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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Titus 2:14

who gave Himself for us to redeem us from every lawless deed, and to purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds.

Adam Clarke Commentary

Who gave himself for us - Who gave his own life as a ransom price to redeem ours. This is evidently what is meant, as the words λυτρωσηται and λαον περιουσιον imply. The verb λυτροω signifies to redeem or ransom by paying a price, as I have often had occasion to observe; and περιουσιος signifies such a peculiar property as a man has in what he has purchased with his own money. Jesus gave his life for the world, and thus has purchased men unto himself; and, having purchased the slaves from their thraldom, he is represented as stripping them of their sordid vestments, cleansing and purifying them unto himself that they may become his own servants, and bringing them out of their dishonorable and oppressive servitude, in which they had no proper motive to diligence and could have no affection for the despot under whose authority they were employed. Thus redeemed, they now become his willing servants, and are zealous of good works - affectionately attached to that noble employment which is assigned to them by that Master whom it is an inexpressible honor to serve. This seems to be the allusion in the above verse.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/titus-2.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Who gave himself for us - See the notes at Ephesians 5:2.

That he might redeem us from all iniquity - The word here rendered “redeem” - λυτρόω lutroōoccurs only here and in Luke 24:21; 1 Peter 1:18. The noun, however - λύτρον lutronoccurs in Matthew 20:28; and Mark 10:45; where it is rendered “ransom;” see it explained in the notes at Matthew 20:28. It is here said that the object of his giving himself was to save his people from all iniquity; see this explained in the notes at Matthew 1:21.

And purify unto himself -

(1) Purify them, or make them holy. This is the first and leading object; see the notes at Hebrews 9:14

(2) “Unto himself;” that is, they are no longer to be regarded as their own, but as redeemed for his own service, and for the promotion of his glory; - Notes, 1 Corinthians 6:19-20.

A peculiar people - 1 Peter 2:9. The word here used ( περιούσιος periousios) occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. It means, properly, having abundance; and then one‘s own, what is special, or peculiar (Robinson, Lexicon), and here means that they were to be regarded as belonging to the Lord Jesus. It does not mean, as the word would seem to imply - and as is undoubtedly true - that they are to be a unique people in the sense that they are to be unlike others, or to have views and principles unique to themselves; but that they belong to the Saviour in contradistinction from belonging to themselves - “peculiar” or his own in the sense that a man‘s property is his own, and does not belong to others. This passage, therefore, should not be used to prove that Christians should be unlike others in their manner of living, but that they belong to Christ as his redeemed people. From that it may indeed be inferred that they should be unlike others, but that is not the direct teaching of the passage.

Zealous of good works - As the result of their redemption; that is, this is one object of their having been redeemed; Notes, Ephesians 2:10.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/titus-2.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a people for his own possession, zealous of good works.

Who gave himself for us ... As Zerr said, "This clearly shows that Christ is the particular one of the godhead meant in the preceding verse."[35] Here the great ransom for many is in view (Mark 10:45). We do not inquire concerning the one to whom the ransom was paid, nor as to why it was necessary, nor if it could have been done in some other way. All such questions lie beyond our ability either to ask or to solve. Sufficient is the knowledge that our Lord "paid it all" that we might live. Men did not take his life away from him, but he freely laid it down upon our behalf (John 10:17,18). No bitterness assailed him as he bore our sins on the tree; but "for the joy that was set before him, he endured the cross, despising the shame" (Hebrews 12:2).

From all iniquity ... The basic connection of salvation with the separation of the saved from the pursuit of iniquity is again apparent in this. Christ did not come to save men in their sins, but from their sins.

Purify unto himself a people... White accurately pointed out that Paul very likely has in mind here Ezekiel 37:23, thus:

I will save them out of their dwelling places wherein they have sinned, and will cleanse them: so they shall be my people, and I will be their God.

On the basis of this, White went on to affirm "that there is an allusion to holy baptism here, which is explicit in Titus 3:5."[36] It may not be denied that sinners are purified unto the Lord in their conversion and that thus they become the Lord's own possession.

[35] E. M. Zerr, op. cit., p. 204.

[36] Newport J. D. White, op. cit., p. 196.


Copyright Statement
James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/titus-2.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Who gave himself for us,.... Not another, or another's, but himself; not merely his own things, but his own self; not the world, and the riches of it, not gold and silver, and such like corruptible things, as the price of redemption; not the cattle on a thousand hills for sacrifice; not men nor angels, but himself; all that belong to him, all that is near and dear, his name, fame, credit, and reputation; his time, strength, and service: all the comforts of life, and life itself; his whole manhood, soul, and body, and that as in union with his divine person; which he gave into the hands of men, and of justice, and to death itself, to be a ransom price of his people, and for a propitiation and sacrifice for their sins, to be paid and offered in their room and stead: not for all mankind, but for many; for us, for all the elect of God, for the church; and who are represented when he gave himself, or died for them, as ungodly, sinners, and enemies: this was a free and voluntary gift, and is an unspeakable one; who can say all that is contained in this word "himself?" it is an instance of the greatest love, of love that passeth knowledge; God, because he could swear by no greater, swore by himself; and Christ, because he could give no greater gift, nor any greater instance of his love, gave himself, for the following ends and purposes:

that he might redeem us from all iniquity: sin brings into bondage and, slavery, redemption is a deliverance from it; sin binds guilt upon the sinner, and lays him under obligation to punishment, and renders him liable to the curse and condemnation of the law; Christ was made sin, and a curse for his people, that he might redeem them from both, and deliver them from the punishment due to sin; which he has done by bearing it in his own, body on the tree, whereby he has redeemed them from all iniquity, that so it shall not be their ruin, or they come into condemnation on account of it; even from original sin, and from all actual transgressions; from all which his blood cleanses, and his righteousness justifies, and which God, for his sake, freely and fully forgives. Christ was called to this work by his Father, to which he agreed; and the plan of redemption being drawn in the everlasting council, and the whole adjusted and fixed in the covenant of peace; promises and prophecies were given out of it, and in the fulness of time Christ was sent, and came to effect it; and he has obtained eternal redemption for us, through the price of his own blood, which could have never been wrought out by any creature; and wherein all the divine perfections are glorified and is a plenteous and complete one; it includes in it, or connects with it, the blessings of justification, peace, pardon, adoption, and eternal life. It follows as another end of Christ's giving himself, or what is a branch of redemption, or consequent upon it,

and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works; all mankind are filthy and unclean by nature, in all the powers and faculties of their souls; nor can they cleanse themselves from their impurity of flesh and spirit, by anything that they can do: Christ has a peculiar people among these, a church whom he loves, and for whom he has given himself, that he might sanctify and cleanse them from their sins; which he has done by shedding his blood for them, and washing them in it, which cleanses from all sin, and he has purified them unto himself, for his own use and service, for his pleasure and delight, and to his glory; that they might be a proper habitation for him now; and that they might be made ready for him, to have the marriage between, him and them consummated; and that they might be presented to himself a glorious church, without spot or wrinkle, and be with him, both in the new Jerusalem state, into which nothing that defiles, or is defiled, enters, and in heaven, to all eternity. Now these people, for whom Christ has given himself, and whom he has redeemed and purifies, are a "peculiar people"; for whom Christ has a peculiar love, in whom he takes a peculiar delight, and to whom he grants peculiar nearness to himself, and bestows peculiar blessings on them, and makes peculiar provisions for them, both for time and eternity; these are Christ's own, his possession, his substance, what he has a special right to by his Father's gift, his own purchase, and the conquest of his grace; and they are a distinct and separate people from all others, in election, redemption, effectual calling, and in Christ's intercession, and will be in the resurrection morn, at the day of judgment, and to all eternity; and they are, as the word also signifies, an excellent and valuable people; they are Christ's portion and inheritance; they are his peculiar treasure, his jewels, whom, as such, he values and takes care of. The Syriac version renders it, "a new people". And they who are redeemed and purified by Christ, through the power of his grace upon them, become a people "zealous of good works"; not in order to their justification and salvation, but in obedience to the will of God, and to testify their subjection and gratitude to him, and for his honour and glory, and for the credit of religion, and the good of men, These not only perform them, but perform them from principles of truth and love, and with a zeal for the glory of God, and the honour of his Gospel; and with an holy emulation of one another, striving to go before, and excel each other in the performance of them.


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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/titus-2.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a f peculiar people, zealous of good works.

(f) As it were a thing peculiarly laid aside for himself.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/titus-2.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

gave himself — “The forcible ‹Himself, His whole self, the greatest gift ever given,‘ must not be overlooked.”

for usGreek, “in our behalf.”

redeem usdeliver us from bondage by paying the price of His precious blood. An appropriate image in addressing bond-servants (Titus 2:9, Titus 2:10):

from all iniquity — the essence of sin, namely, “transgression of the law”: in bondage to which we were till then. The aim of His redemption was to redeem us, not merely from the penalty, but from the being of all iniquity. Thus he reverts to the “teaching” in righteousness, or disciplining effect of the grace of God that bringeth salvation (Titus 2:11, Titus 2:12).

peculiarpeculiarly His own, as Israel was of old.

zealous — in doing and promoting “good works.”


