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Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Hebrew chomets , Greek oxos . Wine soured. Acid and unpalatable (Proverbs 10:26), yet to thirsty labourors the acid relieved thirst (Ruth 2:14). So it was used by Roman soldiers, pure, or mixed with water and called posca. Pourer on nitre or potash it causes effervescence (Proverbs 25:20). Instead of cordials, Christ's enemies gave Him on the cross first vinegar mixed with gall (Matthew 27:34), and myrrh (Mark 15:23); which after tasting He declined, for He would not encounter sufferings in a state of stupefaction by the myrrh; to criminals it would have been a kindness, to the Sinbearer it was meant as an insult (Luke 33:36). Toward the close of His crucifixion, to fulfill Scripture He cried "I thirst," and vinegar was brought which He received (John 19:28; Matthew 27:48).
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Fausset, Andrew R. Entry for 'Vinegar'. Fausset's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/fbd/v/vinegar.html. 1949.