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Bridgeway Bible Dictionary
Zadok and Abiathar were the two Levitical priests who became members of David’s royal court (2 Samuel 8:17). At the time of Absalom’s rebellion, they helped David by remaining in Jerusalem to become spies on David’s behalf (2 Samuel 15:24-37; 2 Samuel 19:11). Later, however, in the palace conflict over David’s successor, Zadok supported Solomon, and Abiathar supported Adonijah. As a result Solomon promoted Zadok to chief priest and sent Abiathar into exile (1 Kings 1:5-8; 1 Kings 1:43-45; 1 Kings 2:26; 1 Kings 2:35).
Since Zadok belonged to the line of chief priests that went back through Phinehas and Eleazar to Aaron (Ezra 7:2-5), his appointment to the high priesthood was in keeping with the plan and promise of God (Numbers 25:10-13). His descendants followed him as chief priests till the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BC (2 Chronicles 31:10). Because they remained faithful to God throughout that period, they were designated the chief priests in the religious system that Ezekiel looked for in the rebuilt nation (Ezekiel 40:46; Ezekiel 44:15).
History shows that after the reconstruction of Israel, descendants of Zadok continued to be the chief priests for several centuries. The Sadducees, who formed the priestly party that later became powerful in Israel, possibly took their name from Zadok (see).
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Fleming, Don. Entry for 'Zadok'. Bridgeway Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/bbd/z/zadok.html. 2004.