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/titus-2.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Who gave himself for us (ος εδωκεν εαυτον υπερ ημωνhos edōken heauton huper hēmōn). Paul‘s great doctrine (Galatians 1:4; Galatians 2:20; 1 Timothy 2:6).

That he might redeem us (ινα λυτρωσηταιhina lutrōsētai). Final clause, ιναhina and the aorist middle subjunctive of λυτροωlutroō old verb from λυτρονlutron (ransom), in N.T. only here, Luke 24:21; 1 Peter 1:18.

Purify to himself (καταρισηι εαυτωιkatharisēi heautōi). Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of καταριζωkatharizō for which verb see note on Ephesians 5:26.

Lawlessness (ανομιαςanomias). See note on 2 Thessalonians 2:3.

A people for his own possession (λαον περιουσιονlaon periousion). A late word (from περιειμιperieimi to be over and above, in papyri as well as περιουσιαperiousia), only in lxx and here, apparently made by the lxx, one‘s possession, and so God‘s chosen people. See note on 1 Peter 2:9 (λαος εις περιποιησινlaos eis peripoiēsin).

Zealous of good works (ζηλωτην καλων εργωνzēlōtēn kalōn ergōn). “A zealot for good works.” Substantive for which see note on 1 Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. Objective genitive εργωνergōn f0).


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/titus-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Gave himself for us ( ἔδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν )

See on 1 Timothy 2:6, and comp. Galatians 1:4. Ὑπὲρ onbehalf of; not instead of.

Might redeem ( λυτρώσηται )

Only here, Luke 24:21; 1 Peter 1:18. See on 1 Timothy 2:6. Neither λύτρον ransom, λύτρωσις redemption, nor λυτρωτής redeemer occur in Paul. He has the figure of purchase ( ἀγοράζεσθαι, ἐξαγοράζεσθαι ), 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23; Galatians 3:13; Galatians 4:5. Comp. Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3, Revelation 14:4; 2 Peter 2:1.

Iniquity ( ἀνομίας )

Only here in Pastorals. Lit. lawlessness. See on 1 John 3:4.

Might purify ( καθαρίσῃ )

In Pastorals only here. Mostly in Synoptic Gospels and Hebrews. In Paul, 2 Corinthians 7:1; Ephesians 5:26. oClass. Often in lxx.

A peculiar people ( λαὸν περιούσιον )

Λαός peopleonly here in Pastorals. In Paul ten times, always in citations. Most frequently in Luke and Acts; often in Hebrews and Revelation. Περιούσιος N.T.oA few times in lxx, always with λαός . See Exodus 19:5; Exodus 23:22; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18. The phrase was originally applied to the people of Israel, but is transferred here to believers in the Messiah - Jews and Gentiles. Comp. 1 Peter 2:10. Περιούσιος is from the participle of περιεῖναι tobe over and above: hence περιουσία abundanceplenty. Περιούσιος also means possessed over and above, that is, specially selected for one's own; exempt from ordinary laws of distribution. Hence correctly represented by peculiar, derived from peculium, a private purse, a special acquisition of a member of a family distinct from the property administered for the good of the whole family. Accordingly the sense is given in Ephesians 1:14, where believers are said to have been sealed εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως witha view to redemption of possession, or redemption which will give possession, thus = acquisition. So 1 Peter 2:9, where Christians are styled λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν apeople for acquisition, to be acquired by God as his peculiar possession. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 5:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:14, and περιποιεῖσθαι toacquire, Acts 20:28. The phrase καθαρίζειν λαὸν topurify the people, in lxx, Nehemiah 12:30; Acts href="/desk/?q=ac+21:20&sr=1">Acts 21:20; Acts 22:3; 1 Peter 3:13. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. For the word as a title, see on the Canaanite, Matthew 10:4, and see on Mark 3:18.

Authority ( ἐπιταγῆς )

See on 1 Timothy 1:1.

Despise ( περιφρονείτω )

N.T.oOccasionally in Class. From περὶ beyond φρονεῖν tobe minded. To set one's self in thought beyond; hence; contemn, despise. Comp. 1 Timothy 4:12. The exhortation is connected with authority. Titus is to claim respect for his office and for himself as bearing it.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/titus-2.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

Who gave himself for us — To die in our stead.

That he might redeem us — Miserable bondslaves, as well from the power and the very being, as from the guilt, of all our sins.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/titus-2.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

14Who gave himself for us. This is another argument of exhortation, drawn from the design or effect of the death of Christ, who offered himself for us, that he might redeem us from the bondage of sin, and purchase us to himself as his heritage. His grace, therefore, necessarily brings along with it “newness of life,” (Romans 6:4,) because they who still are the slaves of sin make void the blessing of redemption; but now we are released from the bondage of sin, in order that we may serve the righteousness of God; and, therefore, he immediately added, —

A peculiar people, zealous of good works; by which he means that, so far as concerns us, the fruit of redemption is lost, if we are still entangled by the sinful desires of the world. And in order to express more fully, that we have been consecrated to good works by the death of Christ, he makes use of the word purify; for it would be truly base in us to be again polluted by the same filth from which the Son of God hath washed us by his blood. (255)


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/titus-2.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

redeem

Sin. (See Scofield "Romans 3:24").


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These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.

Bibliography
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Titus 2:14". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/titus-2.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

Ver. 14. That he might redeem us] God will have the price of Christ’s blood out; he will thoroughly purge us.

A peculiar people] Gr. A people that comprehend all that God sets any store by, that contain all his gettings; called elsewhere the people of acquisition, περιουσιος, 1 Peter 2:9. The word here used Jerome saith he sought for among human authors, and could not find it. Therefore some think the Septuagint feigned this, and επιουσιον, used also in the Lord’s prayer. Theophylact saith it signifieth such a people as are conversant about their master’s business, procuring of wealth and riches for him.

Zealous of good works] Give God thine affections, else thine actions are stillborn, and have no life in them. Now zeal is the extreme heat of all the affections, when they are seething or hissing hot, as the apostle’s word is, Romans 12:12, when we love God and his people out of a pure heart fervently, ζεοντες. Non amat qui non zelat, saith Austin, he loveth not at all in God’s account, whose love is not ardent, desires eager, delights ravishing, hopes longing, hatred deadly, anger fierce, grief deep, fear terrible, voice, eyes, hands, gestures, actions, all lively, as in holy Bucholcer, Luther, Laurentius, Athanasius, Ignatius, Paul, Baruch: Nehemiah 3:20, he earnestly fortified, seipsum accendit; he burst out into a holy heat, he wrought with a kind of anger against himself and others, because the work went on no faster. He was not of his temper that said, Deum colo, uti par est, I go as far for God as in discretion it is fit. Religiosum oportet esse, sed non religantem; such and such are more precise than wise. The reserved professor never shows himself but at halt-light; he follows Christ but afar off, as Peter, or as the people followed Saul (they tremble after him, 1 Samuel 13:7); he is afraid of every new step, saying as Caesar at Rubicon, Yet we may go back. Carnal discretion controls his fervency, cools his courage, keeps him that he cannot be zealous of good works, which he doth at the best in a loose, lazy, perfunctory strain, like the pace the Spaniard rides, like Adonikam, that was the last that set foot forward toward the return of the captives, and therefore had his lot below his brethren, Ezra 8:13. Where is now our ancient zeal, heating and whetting (saith a reverend zealot)? Oh, how cold and careless, how dissolute, and dilute are we! May it not be said of most of our hearts and houses, as Isaiah 47:14, there is not a coal to warm at? May not the old complaint be well renewed, "There is none that calleth upon thy name, that stirreth up himself to take hold of thee?" Isaiah 64:7. Let God’s love in the work of our redemption be duly pondered (as here), and it will fire us up to a holy contention in godliness.

These things speak and exhort] Lest men should think we should only preach of Christ and grace, preach thou obedience and zeal, saith the apostle.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/titus-2.html. 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Titus 2:14

Zeal.

I. It is not a quality of nature, but an acquirement of grace, of which the Apostle speaks; for he describes, not what is peculiar to this or that man, but what is common to all converted men. What, then, is zeal for good works? Zeal is intense earnestness in the accomplishment of an object, passionate ardour in the pursuit of it. It is not, therefore, mere excitement of feeling, mere demonstrative warmth of expression, mere quickness of emotion, but something far more deep and enduring. It is a working, practical energy. It is a power which may be directed to things indifferent, to things good, or to things bad. Zeal is force—moral force; for it is the great moving power of the world. Force can only arise from an adequate motive, just as the great river is not fed by the scanty summer showers, but gathers its strength from the rains that fall upon a thousand hills.

II. The ultimate spring is love—purest, holiest, sweetest, most abiding of all motives, the very essence of true religion, the Alpha and Omega of its power, the one thing which of all earthly things approaches most nearly towards omnipotence, for it is itself the reflection and choicest prerogative of God.

