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Fausset's Bible Dictionary
The most eastern province of Asia Minor. Jews resident in it were among Peter's hearers at his memorable Pentecostal sermon (Acts 2:9). To them accordingly, among others, he addressed his First Epistle (1 Peter 1:1). Judaism there paved the way for Christianity. Seleucus first introduced Jewish colonists into Asia Minor (Josephus, Ant. 12:3, section 4). Rome, by the civilization and improved roads which it carried with it every where, facilitated the spread first of Judaism, then of Christianity.
The approach to Cappadocia from Palestine and Syria was by the pass called "the Cilician gates," leading up through the Taurus range from the low region of Cilicia. Once Cappadocia reached to the Euxine Sea; but Rome made two provinces of the ancient Cappadocia, Pontus on the N. along the sea, and Cappadocia on the S. Tiberius it was who reduced the Cappadocian Archclaus' kingdom to a province (A.D. 17), of which Caesarea was the capital, afterward the birthplace and see of Basil. Its cities, Nyssa, Nazianzus, Samosata, and Tyana, were noted in church history.
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Fausset, Andrew R. Entry for 'Cappadocia'. Fausset's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/fbd/c/cappadocia.html. 1949.