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People's Dictionary of the Bible
Carbuncle. One of the gems in the high priest's breast-plate, Exodus 28:17; Exodus 39:10; it is also mentioned in Ezekiel 28:13. It must, from the derivation of the Hebrew word, have been a bright flashing gem. Some have supposed it the emerald. Carbuncle occurs again as the rendering of another term in Isaiah 54:12. The original words here may mean "sparkling stones;" perhaps the Oriental garnet is intended.
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Rice, Edwin Wilbur, DD. Entry for 'Carbuncle'. People's Dictionary of the Bible. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/rpd/c/carbuncle.html. 1893.