III. Christian zeal must be a steady, permanent force, not transient, not occasional, not flickering up into a vehement flame now and then and dying away again, but like the sun in the midst of the heavens, or like the constant laws of nature that hold sun, moon and stars ever circling round their central God. It measures everything, not by itself, but by the majesty of Him for whom it is done, and who sanctions with His own eternal recompense, even a cup of water given for His sake.

E. Garbett, Experiences of the Inner Life, p. 138.


References: Titus 2:14.—C. Garrett, Loving Councils, p. 104; Spurgeon, Sermons, vol. ii., No. 70; A. Maclaren, A Year's Ministry, vol. i., p. 221; E. Garbett, Christian World Pulpit, vol. vi., p. 209; H. W. Beecher, Ibid., vol. xi., p. 37; Preacher's Monthly, vol. i., p. 223. Titus 2:15.—J. Thain Davidson, Sure to Succeed, p. 222. Titus 3—Expositor, 1st series, vol. viii., p. 215. Titus 3:1-4.—J. Oswald Dykes, Christian World Pulpit, vol. xvii., p. 113. Titus 3:1-8.—J. W. Lance, Ibid., vol. xxxi., p. 41.




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Bibliography
Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/titus-2.html.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Titus 2:14. A peculiar people, The word περιουσιον, rendered peculiar, does not appear to have been used by any of the ancient prophane writers. The LXX seem first to have framed it, in order to express the Hebrew סגלה Segleh, a peculium, a peculiar treasure or property. The phrase Λαος περιουσιος signifies "a supernumerary people, a people wherein God had a superlative property and interest, above and besides his common interest in all the nations of the world," says the learned Jos. Mede, p. 125. The pious Jews were formerly God's peculiar people; his peculiar people under the gospel are genuine Christians: they are distinguished or separated from the world by their being devoted to Christ. All real Christians are the peculiar people of God under the gospel; but perhaps the apostle of the Gentiles, in writing to a Gentile evangelist, among Gentile churches, might have here a more particular reference to the Gentile Christians, who had not formerly been the peculiar people of God, and whom the Judaizers would still have excluded from that number, unless they would submit to their impositions. It should be observed particularly with what strength and emphasis the apostle speaks throughout these verses of the absolute necessity of a life of holiness and purity, and of good works: and when our Lord and his apostles have laid such a stress upon good works, none who profess Christianity can neglect the practice of them without the extreme peril of their souls; and none who profess to be teachers of that Christianity can speak of them with contempt or indifference, without bringing a grievous offence upon the faith of Christ: and woe be to them by whom such offence cometh! See 1 Peter 2:9.

Inferences.—Scarcely does the word of God afford a more instructive and comprehensive summary of the gospel, than that which is given in this chapter. It gives us a view of the nature of the dispensation, as a doctrine of grace; and, at the same time, a doctrine according to godliness. It hath appeared to all men, and it bringeth the faithful to salvation, by inculcating the most salutary lessons that man can receive. It teaches us to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts, how pressing soever their solicitations may be. It instructs us in all the branches of our duty, to God, to ourselves, and to our fellow Christians. It guides us to uniform and complete goodness; not extolling any one part, to the neglect or injury of the rest, but tending to produce this beautiful birth, entire in all its members, and then to nourish it to its full maturity. As we are slow of heart to attend to such instructions, it enforces them with motives the most generous and the most animating. It represents to us, as it were in prophetic vision, that blessed hope, even the glorious appearance of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; when he shall come with everlasting blessings in his hands, to reward all his faithful people; and with the terrors of divine vengeance, to be poured forth upon all that have rejected the authority of his gospel. And, that the most powerful considerations of gratitude may join with those of the highest interest, it directs our eyes to this divine triumphant Saviour, as having once given himself to torture and death for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify us to himself, a peculiar people, devoted to God, and zealous of good works. And surely, if this view cannot prevail upon us to consecrate ourselves to God, and to engage with vigour in his service, we must be utterly insensible, and worthy of the severest punishment.

Let these lessons, therefore, every where be taught with all authority. Let them be addressed at once to the meanest and the greatest of mankind; that they may join in a pious care, to adorn the doctrine of such a Saviour, and to secure their share in such a salvation.

REFLECTIONS.—1st, The apostle proceeds to direct Titus in the faithful discharge of his office. But, in contradiction to these deceivers, speak thou the things which become sound doctrine, the wholesome truths of God's life-giving word, dividing it aright to every man, according to their age, station, and circumstances.

1. That the aged men, as their years as well as profession especially demand, be sober, or vigilant, circumspect in their conduct; grave, in habit, manners, conversation, that they may engage the reverence of their younger brethren; temperate and prudent, having their passions and appetites in subjection; sound in faith, in doctrine and practice; in charity enlarged; in patience exemplary, bearing the provocations of others with meekness, and not fretful under their own infirmities. Such old disciples are noble ornaments to their Christian profession.

2. The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, in dress, conversation, and deportment; not false accusers, not slandering and defaming any, nor sowing discord among brethren; not given to much wine, drunkenness, or the love of liquor, being in women doubly odious and hateful; teachers of good things, by their example and discourse inculcating on their children every thing which may adorn the Christian name.

3. What the aged must teach. The younger women should learn of them to be sober, avoiding every appearance of wantonness, excess, or levity; to love their husbands, cleaving to them in warm affection; to love their children, training them up from infancy in the nurture and admonition of the Lord; to be discreet in the management of their families; chaste, shewing the most unfeigned modesty and purity of manners; keepers at home, not gadding about to the neglect of their domestic affairs, but ever best pleased to be in their own house; good, kind and gentle to their servants, and, like Dorcas, full of alms-deeds and good works; obedient to their own husbands, delighting to serve and please them; that the word of God be not blasphemed by a contrary behaviour, which would give the adversaries of Christianity occasion to speak reproachfully. Note; Nothing makes Christianity appear so amiable as the conscientious discharge of the relative duties which it enjoins.

4. Young men likewise exhort to be sober-minded, serious, solid, tractable, having a due sense of their own inexperience, and willing to be ruled and advised by their elder and wiser friends.

2nd, We have a particular direction for Titus himself, who should be the example of what he taught to his brethren. In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works; practising what he preached: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, declaring the pure unadulterated truth, and maintaining a single eye to God's glory and the benefit of immortal souls; gravity, with all seriousness delivering his message, and with all sincerity; using sound speech that cannot be condemned, inculcating scripture truths in scripture language, and with such plainness and simplicity as that he that is of the contrary part, and would be glad to carp at and censure any ambiguous expression, may be ashamed of his malicious design, having no evil thing to say of you, finding no just charge of error in doctrine, or immorality in practice, to allege against you. Note; (1.) They who preach to others, must by their practice prove that they themselves believe; else how can it be thought that others should credit them. (2.) Many watch for the halting of Christ's ministers; and the knowledge of this should make them more watchful over all that they speak or do, that confusion may cover their malignant enemies.

3rdly, The duty of servants is prescribed. Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, with inward respect, as well as all outward dutiful submission; and to please them well in all things lawful to be done; not answering again, disputing their orders, murmuring at their commands, or daring to make an impertinent or saucy reply; not purloining the least thing from them, but, to a crumb of bread, strictly honest; nor conniving at the least waste or robbery committed by others; shewing all good fidelity, true to every trust reposed in them, speaking with the greatest veracity, and punctual in the observance of their masters' orders; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things, and even in the eyes of their unbelieving masters, if under such, recommend the religion which they profess. Note; Such a servant as is here described, is a great acquisition. Would to God that those who make profession of godliness, might oftener read this apostolic directory.

4thly, The strongest motives are suggested to enforce the practice before recommended.

1. This is one great end of our redemption. For the grace of God, displayed in the gospel word, that bringeth salvation, declaring the free mercy of God in Christ to miserable sinners, hath appeared in the most illustrious manner, to all men, of all ranks, degrees, and nations; teaching us, that denying ungodliness of every kind, and worldly lusts, whether of the flesh or of the eye, or the pride of life, we should live soberly, in the government and subdual of every inordinate appetite and passion; righteously, with unimpeached integrity and uprightness in our dealings towards men; and godly, in all acts of public and private devotion, in the use of every holy ordinance, and with a constant regard to the divine glory in this present world, full as it is of evil and temptation. Note; (1.) The gospel is a revelation of mercy to all ranks and degrees; and God appears eminently glorious therein, in justifying the chief of sinners who believe in Jesus. (2.) Whenever we are truly partakers of grace, the blessed influence thereof will appear on our hearts and lives, effectually engaging us to renounce every known sin, and powerfully quickening us for the discharge of every duty towards God, our neighbour, and ourselves. The doctrines of grace are the only principles which can produce righteousness and true holiness.

