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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
(Heb. id., הַדִדנְעֶזֶר , Adad is his help [ (See HADAD), No. 1]; Sept. Αδραέζερ in 2 Samuel 8, but Ἀδαρέζερ v.r. Ἀδαδέζερ in 1 Kings 11:23; Vulg. Adarezer in both passages), less correctly HADAREZER (Heb. idt., הְרְעֶזֶר. ln. [ see under HDADA; yet some MSS. have Hadadezer throughout]; 2 Samuel 10:16; 2 Samuel 10:19, 1 Chronicles 18:3-10; 1 Chronicles 19:16; 1 Chronicles 19:19; Sept. Ἀδραζάρ v.r. Ἀδρααζάρ, Vulg. still Adarezer), king of the Aramitish state Zobah, a powerful opponent of David. He was defeated by the Israelites in his first campaign, while on his way to "establish his dominion" (B.C. cir. 1035) in the neighborhood of the Euphrates, with a great loss of men, war chariots, and horses, and was despoiled of many of his towns (2 Samuel 8:3; 1 Chronicles 18:3), and driven with the remnant of his force to the other side of the river (19:16). The golden weapons (שֶׂלֶט, A.V. "shields of gold") captured on this occasion, a thousand in number, were taken by David to Jerusalem (18:7), and dedicated to Jehovah. The foreign arms were preserved in the Temple, and were long known as king David's (1 Chronicles 23:9; Song of Solomon 4:4). A diversion highly serviceable to him was made by a king of Damascene Syria [ (See HADAD), 5], who compelled David to turn his arms against him (2 Samuel 10:6-14; 1 Chronicles 19:6-14). The breathing-time thus afforded Hadadezer was turned by him to such good account that he was able to accept the subsidies of Hanun, king of the Ammonites, and to take a leading part in the confederacy formed by that monarch against David. B.C. cir. 1034. The first army brought into the field was beaten and put to flight by Abishai and Joab; but Hadadezer, not yet discouraged, went into the countries east of the Euphrates, and got together, the forces of all his allies and tributaries, which he placed under the command of Shobach, his general. The army was a large one, as is evident from the numbers of the slain; and it was especially strong in horse- soldiers (1 Chronicles 19:18). They crossed the Euphrates, joined the other Syrians, and encamped at a place called Helam (q.v.). To confront so formidable an array, David took the field in person, and in one great victory so completely broke the power of Hadadezer, that all the small tributary princes seized the opportunity of throwing off his yoke, of abandoning the Ammonites to their fate, and of submitting quietly to David, whose power was thus extended to the Euphrates (2 Samuel 10:15-19; 2 Chronicles 19:15-19).
But one of Hadarezer's more immediate retainers, REZON ben-Eliadah, made his escape from the army, and, gathering round him some fugitives like himself, formed them into one of those marauding, ravaging "bands" (גְּדוּר ) which found a congenial refuge in the thinly peopled districts between the Jordan and the Euphrates (2 Kings 5:2, 1 Chronicles 5:18-22). Making their way to Damascus, they possessed themselves of the city. B.C. cir. 980. Rezon became king, and at once began to avenge the loss of his countrymen by the course of" mischief" to Israel which he pursued down to the end of Solomon's reign, and which is summed up in the emphatic words, "He was an adversary (a ‘ Satan') to Israel"… "he abhorred Israel" (1 Kings 11:23-25).
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McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Hadad-Ezer'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/​encyclopedias/​eng/​tce/​h/hadad-ezer.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.