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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Tar'sus. The chief town of Cilicia, "no mean city," in other respects, but illustrious to all time, as the birthplace, and early residence, of the apostle Paul. Acts 9:11; Acts 21:39; Acts 22:3. Even in the flourishing period of Greek history, it was a city of some considerable consequence. In the civil wars of Rome, it took Caesar's aide, and on the occasion of a visit from him, had its name changed to Juliopolis. Augustus made it a "free city." It was renowned as a place of education under the early Roman emperors. Strabo compares it, in this respect, to Athens unto Alexandria. Tarsus also was a place of much commerce. It was situated in a wild and fertile plain, on the banks of the Cydnus. No ruins of any importance remain.
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Smith, William, Dr. Entry for 'Tarsus'. Smith's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/sbd/t/tarsus.html. 1901.