2. We expect the appearing of the great Judge, and therefore are peculiarly called upon to prepare to meet him: Looking for that blessed hope, the great object of it, the Lord from heaven; and the glorious appearing of the great God and, or even, our Saviour Jesus Christ, who shall shortly sit upon the throne of his glory, when all nations shall be gathered before him, to receive from his lips their irreversible sentence, and in whose favour we have a gracious interest; who gave himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, both from the guilt and power and nature of it; and might purify unto himself a peculiar people, yielding to be saved by grace, and thereby taken from the corrupted mass of mankind to be to the praise of his glory; and zealous of good works, influenced by the divine principle of faith which worketh by love, aiming at the advancement of their Redeemer's honour, and giving themselves up to be guided by his word and will. Note; (1.) Every believer has a blessed hope before him, under the influence of which he lives comfortably, and supported by which, if faithful, he dies happily. (2.) They who would meet the great God their Saviour in peace, must be found among his redeemed from iniquity, and experience a present deliverance from the power and nature of sin. (3.) Christ's people are indeed peculiar in their manners, temper, and conduct, distinguished from the world in which they dwell, by the purity of their lives, and their zeal for good works.

3. The apostle enjoins Titus to urge these things upon the consciences of his hearers. These things speak with all freedom, and exhort them diligently to observe; and rebuke with all authority those who dare oppose the truth, and would maintain their erroneous principles and practices. Let no man despise thee: behave in such a manner as may command respect; and if any notwithstanding presume to treat thee or thy ministry with contempt, it shall be at their peril.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/titus-2.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Observe here, 1. The way and manner how Christ came to be our Saviour, he gave himself for us.

Note, 1. The giver, Christ, he gave. 2. The gift, himself. 3. The persons for whom he gave himself, for us.

Learn, 1. That all that Jesus Christ suffered he did sustain and undergo freely and voluntarily. 2. That that which Christ gave for our redemption was himself. 3. That it was especially for his church, that he gave himself, who gave himself for us.

Observe, 2. The great ends for which Christ gave himself for his church, and they are two: 1. To redeem them from all iniquity. 2. To purify them a peculiar people to himself.

1. To redeem them from iniquity: redemption supposes a thraldom and bondage; redemption from iniquity supposes a thraldom and bondage to sin and iniquity: our Redeemer therefore is Jesus Christ, and by dying for us, he did, and only could, redeem us. He gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity.

2. Another end of Christ's redeeming us, is to purify us to himself a peculiar people;

Here note, That as redemption did presuppose a bondage, so purification supposes an uncleanness, that is, sin.

Note, 2. That Christ's redeemed people are a purified people, and a peculiar people, possessed by the Spirit of Christ with a zeal for good works.

Note, 3. That it was not only for us that Christ redeemed and purified us a peculiar people to himself, but ultimately for himself, and for his own and his Father's glory and complacency; that he might purify to himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.


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Bibliography
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/titus-2.html. 1700-1703.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Titus 2:14. The thought in this verse is very closely related to Titus 2:12 : παιδεύουσα ἡμᾶς, ἵνα κ. τ. λ., as it shows how far the appearance of the grace of God exhorts us to deny ἀσέβεια κ. τ. λ. In construction, however, it is connected with σωτῆρος ἡμ. . χρ.

ὃς ἔδωκεν ἑαυτόν] comp. Galatians 1:4, equivalent to παρέδωκεν ἑαυτόν, Ephesians 5:25. The conception of the voluntary submission to death is not contained in ἑαυτόν (Heydenreich) so much as in the whole expression.

ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν] is not equivalent to ἀντὶ ἡμῶν, but: “for us, on our behalf;” the notion of ἀντί, however, is not excluded (Matthew 20:28). The purpose of this submission is given in the next words: ἵνα λυτρώσηται ἡμᾶς] λυτροῦσθαι: “set free by means of a ransom.” In Luke 24:21 (comp. too, 1 Maccabees 4:11, and other passages in the Apocrypha) the reference to ransom falls quite into the background; but in 1 Peter 1:18-19, where, as here, the redemption through Christ is spoken of, the τίμιον αἷμα of Christ is called the ransom. The same reference is indicated here by the previous ἔδωκεν ἑαυτόν, comp. 1 Timothy 2:6. The middle form includes the reference which in the next clause is expressed by ἑαυτῷ.

ἀπὸ πάσης ἀνομίας] “from all unlawfulness.” ἀνομία is regarded as the power from which Christ has redeemed us; it is opposed to σωφρόνως καὶ δικαίως καὶ εὐσεβῶς ζῆν: “the unrighteousness in which the law of God is unheeded.” It is wrong to understand by ἀνομία “not only the sin, but also the punishment incurred by sin” (Heydenreich), or only the latter; comp. Romans 6:19, 2 Corinthians 6:14, and especially 1 John 3:4 : ἁμαρτία ἐστὶν ἀνομία.

καὶ καθαρίσῃ ἑαυτῷ λαὸν περιούσιον] positive expression of the thought which was expressed negatively in the previous clause. De Wette and Wiesinger without reason supply ἡμᾶς as the object of καθαρίσῃ; the object is λαὸν περιούσιον.

περιούσιος ( ἅπ. λεγ. in N. T.). Chrysostom wrongly interprets it by ἐξελεγμένος, οὐδὲν ἔχων κοινὸν πρὸς τοὺς λοιπούς; Theodoret more correctly by οἰκεῖος; so, too, Beza: peculiaris, and Luther: “a people for a possession.” The phrase λαὸς περιούσιος belongs to the O. T., and is a translation of the Hebrew עַם סְגֻלָּה, Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18, LXX.; in the church of the N. T. the promise made to the people of Israel is fulfilled; comp. 1 Peter 2:9 : λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν.

ἑαυτῷ corresponds with λυτρώσηται ἀπό. The sentence is pregnantly expressed, and its meaning is: “that He by the purifying power of His death might acquire for Himself ( ἑαυτῷ) a people for a possession.”

The moral character of the λαὸς περιούσ. is declared by the words in apposition, ζηλωτὴν καλῶν ἔργων: accensum studio bonorum operum.

De Wette is inaccurate in saying that the apostle is speaking here not of reconciliation, but only of moral purification. Wiesinger rightly asks: “What else are we to understand by ἔδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν than the reconciling death?” But de Wette is so far right, that reconciliation is not made the chief point here, but rather, as often in the N. T., e.g. 1 Peter 1:17-18, the design is mentioned for which Christ suffered the death of reconciliation; comp. Luther’s exposition of the second article of faith.

Titus 2:15. ταῦτα (viz. these moral precepts, see Titus 2:1, with the reasons given for them, Titus 2:11-14) λάλει καὶ παρακάλει καὶ ἔλεγχε] The distinction between these words is correctly given by Heydenreich. λαλεῖν denotes simple teaching, παρακάλ. pressing exhortation, ἐλέγχ. solemn admonition to those who neglect these duties. “The theoretic, the paraenetic-practical, and the polemic aspects of the preaching of the gospel are combined” (Matthies).

μετὰ πάσης ἐπιταγῆς] According to 1 Corinthians 7:6, συγγνώμη is the opposite of ἐπιταγή; this clause therefore enjoins that Titus is not to leave it to the free choice of the church whether his exhortations shall be obeyed or not, but to deliver them as commands. De Wette translates: “with all recommendation,” which is right in sense; still ἐπιταγή is not properly recommendation but command, and it is therefore better to say, “with entire full command.

With this the final words are closely connected: μηδείς σου περιφρονείτω] περιφρονεῖν ( ἅπ. λεγ.); properly: “consider something on all sides;” then: “think beyond, despise,” equivalent to καταφρονεῖν; comp. 1 Timothy 4:12. Luther is right in sense: “let no man despise thee,” viz. by not receiving thy teachings, exhortations, and admonitions as commands, and by thinking lightly of them. There is nothing to suggest that Titus is to conduct himself so that no one may be right in despising him.


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Bibliography
Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/titus-2.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Titus 2:14. ἵνα λυτρώσηται, that He might redeem) An allusion to redemption from slavery.(12)λαὸν περιούσιον, a peculiar people) The adjective would be translated into Latin by superfactum. Columella writes, villica debet separare, quœ consumenda sunt, et quœ superfieri possunt, custodire, “a farmer’s wife should separate what is to be consumed, and keep what may be left over and above.” Comp. περιποίησις, 1 Peter 2:9, note. [The περὶ in composition often expresses something remaining over and above. So περιποίησις, in Peter, something which God reserves to Himself out of all. And περιούσιος, a people peculiarly God’s own above all nations, Exodus 19:5-6; LXX.]


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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/titus-2.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Who gave himself for us; which great God and Saviour Jesus Christ was not only sent and given by the Father, John 3:16, but freely gave up himself to be incarnate, and to die for us, uperhmwn, in our stead to die.

That he might redeem us from all iniquity; that by that price he might purchase salvation for us, delivering us both from the guilt and power of sin, who were slaves and captives to our lusts.

And that he might purify unto himself laon periousion, we translate it a peculiar people; some translate it, an egregious, famous, principal people; others say it signifieth something got by our own labour and industry, and laid up for our own use; others say it signifieth something we have set our hearts and affections upon, in a special, peculiar manner.

