sun;  Revelation 9:15 - for to;  Revelation 11:15 - the seventh

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-8.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

FOURTH TRUMPET.

Revelation 8:12. — "And the fourth angel sounded (his) trumpet: and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so that the third part of them should be darkened, and that the day should not appear (for) the third part of it, and the night the same." The sun, moon, and stars collectively symbolize the whole governing body, from the supreme head down to all lesser authorities — a complete system of government in all its parts. Under the sixth Seal (Revelation 6:12-13) the same symbols are presented to express an utter collapse of all governing authority on earth. The might of man is broken. Every power under Heaven is overthrown. Long established governments, and all dependent power and authority fall in the universal crash. There, however, the disruption of the whole social fabric, and the overthrow of every seat of power, is in no wise restricted. The only limitation under the Seals is a "fourth part," which occurs but once (Revelation 6:8). Here under the fourth Trumpet the judgment and its effects extend to the "third part" of the prophetic scene, the western part of the revived empire. In this connection the term "third part" occurs five times (v. 12). The effect of this judgment is that moral darkness, like a funeral pall, settles down upon the empire.

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition available at BibleSupport.com. Public Domain.
Bibliographical Information
Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-8.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Third part is commented upon at verse9. This angel gave a sound that resulted in throwing all the luminaries out of order, pitching the country into a state of semi-darkness. It was another shake-up among the leaders of the empire.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-8.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 8:12

Revelation 8:12 And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

By this

fourth angel

we may understand Gergorius a man of greatlearning who opposed John Bishop of Constantiople; that took the name of universal bishop, (Gegor. Lib4, Epist32,34,36,38, ad Johnnem Constant Lib7, Epist30, also Cent. Magd. Cent6 cap). And other faithful ministers, who opposed innovations in worship, and unsound doctrines at that time. By the sun, moon, and stars, in the heaven of the visible church on earth, we are to understand all sorts of spiritual light, which God hath ordained and set in the church; that Isaiah, the Holy Scripture of truth. { Psalm 119:105; Psalm 119:130} The able ministers of the New Testament. { Matthew 5:14} A third part of these were smitten, so that a third part them was darkened.

And the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

That Isaiah, the gospel light of the Holy Scripture of truth, was darkened by corrupt doctrines and glosses. This mystical eclipse of sun, moon, and stars, did so darken the day, that it,

shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-8.html.

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

The Fourth Trumpet- In the sounding of the fourth trumpet God uses what appears to be the heavenly to judge mankind.

Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.
Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/revelation-8.html. 2013.

Harold Norris' Commentary on the Book of Revelation

4. THE FOURTH TRUMPET--verse12--Affects the SUN, MOON AND STARS.

Isaiah refers to the darkening of light as troubled times when men are mixed and confused in mind and unable to see the difference between good and evil. This fourth trumpet judgment is drawn from Exodus 10:21-23 in the plague of darkness.

I understand the symbolism of this fourth trumpet as the darkening of the minds, and understandings, and moral discernment of mankind as being a direct result of man"s own sinfulness, pride and perversity. Modern man seems unable to have light by which to make sane judgments.

The point needs to be made in the fourth trumpet judgment of the darkening of sun, moon and stars that it is man"s own sin which brings this inevitable judgment. These judgments are not the arbitrary acts of God. They are man reaping what he himself has sown. Yet still God acts in mercy to limit to one third the destruction man has brought upon himself.

When we read these four trumpet judgments of Revelation chapter8 it is like reading the UNDOING of creation.

These trumpet judgments are not at some future time in history. These judgments are going on NOW.

The message of these four trumpets recognizes that these judgments are only what man"s own sin has made inevitable. Yet God limits the destruction to one third in His mercy. Such is the philosophy of life which is part of the Christian message.

The last three trumpets are worse still, and each is called "A WOE."

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

The Fourth Trumpet

Revelation 8:12. And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars, so that their third part was darkened, and the day did not appear for the third part of it, and the night in like manner. On the shining of the lights of heaven as a symbol of the grace of God and of salvation, and on their darkening as a symbol of troublous and distressing times, see on ch. Revelation 6:12. The more exact meaning is determined here by the connection. Before and after the subject discoursed of are the sore tribulations of war, and with these the whole group is occupied. So here we can only think of the alarming and distressing times of war. The fifth seal in like manner receives from the context its more precise meaning Bengel: "If great persons think that such affairs may be committed to them, they shall still find that the judgments of the Almighty are thereby executed and his words fulfilled. Come and behold the works of the Lord, what desolations he has wrought upon the earth. All such things must be considered thus, as they belong to the vast administration of God throughout every region and place of the world. They are no mere news, but they happen under the trumpets of the holy angels, for the glory of the Almighty, through whose righteous judgment it has ever and anon been effected, that the world in its opposition to his kingdom has never been able to succeed. God has always controlled matters so, that space should be obtained at the proper time for his kingdom."

The being smitten of God is the cause, the darkening is the effect. That a third part of the sun, moon, and stars is smitten, denotes long periods of time, during which distressing times should alternate with better ones. In the seventh trumpet the sun, moon, and stars are wholly smitten. Here a third part as it were each time covers the watches, or interferes with the function of shining. Two bright sections are followed by a dark one. The very circumstance that this is not applicable to natural things, shews, that we are placed here upon the territory of the symbolical, in which the glittering splendour of the sun, moon, and stars represents a prosperous and happy state, and the darkening of these trouble and distress. By pressing too closely, the rule of the natural sun, etc., commentators have been led into difficulties and constrained significations. Thus, according to Bengel and Zllig. not the third part of the length of the day and of the night must be meant, but the third part of the degree of brightness, which the day and the night have more or less. This exposition cannot stand with the words. The taking away of a third part of the brightness were considerably too small, and would not comport with the heavy tribulations before and after. In the prototype also of the Egyptian plague, Exodus 10:21-23, which is the more nearly related to the passage before us, as in it the external darkness was but an image of the night of distress, which rested upon Egypt, there were three days of total darkness.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-8.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

FOURTH TRUMPET—The smitten luminaries, Revelation 8:12.

12.Smitten—The wrath expressed by fire and burning in previous trumpets is expressed by a smite in this. This may arise from the fact that to darken luminaries by a fire is a contradictory conception.

Third part of the sun—It is the third part of the sun and of each star that is darkened, not the one third of the number of luminaries, nor the whole number one third of the time. Assuming a natural, healthful standard of the amount of light, the perpetual diminution of one third would produce a ghastly twilight, a chill, and a depression of spirits and health provocative of disease and death. Vivid picture of the sad effects of our loss of divine favour by apostasy and persistent sin.

Day’ third part of it—Not a third part of the time but of the degree of light.

Night likewise—This smite of the moon and stars darkens the dimness of night, as that of the sun the brightness of day.

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-8.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 8:12. “So as to darken a third part of them, and (i.e.) to prevent a third of the day from shining ( , or Win.) and of the night likewise”. Daylight is shortened by a third, and the brightness of an Eastern night correspondingly lessened (cf. the Egyptian plague of darkness). The writer either forgets or ignores the fact that he has already cleared the heaven of stars (Revelation 6:13).

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-8.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

12. Then the fourth angel blew his trumpet. The heavens themselves become tools to be used against the enemies of Christ’s church! All disasters which have their origin in space are included here.

 

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 8:12". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-8.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.