Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
JEW . The name by which the descendants of Israel have been known for many centuries. It is corrupted from Judah . After the division of the kingdom in b.c. 937, the southern portion was called by the name of the powerful tribe of Judah, which composed most of its inhabitants. It was in this kingdom that the Deuteronomic reform occurred, which was the first step in the creation of an organized religion sharply differentiated from the other religions of the world. This religion, developed during the Exile, bore the name of the kingdom of Judah. All Israelites who maintained their identity were its adherents, hence the name ‘Jew’ has absorbed the name ‘Israel.’ For their history, see Israel (I. 21 30) and Dispersion. For their religion, see Israel (II. 5, 6).
On the special meaning of ‘the Jews’ in Jn. see p. 481 b f.
George A. Barton.
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Hastings, James. Entry for 'Jew'. Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/hdb/j/jew.html. 1909.