Zealous of good works; studious to do, and warmly pursuing, all such works as are acceptable to God, and profitable to ourselves and others.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Titus 2:14". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/titus-2.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Titus

ZEALOUS OF GOOD WORKS

Titus 2:14.


WE have seen in previous sermons on the preceding context how emphatically the Apostle reiterates that the end of the gospel is the production of Christlike and Christ-pleasing character. For this purpose our Lord came, and in Him the grace of God broke through the clouds which wrapped men in dark folds of ignorance and sin. For this end Christ died, giving Himself for us, that ‘He might redeem us from iniquity and purify unto Himself a people for a possession.’ That insistence on practice as the upshot of doctrine is characteristic of the three last letters of the Apostle, which are called the Pastoral Epistles, and it is very natural in an old man. Just as tradition tells us that when John was too feeble to walk, and too old to say much, he was carried Sunday by Sunday into the assembly of the Church to say nothing more than ‘Little children, love one another,’ so Paul, having laid the foundations in the great doctrinal Epistles of his early time, now an old man, deals rather with practice than with doctrine. But the practice is, in his mind, the offshoot of, and inseparably connected with, the doctrine, and to pit the one against the other, as Some people do nowadays, is to say, ‘I do not care much about root; fruit is what I want’; or, ‘I make little account of what a man eats; what I look to is his muscle and his strength.’ But will there be any fruit without a root, or any muscle and strength that is not nourished? Paul’s gospel is ethical because it is a gospel.

Now these words of my text are a kind of appendix to what precedes them, in which the Apostle has been sketching the sort of people that Christ’s mission and work are intended to make. He says they are to be redeemed, they are to be purified, they are to be won for Christ’s own, and to be conscious that they are His; and then he adds this remarkable expression which I have not been able to deal with at length in former sermons, but which is too important to pass by - ‘zealous’ - what for? - ‘good works.’

Now I think, if we will consider these words, we shall find that they convey, some lessons, always important, and, as it seems to me, extremely important for the Church of this generation.

I. A consistent Christian will be a zealous Christian. I do not need to waste your time in trying to define what zeal is.

We all know it. When we approve of its object we admire it and call it ‘beautiful consecration’; when we are not in sympathy with its objects we call it ‘ridiculous exaggeration’ and ‘fanaticism.’ Its elements are threefold, an overmastering recognition of the greatness of some truth, or cause, or person, for which, or for whom, we are ‘ zealous ‘ - a glow of emotion arising from that recognition, and a consciousness of obligation to strain all our powers for the diffusion of the truth, or the advancement of the cause, or the honour of the person, for whom we are zealous. Now, of course, when a man gets hold of some truth that masters him, there is always the danger of his losing the sense of proportion, of his getting his perspective wrong, and being so swallowed up in the one thing that he sees, that, like a horse with blinkers, he does not see anything except that one narrow line that lies in front of him. And so zeal is always in danger of being deformed into fanaticism, but it is God’s way in working the world onwards, to raise up successions of men, each of whom recognizes with overwhelming clearness some one little segment of the great orb of truth, and the world advances because there are men that believe in one thing, that see one thing, and that give themselves, body and soul, to the setting forth of that one thing. All the rest of us stand by and say, ‘What ridiculous exaggeration! how entirely oblivious he is counter-balancing considerations; how he has narrowed himself down into being the instrument and the apostle of this one thing!’ Yes; and if you want to bore a hole through a six-inch plank, you have to put a pretty sharp point upon your tool, and to make it very ‘narrow.’ The world never gets to see any truth, until it has been hammered into it by some man who did not see any other truth.

There will come, too, with that overwhelming conception of the greatness of the truth, or of the person, or of the cause, a glow of emotion. Argument may be worked in fire or in frost, and the arguments that melt are warm, or if I might go back to my former figure, your boring tool will penetrate more quickly and easily if it has been heated as well as pointed. And zeal glows, and it is the glow rather than reasoning that convinces men.

I need not dwell upon other characteristics of zeal, but my next thought is - Christianity is such as that, if a man really and fully accepts it, he cannot help being zealous. Look at the truths that we say we believe. We believe in ideas about the significance and issues of this earthly life, so solemn, so great, so transcending all present experience, that it is incredible that they can enter into a man’s mind in any deep sense, and leave him cold and indifferent. We believe in such truths about Sin and Judgment and Eternity that they might kindle a soul beneath the ribs of death, and burn up all indifference, so as that the extremist, enthusiastic grasp of them is only moderation and rational. We say that we believe that the infinite, divine nature was incarnated in a Man, and that that Man lived and died because He loved every soul, and that that death brings to the world emancipation, and that Life brings to the world life, and that these things are true for all men. What I maintain is, that if a man really believes these things, not with the mere conventional faith that characterizes multitudes of professing Christians, it is impossible that he should be left cold. If the sun is shining the temperature will go up; and if the thermometer does not rise it is because something or other has come between the sunbeam and the mercury. If the iceberg floats down into the warm oceans of the temperate or tropical zones it will melt into sweet water, and it cannot remain ice. If it continue grim and cold, it is because there is only the sun of the Arctic winter, which has a pale light, and scarcely any warmth at all, shining down upon it. An indifferent Christian, who believes in sin and in redemption and in an incarnate Christ and in a sacrifice on the Cross and in a Divine Spirit and in a future Judgment and remains cold, is all but an impossibility; he is a contradiction in terms, and a living monster.

Brethren, I venture to plead with you that there are few things which the conventional Christianity of this day needs more than to awake to the fact that the ‘sober standard of feeling in matters of religion,’ which some so much admire, is contrary to the genius of the gospel, and the importance of the truths which it con-rains. And when I say a sober standard I do not mean the sobriety which the New Testament enjoins, but I mean the sobriety which the conventional Christianity of this day so much admires, and which is scarcely distinguishable with a microscope from absolute indifference. We are frequently besought to beware of enthusiasm. I hear from quarters where one would not expect to hear it, the cynical politician’s advice, ‘Not too much zeal, I beg of you.’ And I venture to oppose to all that what the voice of the Master from heaven said, ‘I would thou were cold or hot.’ This Christianity that never turns a hair, that does not know what zeal means, seems to me uncommonly like no Christianity at all.

We all want to be roused from our torpor. This community, like every church of professing Christians, is weighted by a mass of loosely attached and halt-believing professing Christians who are nothing better than clogs on the wheel, and instruments for Bringing down the temperature of the whole mass. And what we want, I believe more than anything else, is that we should be zealous, as dominated by the overwhelming greatness and solemnity of the truths, and melted into a passion of love by the overwhelming greatness and love of the Person whom the gospel reveals to us. We are to be ‘zealous,’ and whilst I dare not say that a true Christian will be a zealous one, I dare not conceal my conviction that a consistent Christian will be.

II. Now notice that such zeal finds its best field in our personal character.

‘Zealous ‘ - the word suggests, I suppose, pictures of men, devoted to a cause, and going out into the world to try and persuade other people to believe it, becoming the apostles and missionaries of some truth, or of some movement, or of some great principle, religious or social But Paul suggests here another region in which zeal is to find exercise - ‘zealous for good works’


Now do not let us interpret these last two words in the narrow, conventional sense which they have come to bear in the Church. It is a very significant and a very sad thing that this wide expression ‘good works,’ which in the Apostle’s mind covered the whole ground of Christian morality, has been narrowed down to mean specific acts of beneficence, bits of charity, giving away blankets and soup, visiting the poor, and the like, which have got stamped on them, with just a soul. on of contempt in the expression, the name ‘good works.’ He means a great deal more than that. He means exactly the same thing which he has already twice described as being the end of the gospel, that we should ‘live soberly, righteously, godly,’ and again, that we should be redeemed from all iniquity, and purified. Within the four corners of this expression, ‘good works,’ lie ‘whatsoever things are lovely and of good report,’ every virtue and every praise. That is the width of the object which the Apostle here proposes for Christian zeal.

Now the word which he here employs, and which is rightly translated ‘zealous,’ is literally ‘a Zealot.’ In Jewish history the Zealots were a class of men who, from the days of the Maccabees downwards, were fanatically devoted to the ritual and law of Judaism, and vehemently opposed any relaxation of or departure from it. But their religious zeal, as they thought it, did not keep them from the blackest crimes, and there were no more turbulent and no more immoral men in the dying agonies of the Jewish State than these zealots who had a zeal for God, but neither according to knowledge nor according to morality. One of the apostles, Simon Zelotes - the Zealot - had probably belonged to that class, and had found out a better Object for his zeal, when he turned to Jesus Christ and became an apostle. Paul uses the word in reference to himself when he speaks about himself as having been exceedingly ‘zealous for the traditions of the fathers,’ and it is used in Acts of the many Jewish Christians who are spoken of as being all ‘zealous for the Law.’ That is one type of zeal - a zeal that fastens on externals, that tries to enforce specific acts of conduct, that is devoted to ceremonial and regulations and red tape. And Paul points us here to another type, ‘Zealous for good works.’ Jehu, with His hands carmined with wholesale slaughter, turned to the son of Rechab and said, ‘Come and see my zeal for the Lord.’ Yes, a little bit for the Lord, and a great deal for Jehu. That is the sort of thing that goes about the world as zeal. A turbid river in spate picks up and carries along a great many foul elements; and zeal is always in danger of becoming passionate indignation against a man who will not believe what I want him to believe, not so much because it is true as because I think it is. A great many very impure elements mix themselves up with our zeal, when it is directed to amending the world. If we set to amend ourselves, and direct our zeal in that direction, we shall find ‘ample scope and verge enough’ for its operations. And, brethren, what different lives we should live if instead of feeling bound to the exercise of virtues and graces Which do not come sweet and easy to us, and instead of feeling that we ought to do so and so, and that we do not one bit wish to do it, we had this overmastering enthusiasm for holiness and passion for perfection which is involved in the words before us. To be’ zealous of good works’ is to be eagerly desirous of being beautiful and pure and true and noble and Christlike, to be panting after perfection, and casting ourselves with all the energy of our nature into the work of growing like Christ. That is what Paul wants us all to be. Let us ask ourselves, is it the least like what I am? Does my Christian zeal go all out in the work of amending other people, or do I begin with amending myself?

III. And now my last word is, that this passion for perfection will come to us just in the measure in which we let the gospel He upon our hearts and minds and influence us.

The truths will produce it, but not unless they are wrought into our minds and hearts. Christ, whom the truths reveal, will produce it, but not unless we keep ourselves by honest effort of mind and heart and will in close contact with Him. The upshot of all that i have been trying to say is this, that the one thing which the superficial half-and-half Christianity of this day needs is that it should come into closer contact with the truths of the gospel. I plead for no blind, unintelligent zeal, I plead for no worked-up, artificial fervour. I want no engine without a driver, I want no zeal that, like Phaeton, will upset the car and set everything on fire. I want that Christian men should believe what they believe, and that they should meditate on the truths of the gospel intelligently, systematically, as a whole, and that they should be in touch with Him whom the truths reveal. A ruminant belief that chews the cud of the truths it professes is what today’s Christianity sorely wants. And if we in such a fashion keep ourselves under the spell of these truths, .then the zeal will come; not else. The spurious zeal which is excited by other stimulants will do more harm than good, and will be not like the river that flows, bringing fertility and freshness, but like the furious torrents of the spring when the ice is melting and the snows running down, which sweep away the very soil where growth was possible, and leave behind only barren rock.

Fix in your hearts and minds, and God grant that they may influence your conduct, these two things - on the one hand, that your Christianity is very suspicious if it has no flow in it towards Jesus, and if it has no passion towards perfection; and, on the other hand, that the surest way to bring all beauties of a moral and spiritual sort into your character and out into your lives is to gaze believingly on the appearing of She grace which God has sent us for the very purpose even of Him who gave Himself for us. When we are moved thereby to give ourselves to Him, we shall ‘covet earnestly the best gifts,’ and be ‘zealous for,’ and not merely reluctant and grudging doers of, ‘good works.’


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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/titus-2.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Our Saviour Jesus Christ, who gave himself a ransom for us, and will be our final Judge, is the great God. As such all should regard him, and ever be governed by his revealed will.


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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Family Bible New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/titus-2.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

14. δς ἕδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, Who gave Himself for us. This is the phrase in which St Paul again and again describes the efficacy of the Lord’s Atonement; cp. Romans 8:32; Galatians 1:4; Galatians 2:20; Ephesians 5:25, and see on 1 Timothy 2:6.

ἵνα λυτρώσηται ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ πάσης ἀνομίας, in order that He might redeem us from all iniquity. The final cause of the Atonement is represented in Titus 2:14 as (a) negative (Redemption), (b) positive (Sanctification). In this clause we have its negative purpose described; it is to redeem us from all sin (all sin is ἀνομία, 1 John 3:4, and ἀνομία here stands for violation of the moral law in general). The rationale of the Atoning Efficacy of the Lord’s Death is illustrated in the N.T. by various metaphors, such as Ransom, Reconciliation, Sacrifice. Here (as at 1 Timothy 2:6) the metaphor of emancipation from slavery, ransom from the bondage of sin, is adopted, the language used being taken from Psalms 129 [130]:8 καὶ αὐτὸς (sc. ὁ κύριος) λυτρώσεται τὸν Ἰσπαὴλ ἐκ πασῶν τῶν ἀνομιῶν αὐτοῦ, where this ‘plenteous redemption’ is sung as the work of the Messiah who was to come (cp. also Ezekiel 37:23). This was the metaphor which (possibly because of its adoption by our Lord Himself, Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45) was most frequently dwelt on by the early Church; and from Irenaeus to Anselm the one theory of the Atonement, which was popularly regarded as orthodox, was that which set forth the Lord’s Death as a ‘ransom’ paid to the devil, into whose bonds man had fallen. The metaphor of ‘redemption from evil’ was all too soon hardened into a theory of ‘ransom from the Evil One.’ See Westcott Hebrews, p. 295, and Abbott Ephesians, p. 11.

What has been said above (on 2 Timothy 4:17) as to the usage of ἀπό and ἐκ after verbs of deliverance suggests that the change of the ἐκ of the Psalm into ἀπό is not without significance; redemption ἐκ πάσης ἀνομίας would only indicate deliverance from all the acts of lawlessness of which man had been guilty; ἀπό indicates a complete deliverance from the neighbourhood and company of sin, whether original or actual.

καὶ καθαρίσῃ ἑαυτῷ λαὸν περιούσιον κ.τ.λ., and might purify to Himself a peculiar people, i.e. a people for His own possession. This is the positive purpose of the Atonement; not only ransom from sin (not to speak of deliverance from the pains of hell), but sanctification to a good life. The two things go together; cp. 2 Corinthians 7:1. In this clause St Paul again uses the language of the LXX. to express the sacred truths which have been committed to him to teach; λαὸς περιούσιος is the equivalent of עם סְנֻלָּה, ‘a people of possession’ (Exodus 19:6 ; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18), the phrase used by St Peter being λεὸς εἰς περιποίησιν (1 Peter 2:9; cp. Malachi 3:17). περιούσιος is usually represented in the Vulgate by peculiaris or in peculium, whence Tyndale’s rendering “peculiar people” is derived; but in this verse (Titus 2:14) curiously enough the Vulgate has acceptabilem. The original Hebrew shews that the word περιούσιος is almost identical with the classical ἐξαίρετος, ‘chosen out’ as it were for God’s purposes; and this is the proper sense of the adj. peculiar which has gained, from this and parallel passages, a permanent place in our language[514].

ζηλωτὴν καλῶν ἔργων, zealous of good works. see on 1 Timothy 2:10 for the place which ‘good works’ occupy in the theology of the Pastoral Epistles. For the word ζηλωτής cp. Acts 22:3; 1 Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14.


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"Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/titus-2.html. 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

14. The judge is a saviour, for he who sits upon the throne once hung upon the cross.

Gave himself—Note, John 10:17-18.

For us—In behalf of us.

That he might—The moralizing and sanctifying effect of Christ’s death is here alone specified, because it is the moral model of 1-10 that St. Paul is here illustrating. This is the manward effect of the atonement, but not its whole effect.

Redeem us—Ransom. The Greek verb is the same root as lutron, used by Christ himself in Matthew 20:28, and antilutron, used by St. Paul in 1 Timothy 2:6, on which passages see our notes.

A peculiar people—Wholly unlike the people of Titus 1:10-16; especially unlike the great mass of the Cretans characterized in Titus 1:12; and inferentially unlike the mass of an unregenerate world, and peculiar in being exceptionally, not unto every good work reprobate, (Titus 1:16) but zealous of good works. These contrasted words conclude the contrasted picture of each people. The word peculiar is derived from the Latin peculium, signifying a property or possession reserved as specially one’s own; sometimes the reserve property a slave was allowed to have as his. Similar is the meaning of the Greek word here, and it emphatically designates this people as peculiarly his own.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/titus-2.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify to himself a people for his own possession, zealous of good works.’

But the One Who is coming is not just the mighty King and Judge, He is also the One Who gave Himself for us in order to buy us back to Himself (1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Peter 1:18-19) and pay our ransom (Mark 10:45) by the offering of Himself. The word translated ‘redeem’ means ‘to pay a ransom’. He is the Redeemer, the One Who pays our debts so that we might go free (Colossians 2:13-14). He is our Saviour, the One Who brings forgiveness and will make us completely whole (see Matthew 1:21). He ‘gave Himself for our sins’ (Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 5:25; 1 Timothy 2:6), and ‘suffered for us, the righteous for the unrighteous, that He might bring us to God’ (1 Peter 3:18). For ‘to redeem us from all iniquity’ compare Psalms 130:8.

‘Gave Himself for us’, that is, on our behalf. He did it for us (compare 1 Timothy 2:6; 2 Corinthians 5:21). It was as a sacrificial offering (see Romans 8:3; 1 Corinthians 5:7; John 1:29; Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 10:14).

‘And purify to Himself.’ He not only redeems, He cleanses. See 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 John 1:7. Elsewhere we learn that this is partly accomplished through His word (Ephesians 5:25-26), and by turning from unrighteousness to righteousness (Isaiah 1:15-16). But it is primarily through coming to His light and through the shedding of His blood (1 John 1:7).

‘A people for his own possession, zealous of good works.’ And His purpose in all this is in order to produce a ‘people for His own possession’. A similar phrase occurs in Exodus 19:5 where it is used by God to indicate a treasure which He has set apart for Himself. These are to be His own people, His own treasure. They are the true people of God (2 Corinthians 6:16-18), springing as a refined remnant from the old (Zechariah 13:9; Malachi 3:2-4), the new nation replacing the old (Matthew 21:43), the new branches of the true vine from which old fruitless branches have been cut off (John 15:1-6), the revivified olive tree (Romans 11:14-16), the new household of God (Ephesians 2:11-22), the Israel of God (Galatians 6:16). They are His jewels (Malachi 3:16-18). But note carefully why He has made them His own possession, a people set apart for Him. It is so that they may be zealous of good works, eager to participate in and constantly maintain good works. It is so that they may be the light of the world, bringing glory to God by what they do (Matthew 5:16).


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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/titus-2.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Christ"s intent in providing salvation for us was to buy our freedom from slavery to sin and wickedness.

"First, the verb gave (and indeed the entire saying-who gave himself for us) portrays Christ"s death as a ritual offering made specifically to atone for sins ( Romans 4:25; Romans 8:32; compare Galatians 1:4)....

"Second, the note of willingness is emphasized, for it is said that he gave himself....

"Third, the phrase for us reveals that this offering was both representative and substitutionary." [Note: Towner, 1-2Timothy . . ., p248.]

Christ"s purpose was also to purify a people for Himself who are eager to do what is right and good.

"When a royal visit is expected, everything is cleansed and decorated, and made fit for the royal eye to see." [Note: Barclay, p294.]

"The highest and purest motivation for Christian behavior is not based on what we can do for God but rather upon what God has done for us and yet will do." [Note: Griffin, p316.]

To summarize this section ( Titus 2:11-14), the grace of God should result in the Christian"s present commitment to deny what He detests and to pursue what He values. We see God"s grace in His past provision of salvation in Christ and the prospect of Christ"s future return to take us to be with Himself forever. The fact that so few Christians make this commitment is disappointing, but it is true to life, and Jesus Christ anticipated it ( Luke 17:11-19).

"Verses11-14are notable for their perfect balance of doctrine with living. Beginning with the incarnation ("the grace of God hath appeared," Titus 2:11), they relate this doctrine to a life that denies evil and practices good here and now ( Titus 2:12); that sees in the return of Christ the incentive for godly conduct ("looking for that blessed hope ..." Titus 2:13); and that realizes, in personal holiness and good works, the purpose of the atonement ( Titus 2:14). The passage is one of the most concise summations in the entire N.T. of the relation of Gospel truth to life." [Note: The New Scofield Reference Bible, p1307.]


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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/titus-2.html. 2012.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Titus 2:14. ὃς ἔδωκεν ἑαυτὸν κ. τ. λ.: see note on 1 Timothy 2:6. As already observed, this is an appeal from the constraining love of Christ to the responding love of man.

λυτρώσηται: deliver. The language is borrowed from Psalms 129 (130):8 αὐτὸς λυτρώσεται τὸν ἰσραὴλ ἐκ πασῶν τῶν ἀνομιῶν αὐτοῦ. The material supplied by this passage for a discussion of the Atonement is contained in ἔδωκενἡμῶν, not in λυτρώσηται. See Dean Armitage Robinson’s note on Ephesians 1:14.

ἀνομίας: Lawlessness is the essence of sin (1 John 3:4), self-assertion as opposed to self-sacrifice which is love. Love, which is self-sacrifice, is a dissolvent of self-assertion or sin. And to what degree soever we allow the love of Christ to operate as a controlling principle in our lives, to that degree we are delivered from ἀνομία, as an opposing controlling principle.

καθαρίσῃ ἑαυτῷ λαόν: This is a pregnant expression for “purify and so make them fit to be his people”. St. Paul has in mind Ezekiel 37:23, “I will save them out of all their dwelling places, wherein they have sinned, and will cleanse them: so shall they be my people, and I will be their God”, ῥύσομαι αὐτοὺς ἀπὸ πασῶν τῶν ἀνομιῶν αὐτῶν ὧν ἡμάρτοσαν ἐν αὐταῖς, καὶ καθαριῶ αὐτοὺς καὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαὸν, κ. τ. λ. There is in καθαρίσῃ an allusion to Holy Baptism, which is explicit in Titus 3:5. Cf. Ephesians 5:26, ἵνα αὐτὴν ἁγιάσῃ καθαρίσας τῷ λουτρῷ τοῦ ὕδατος ἐν ῥήματι.

λαὸν περιούσιον: populum acceptabilem (Vulg.). A people for his own possession (R.V.) is the modern equivalent of a peculiar people (A.V.). λαὸς περιούσιος is the LXX for עַם סְגֻלָּה. סְגֻלָּה means “a valued property, a peculiar treasure” (peculium), and occurs first in Exodus 19:5, “Ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me.” Here the LXX inserts λαός, possibly from the references in Deut., in which the combination סגלה עם is found. סגלה alone occurs in Malachi 3:17 ( εἰς περιποίησιν) and in Psalms 135:4 ( εἰς περιουσιασμόν). The LXX of Malachi 3:17 is echoed in Ephesians 1:14, εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως, (where see Dean Armitage Robinson’s note) and 1 Peter 2:9, λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν, in which λαός is a reminiscence of the LXX of the passages in Exod. and Deut. Perhaps περιούσιος refers to the treasure as laid up, while περιποίησις refers to it as acquired.

ζηλωτὴν καλῶν ἔργων: See Ephesians 2:10; 1 Peter 1:15; Hebrews 10:24.


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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/titus-2.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Acceptabilem, Greek: periousion a perieimi. St. Jerome says, Egregium, præcipuum. See Deuteronomy vii. 6.; Exodus xix. 5.; Psalm cxxxiv. 4.; Israel in possessionem sibi. See also St. John Chrysostom, Greek: log. i. p. 492. linea 4ta.

====================


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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/titus-2.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

for. App-104.

redeem. Greek. lutroo. Only here; Luke 24:21. 1 Peter 1:18.

from. App-104.

iniquity, App-128.

peceliar people = a people as an acquisition. Greek. periousios. Only here. Compare 1 Peter 2:9. Occurs in Septuagint Exodus 19:5. Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18;

and in kindred forms, 1 Chronicles 29:3. Psalms 135:4. Ecclesiastes 2:8, Malachi 3:17.

zealous. Greek. zelotis. Elsewhere, Acts 21:20; Acts 22:3. 1 Corinthians 14:12. Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:14.

of Genitive of relation; "with respect to". App-17.


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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/titus-2.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

Gave himself - Himself, His whole self, the greatest gift ever given (Ellicott) (Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 5:25). For us , [ huper (Greek #5228) heemoon (Greek #2257)] - 'in our behalf.'

Redeem us , [ lutrooseetai (Greek #3084)] - 'ransom us from bondage at the price of His precious blood' (Ephesians 1:7; Matthew 20:28). An appropriate image in addressing bond servants (Titus 2:9-10).

From all iniquity , [ anomias (Greek #458)] - 'lawlessness,' the essence of sin; namely, 'transgression of the law' (1 John 3:4), in bondage to which we were until then. The aim of redemption was to redeem us, not merely from the penalty, but the being of iniquity. He reverts to the "teaching," or disciplining effect of the grace of God that bringeth salvation (Titus 2:11-12).

Peculiar - peculiarly His own, as Israel was: treasured up as such [ Periousion (Greek #4041). 1 Peter 2:9, laos (Greek #2992) eis (Greek #1519) peripoieesin (Greek #4047); Hebrew, `am (Hebrew #5971) c


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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/titus-2.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(14) Who gave himself for us.—(See Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 5:25.) These words take up the thought expressed in the term “Saviour” of the last verse. “Himself,” His whole self, as has been well said, “the greatest gift ever given;” “for us,” that is, on our behalf.

That he might redeem us from all iniquity.—That He for us might pay a ransom, the ransom being His precious blood. Our Saviour, by the payment of this tremendous ransom—O deepest and most unfathomable of all mysteries!—released us from everything which is opposed to God’s blessed will. Here the mighty ransom is spoken of as freeing us from the bondage of lawlessness; elsewhere in the divine books the same ransom is described as delivering us from the penalties of this same breaking the divine law—“alles was der Ordnung Gottes widerstreitet” (Hofmann, Commentary on Titus).

And purify unto himself a peculiar people.—The expression “a peculiar people” is taken from the LXX. translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, where the words occur several times (see Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 14:2); the idea is also purely an Old Testament one. Just as Jehovah wished to establish a people which should belong to Him (“peculiarly His,” “His very own”), submitting to His laws, in contrast to the rest of mankind, lawless, idolatrous—so Jesus would set apart and purify for Himself a people, which for His sake should devote itself to God, in contrast to the rest of humanity sunk in selfish sins. As Israel of old lived under the constant impression that they would again behold the visible glory of the Eternal, so His people now should live as men waiting for a second manifestation of His glory.

Zealous of good works.—The man who hopes to see the epiphany of Jesus his Lord and Love in glory will struggle zealously with hand and brain to live his life in such a manner that he may meet his Lord, when He comes in glory, with joy. It was a people composed of such “zealots” of goodness, of men longing for His sake to do their utmost for His cause, that our great God and Saviour wished to purify unto Himself.


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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/titus-2.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
gave
Matthew 20:28; John 6:51; 10:15; Galatians 1:4; 2:20; 3:13; Ephesians 5:2,23-27; 1 Timothy 1:15; 2:6; Hebrews 9:14; 1 Peter 3:18; Revelation 1:5; 5:9
that
Genesis 48:16; Psalms 130:8; Ezekiel 36:25; Matthew 1:21; Romans 11:26,27
purify
Malachi 3:3; Matthew 3:12; Acts 15:9; Hebrews 9:14; James 4:8; 1 Peter 1:22; 1 John 3:2
unto
Acts 15:14; Romans 14:7,8; 2 Corinthians 5:14,15
peculiar
Exodus 15:16; 19:5,6; Deuteronomy 7:6; 14:2; 26:18; Psalms 135:4; 1 Peter 2:9
zealous
7; 3:8; Numbers 25:13; Acts 9:36; Ephesians 2:10; 1 Timothy 2:10; 6:18; Hebrews 10:24; 1 Peter 2:12

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/titus-2.html.

The Bible Study New Testament

He gave himself for us. Compare John 10:17-18; 1 Timothy 2:6. He gave himself as the price to buy us from the power and punishment of sin (see 1 Corinthians 6:20; Colossians 1:20). Who belong to him alone. This symbolism comes from Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6. Like the Jews of old, Christians are a pure people who belong to Him alone! They show this by being EAGER to do good!


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "The Bible Study New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/titus-2.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Commentary by J.C.Philpot on select texts of the Bible

Titus 2:14

"Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous for good works." Titus 2:14

How can any one who knows anything of the blessedness of atoning blood and redeeming love and the sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit continue in sin, that grace may abound? Doctrinal professors may do these things, for a mere "letter knowledge" of the truth brings with it no deliverance from the power of sin.

But the living soul, in whom the God of all grace is carrying on his gracious work—can it trample under foot the cross of the suffering Son of God? It is impossible that a man who knows for himself the redeeming efficacy of Christ"s atoning blood, and whose conscience is made tender in the fear of God, can, under the sweet influence of his love, deliberately crucify him again.

Not but what there is a falling under the power of sin and temptation, as David and Peter fell; but there will not be a willful sinning against him, when the blessed Spirit is bringing near his blood and grace and love. May we never forget that the suffering Son of God gave himself to purify unto himself a peculiar people—a people whose thoughts are peculiar, for their thoughts are the thoughts of God, as having the mind of Christ; a people whose affections are peculiar, for they are fixed on things above; whose prayers are peculiar, for they are wrought in their heart by the Spirit of grace and supplication; whose sorrows are peculiar, because they spring from a spiritual source; whose joys are peculiar, for they are joys which the stranger cannot understand; whose hopes are peculiar, as anchoring within the veil; and whose expectations are peculiar, as not expecting to reap a crop of happiness in this marred world, but looking for happiness in the kingdom of rest and peace in the bosom of God.

And if they are peculiar inwardly, they should be peculiar outwardly. They should make it manifest that they are a peculiar people by walking in the footsteps of the Lord the Lamb, taking up the cross, denying themselves, and living to the honor, praise, and glory of God.


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Bibliography
Philpot, Joseph Charles. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". Commentary by J.C.Philpot on select texts of the Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jcp/titus-2.html.

Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

The clear concise Gospel. Christ gave himself for us that he might redeem us. "Redeem" means to buy back or pay the ransom for release. (See also Mark 10:45 "For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.") Christ did all that was necessary for all to come to him. He bought all on the cross. I don"t hold to the thought that He gave Himself only for the elect. What an accounting nightmare that would have been at the cross. He died for all that all might live. The fact that some thumb their ungodly noses at His kind work is their fault, not His. He did all that needed to be done to return mankind to God.

"Gave" has the thought of "put" "place" or "grant" all having the thought of the one giving, initiating the gift. His life was not taken; it was given for the redemption of mankind. Yes, the Jews took Him, yes, the Romans placed Him on the cross, but anytime during the arrest, trial and crucifixion He could have stopped the process. He gave Himself up to the authorities and freely, willingly laid down His life for us.

Now, who or what were we redeemed from? We were redeemed from iniquity. Iniquity had us hostage, but now we are bought back from its clutches by Christ"s work on the cross. Consider. If this be true and that is the clear teaching of the passage, then why do we go to iniquity and say, take me back I love you, I want you, and I want to be in bondage to you. WHAT? NOT SO, we should flee the iniquity that held us hostage. It is ludicrous for the believer, bought back from sins hold, to place ourselves back under that same terrible condition.

Not only is this ludicrous but it is just as, if not more ludicrous to believe that this redemption of Christ is only good as long as we can fight and scratch and claw our way up and over our old nature to get to Godliness. This is such a sick and debilitating doctrine. Christ redeemed us, Christ bought us, and Christ freed us from iniquity - so says the passage. To hold to this thought of our fighting an old nature would require the verse to say, Christ redeemed us from iniquity, but He wasn"t able to do a good enough job to keep iniquity from grabbing us from His loving clutches. Not a plausible interpretation, nor translation of the passage.

It is of note, that "purify" as well as "redeem" are aorist tenses - meaning they were one time occurrences. He redeemed us - once, he isn"t going to do it again, there is no need for Him to do it again AND He purified us at a point in time. Does that sound like the battle between the old nature and the new nature that many teach today - not in my mind. It seems that he bought and purified us once and for all at a point in time.

Purify has the thought of cleaning out and making clean - washing dishes, cleaning a wound, or removing dead flesh might be the thought.

Now, I would like to get theological for a moment or two. In the fall, several things happened and in salvation those things had to be corrected. Adam died spiritually. Adam would die physically. Adam turned away from God and God turned away from Adam.

In salvation we are given spiritual life; we are made a new creation. In salvation we are made to live eternally with Him. In salvation all was done that would turn God back to man, man has only to turn back to God.

This passage is one of the clearest that pictures this regeneration, this recreation, this purifying process that makes us right with God spiritually. It also is one of the best pictures of Christ"s buying us or purchasing us, and as such is one of the best pictures of His ownership of us, and our need to voluntarily submit to Him as master of our lives, proclaiming our servanthood and commitment to Him.

He was interested in a "peculiar people," not a weird people but a special, select people. I have read that this Greek word translated peculiar was used of a niche in the wall where a person could hide expensive or prized possessions. A safe place to protect one"s things. God wanted a special people, one that He could prize and protect from all that would try to steal.

This people were to be zealous of good works.

I once undertook a study on the idea of zealots. My premise was that the zealots of the New Testament were not the dread plague of that day, but rather men that were properly motivated to do as they should, but misdirected. Paul himself was a zealot in his pursuit of the early Christians, but he was misdirected. After his conversion, he was a zealot for the Lord in the proper direction.

Many through the ages were zealots. Zealot is not a derogatory term; it is a term to describe the zeal with which they do their job. I feel that through the years that I have been a zealot. I have pushed to do what God has directed all my born again life. I believe that many pastors and missionaries are true zealots today.

This verse tells me that I have a Biblical basis for that thinking. Zealous of good works! Many believers today never do any good works much less be zealous to do good works.

Zealous of good works demands a few things:

a. Determination to do good. (Decision of the will.)

b. Motivation to do good. (Proper view of Christ"s sacrifice for us.)

c. Basis to do good. (The dictates of Scripture.)

d. Act to do good. (The act of the will to do.)

ZEALOUS OF GOOD WORKS. No, zealous is not a curse word as many would have us think today, it is a word that pictures clearly one that is properly viewing his relationship to Christ. To not be zealous is a negative in the Christian life, to not be zealous is the unspiritual thing to do, to not be zealous is a slap in the face of the one that died on the cross for your worthless hide!


Copyright Statement
Copyright 2008. Used by Permission. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the author, except as provided by U.S.A. copyright laws. Do feel free to make copies for friends that might be interested as long as you do not make profit from the copies. This is God's work and I don't want anyone to profit from it in a material way.

Bibliography
Derickson, Stanley. "Commentary on Titus 2:14". "Stanley Derickson - Notes on Selected Books". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sdn/titus-2.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, July 16th, 2020
the Week of Proper 10 / Ordinary 15
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